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Physiology notes

by: KF Notetaker

Physiology notes KIN 232

KF Notetaker
GPA 4.0
Basic Human Physiology
Wesley Smith

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Physiology notes from the beginning of the semester until 9/14/15
Basic Human Physiology
Wesley Smith
Class Notes
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by KF Notetaker on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 232 at University of Miami taught by Wesley Smith in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Basic Human Physiology in Kinesiology at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 09/15/15
KIN 232 Human Physiology 82615 1 Know how Leptin is part of a negative feedback system Leptin is proportional to fat on body released by fat cells and is inversely proportional to hunger 2 What leads to the release of ADH anti diuretic dehydration hormone Dehydration causes the concentration of the blood to go up triggering the release 3 What brain center acts as the main control area for homeostasis Hypothalamus 4 Be able to describe and give examples of the 3 methods of cellular communication with control systems neural communication re ex related to muscle length and contraction humoral control of blood glucose neurohumoral release of ADH Control mechanisms 1 Neural Nervous systemspinal cord Nerve large control wire covered in fat made up of nerve cells Neuron nerve cells cells within a nerve Signals sent at lZOms Negative feedback systems stimulus acts something acts as a receptor it goes to an integrating center and then an effector acts on it System sees change and then creates change to go back to original equilibrium 2 Humoral regulators in the blood through the use of hormones Insulin disposes of blood sugar 3 Neurohumoral Hypothalamus is the chief area in the brain for controlling homeostasis in the body Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus are going to asses the concentration of blood and when the concentration goes up its going to send a signal to the pituitary gland making you thirsty and releases ADH which goes to your kidneys drawing the water out and effect your breath and sweat glands Your body has a set point so right now so your body releases leptin that goes across the blood brain barrier and reaches the hypothalamus increasing your metabolic rate trying to get back to that equilibrium correction required Feedback gain gain of the system larger the gain the error after correction better it is Neurohormonal regulation control of breathing chemoreceptors sense changes in pH activating the medulla oblongata causing increased breathing you also have sensors in the heart with C02 centers that help maintain homeostasis Positive feedback system there s a change the body reacts and the change becomes greater Diabetes people gain weight causing them to become more resistant to insulin and the cycle continues Seen in diseases Pregnancy mechanoreceptors signals baby reaching birth canal releases hormone causing contraction and it continues until the baby is born and contractions stop As people exercise there bodies maintain homeostasis at a higher metabolic rate training increases gain Cellular communication First messenger binds to the cell Second messenger Epinephrine binds on a fat celladipocyte which sends second messenger and it burns fat Insulin binds to a receptor a second messenger will be activated sends glucose from blood into the to cell Peptidesbind to receptors Steroids can go into the cytoplasm of the cell and bind with the nuclear response Cell membrane made up of a phospholipid bilayer with hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic fatty acid tails glycoprotein cholesterolbackbone strengthens the membrane recognition proteins receptor and transport proteins with binding sites Saturated no double bonds and straight animal fats dairy and when ever we have excess sugar We can only make saturated fats Too many saturated fats stiffen cell membranes and makes it harder for particles to come through Unsaturated has at least one double bond and has a kink they can cross the cell membrane omega3 3C double bond get from fish plants and oils cant make them Hydr0genated fats trans fat makes unsaturated appear saturated originally used to make soap that was preserved cant metabolize it Cholesterol strengthens cell membranes People given statin drugs to lower cholesterol weakening the cell membrane which causes muscles to become sorer vitamin D made from cholesterol and sunlight combining Lipasebreaks down lipids Proteasebreaks down proteins Omega 3 use second messengers to counteract in ammation omega 6 causes blood clots and in ammation Phospholipid bilayer Second messengers Ex Phospholipase C PLC ase enzyme Enzyme breaks down lipids Hormone adrenaline binds to a receptor activates PLC second messenger that takes off the phosphate head of the bilayer entering the cytoplasm IP3leading to the release of calcium Dagthe diglycerids then go to protein kinase C EX Cyclic AMPCAMP Adrenaline binds to a receptor G protein turns on Adenyll cyclase that produces cAMP that turns on other enzymes such as hormone sensitive lipase that breaks down triglycerides fatty acids then ow to skeletal muscle that gets taken into the mitochondria and is used as fuel and is finally released at C02 Caffeine inhibits PDE that breaks down cAMP letting it stay longer burning fat requires releasing triglycerides into the blood and then being taken up into muscle cells and broken up in the mitochondria Myocardial EC coupling heart muscle contractions multiple second messenger systems work in one system Membrane diffusion going from a high concentration to a low concentration through a gradient Electrochemical potential gradientsodium wants to go through because of the charged difference Simple diffusion just high concentration to low 02 nitrogen C02 are lipid soluble and can go through the membrane small molecules can go through such as water Facilitated diffusion Passive transport doesn t need energy Primary active transport fighting against the gradient Osmosis water goes from the side of higher osmotic pressure to lower osmotic pressure Cellular osmosis Isotonic no net change in cell size isotonic saline sodium chloride solution that maintains an isotonic blood concentration use coconut water because it works the same way Hypertonic uid leaves cell because concentration outside is lower than inside they shrink when people are dehydrated the skin becomes wrinkly Hypotonic uid enters the cell