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Date Created: 08/12/14
Chapter 7 Intelligence A general mental capability that involves the ability to reason plan solve problems think abstractly comprehend complex ideas leam quickly and leam from experience Theories of Intelligence G Spearman s symbol for general intelligence which he believed underlay more specific abilities S Spearman s symbol for speci c factors or s factors which he believe accounted for individual abilities Primary Mental Abilities According to Thurstone the basic abilities that make up intelligence examples include Word uency and numerical ability The Theory of Multiple Intelligences The Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Analytical creative and practical intelligence Emotional Intelligence Social and emotional skills like academic skills are a form of intelligence Creativity and Intelligence Creativity The ability to generate novel and useful solutions to problems Convergent Thinking A thought process that narrows in on the single best solution to a problem Divergent Thinking A thought process that attempts to generate multiple solutions to problems The StanfordBinet Intelligence Scale Mental Age MA An accumulated months of credit that a person eams on the StanfordBinet Intelligence Scale Intelligence QuotientIQ Originally a ration obtained by dividing a child s score or mental age on an intelligence test by chronological age The Wechsler Scales Group test questions into a number of separate subtests The test shows how well a person does on one type of task such as defining Words as compared with another such as using blocks to construct geometric designs Group Tests Alerts factors that impair performance such as language difficulties illness or a noisy or poorly lit room Chapter 10 Psychodynamic Perspective Psychodynamic Theory Sigmund Freud s perspective which emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and con icts as forces that determine behavior Sigmund Freud s Theory of Psychosexual Development Ego The second psychic structure to develop characterized by selfawareness planning and delay of grati cation Superego The third psychic structure which functions as a moral guardian and sets forth high standards for behavior Psychosexual Development In psychodynamic theory the process by which libidinal energy is expressed through different erogenous zones during different stages of development Stages of Psychosexual Development in order 1 Oral Stage 2 Anal Stage 3 Phallic Stage 4 Genital Stage Where is the Oedipus and Electra Complexes resolvedgt Phallic Stage Oedipus Complex A con ict of the phallic stage in which the boy wishes to possess his mother sexually and perceives his father as a rival in love Trait Perspective Big 5 1 Extraversion Contrasts talkativeness assertiveness and activity with silence passivity and reserve 2Agreeableness Contrasts kindness trust and warmth with hostility sel shness and distrust 3 Conscientiousness Contrasts organization thoroughness and reliability with carelessness negligence and unreliability 4 Neuroticism Contrasts nervousness moodiness and sensitivity to negative stimuli with coping ability 5 Openness to experience Contrasts imagination curiosity and creativity with shallowness and lack of perceptiveness Leaming Perspectives Behaviorism Personality is plastic situational or environmental in uences no intemal individual variables are the key shapes of personality Social Cognitive Theory Albert Bandura Focuses on leaming by observation and cognitive processes of personal differences SelfEfficiency Belief we can accomplish certain things Example Mrs Nagle with the army gun gt can leam how to use it Observational Leaming Acquiring knowledge by observing others Humanistic Perspective Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of needs Father of humanistic psychology Humanism Argues people are capable of free choice self ful llment ethical behavior Self actualization challenge Conscious need for self actualization to become all you can be Carl Rogers Self Theory Self theory Focuses on nature of self and conditions that allow self to develop freely Self concept Our impressions of ourselves and our evaluations of our adequacy Frames of reference The way we look at ourselves and the world Rogers Self Esteem and Positive Regard Unconditional Positive Regard Accepts child as having intrinsic merit values regardless of present behavior gt If you re a therapist and have a murderer client you have to respect them no matter what Conditional Positive Regard Accepts could only when they behave in the desired manner only show love if children are perfect Conditions of Worth Develop in response to conditional positive regard Sociocultural Perspective Sociocultural Perspective The view that focuses on the roles of ethnicity gender culture and socioeconomic status in personality formation behavior and mental processes Individualism Define self in terms of personal identities give priority to personal goals Collectivist Define self in terms of groups to which you belongs give priority to the groups goals Measurement of Personality Validity Extent to which test measures what it is supposed to measure Reliability Consistency of ones test results from one testing to another Standardization Levines IQ Formulas Shoe size X 10 IQ Score NOT TRUE Objective Test Forced Choice one correct answer MMPI Designed to diagnose psychological disorders Validity scales and clinical scales Projective Test Not clear speci ed answers Ambiguous Rorschack lnkblot Test Responses are intended to provide insight into persons intelligence interests personality traits psychological disorders Critics argue little evidence to support test validity Thematic Apperception Test TAT Ask you to make up a story about a picture shown to you Chapter 14 Social Psychology The eld of psychology that studies the nature and causes of people s thoughts and behavior in social situation PrejudiceAttitude Expectation that members of target group will behave poorly Discrimination A behavior Stereotype Fixed conventional attitudes may be positive or negative Sources of Prejudice Dissimilarity social con ict social leaming We tend to divide our world into those like and unlike us in group and out group bias Primary Effect The tendency to evaluate others in terms of rst impressions Recency Effect The tendency is evaluate others in terms of the most recent impressions Attribution Theory Process by which one draws conclusions about the in uences on anothers behavior Attribution Belief conceming why people behave in a certain way Dispositional Attribution Intemal Factors she is mean Situational Attribution Extemal factors she is being mean bc he hit her Fundamental Attribution Error story about joe at champs got into the ght and killed the guy gt tums out it was an accident and he was defending himself Obedience to Authority Milgram Studies Maj ority complied to demands of authority even when that required they in ict a harmful shock on innocent people Conformity Change our behavior to adhere to social norms Asch Study Most people conform even when they know they are wrong gt with the lines video 5th person went along with what other people were saying even know he knew they were WF0I1g 75 Chapter 12 Schizophrenia Paranoid Schizophrenia A type of schizophrenia characterized primarily by delusions commonly persecution and by vivid hallucinations Disorganized Schizophrenia A type of Schizophrenia characterized by disorganized delusions and vivid hallucinations Catatonic Schizophrenia A type of Schizophrenia characterized by striking motor impairment Maj or Depression A serious to severe depressive disorder in which the person may show loss of appetite psychomotor retardation and impaired reality testing Bipolar Disorder A disorder in which the mood alternates between two extreme poles elation and depression also referred to as manic depression Speci c Phobias Strong irrational fear reactions work hard to avoid common places situations or objects even though they know there39s no threat or danger Agoraphobia Fear of open crowded places Panic Disorder Recurrent experiencing of attacks of extreme anxiety in the absence of extemal stimuli that usually elicit anxiety GAD Feelings of dread and foreboding and sympathetic arousal of at least six months duration OCD An anxiety disorder de ned by recurrent anxietyprovoking thoughts or images that seem irrational and beyond control obsessions and seemingly irreisitible urges to engage in thoughts or behaviors that tend to reduce the anxiety PTSD A disorder that follows a distressing event outside the range of normal human experience and that is characterized by features such as intense fear avoidance Acute Stress Disorder A disorder like PTSD that is characterized by feelings of anxiety and helplessness and caused by a traumatic event acute stress disorder occurs within a month of the event and lasts from two days to four weeks Somatoform Disorders Disorders in which people complain of physical problems even though no physical abnormality can be found Hypochonriasis A somatoform disorder characterized by a persistent belief that one is ill despite lack of medical findings Body Dysmorphic Disorder A bodyimage disorder characterized by persistent and intrusive preoccupations with an imagined or slight defect in one39s appearance DID A disorder in which a person appears to have two or more distinct identities or personalities that may altemately emerge Antisocial Personality Disorder The diagnosis given a person who is in frequent con ict with society yet who is undeterred by punishment and experiences little or no guilt and anxiety Chapter 13 Different Approaches to Therapy 1 Psychoanalysis Basis Unconscious con icts repressed thoughts Treatment Free association dream interpretation transference and resistance 2 Client Centered Basis Self actualization client directed Treatment Clari cation of ideas and feelings warmth empathy genuineness of therapist supportive accepting atmosphere positive regard 3 Cognitive Therapy Basis Automatic irrational self statements Treatment Monitor and identify negative thoughts replace with positive thoughts 4 Behavior Therapy Basis Emotional reactions and disruptive behaviors are conditioned Treatment Systematic desensitization self reward modeling role playing cognitive behavior techniques Leading Approaches Among Psychologists 1 Eclectic JUST KNOW THIS IS TOP APPROACH 2 Psychodynamic 3 Other 4 Behavioral 5 Cognitive 6 ClientCentered
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