because concentration inside is lower than outside rare but seen more in athletes who over drink the cell has higher osmotic pressure and then the cells swell as uid enters the cellhypematremia Boston marathon nearly 100 people died from drinking too much Reason a headache is a symptom is because the cells in the brain swell causing pain treat with a diuretic and salt Reverse osmosis used to clean water Simple diffusionlinear relationship between rate of diffusion and the concentration of a substance Facilitated transport 60ghour is the max to take glucose through gut so the curve reaches a Vmax 30ghour the max you can absorb of protein GLUT 4 transporters majority of glucose goes to muscle cells within these cells they have these GLUT 4 transporters insulin is supposed to bind to its first messenger which causes XX to leads GLUT 4 to take up the glucose and transfer it glucose transport for muscle cells and fat cells Muscle stores glucose as glycogen when that sugar stores are full the GLUT4 are less likely to take up the glucose because the stores are already full Primary active transport gets pushed against the gradient Sodium potassium pump uses ATP magnesium stabilizes the phosphate 75 released as heat calories 25 used as free energy Pumps work harder post exercise because the cells become more uid as they heat up letting more ions through Main extracellular ion is sodium l45mM ltl30 is fatal Intracellular electrolyte is potassium 4mM Thyroid hormone Hypoactive thyroid slows down Hyperactive thyroid sodium potassium pumps work harder and lose weight Symport get substance across a cell membrane against the gradient through hitchhiking SGLT1 transporter that uses sodium and glucose to absorb it into the blood SGLT2 reabsorbs glucose in the kidneys new drug that inhibits it causing glucose to be released by Antiport borrowing energy of substances going the other way Sodium calcium antiport Homeostasis Negative feedback vs positive feedback General components of cell and cell membrane function of cholesterol Second messenger systems cyclic amp and IP Simple diffusion primary active transport osmosis facilitated transport Lipid soluble substance can go through cell membranes through simple diffusion Osmosis and osmotic pressure Active transport glut4 antiport and symportdon t need ATP Endocrinology study of hormones Neuroendocrinology Endocrine organ anything that secretes hormones into the blood Largest is the skeletal muscle myokinehormones from muscle Leptin is an adoposekine paracrines autocrines primary messenger molecules which act on the cells that produce them estrogen produced by ovaries Testes produce Juxtacrines work right next to where they are released nitric oxide causes vaso constriction without it we would have a heart attack from standing up plant based diet Neurotransmitters produced by neurons norepinephrine Neuromodulators change how neurotransmitters work Cytokines signal molecules used in immune function Norepinephrine works as a neurotransmitter when released by neurons into the synapses acts as a major peptide hormone when secreted into the blood higher than epinephrine or as cytokine when produced by immune cells Estrogen steroid hormone acts as an autocrine when it stimulates function of the ovarian cells or as a neuromodulator when it alters neuron function The endocrine system is very important in maintaining homeostasis through sensors throughout the body that send information to integrating centers that causes an effector Metabolic destruction by tissues insulin gets rid of sugar through the liver but as it binds to its receptor it gets metabolized Degradation by enzymes happens in liver and kidneys a lot kidneys get rid of them through urine Classic endocrine glands muscle and fat cells can act as endocrine gland Pineal glandproduces melatonin Hypothalamus homeostasis Pituitary gland chief endocrine gland Thyroid gland above the larynx produces T3 and T4 stimulates the metabolism Parathyroid gland Thymus gland behind the sternum program Tcells that are used for the immune system Adrenal glands held onto the kidneys through connective tissues play role in producing epinephrine norepinephrine Pancreas goes right by the small intestine controls blood sugar levels by releasing insulin and glucagon Ovarytestes Types of hormones Steroidderived hormones can go right through the cell membrane and effect the DNA directly Amine and polypeptide hormonesprotein tyrosine is a precursor to a lot of hormones half life is how we measure the time required to reduce a hormones blood concentration by one half Hormone receptor binding how tightly the hormones bind to the their receptor and what they do Target cells affected by stimulating higher rates of DNA synthesis EPOincreases production of red blood cells within the bone marrow make 20Million red blood cellminute contains hemoglobin that carries oxygen Changing rate of enzyme activity Activates second messengers How Hormones affects the cell Hormone concentration in the blood hydration status plays a larger role if you are dehydrated concentration of other hormones goes up Number of target cell receptors for that hormone Sensitivity or strength of the union between hormone and receptor the more you use it the less sensitive you get to it some have a stronger binding relationship People who constantly drink coffee have less caffeine receptors Hormone can increase enzyme activity by stimulating enzyme production changing their shape or turning them off or on Hormones can have additive effects when released together epinephrine and norepinephrine can double the effect When water levelers are lower ADHanti diuretic hormone odostorone takes sodium back to the kidney Synergistic 10X the effect of l hormone Thyroxine becomes T3 when it crosses the cell membrane acts on DNA of cell to increase Adrenergic receptors which more epinephrine and norepinephrine can then bind too Antagonistic one counter acts another Insulin gets rid of blood sugar and cortisol and glucagon counteracts insulin cortisol is a catabolic steroid that break down muscles testosterone is an anabolic that builds muscle Biphasic Norepinephrine binds to alpha receptors greater binding affinitythat constricts blood vessels in a low concentration but with a very high levels they bind to beta receptors that dilate your blood vessels and you will faint can have different effects depending on concentration Exercising moderately will give you more norepinephrine and release more Tcells and help fight it Structure of hormones Peptides 3200 amino acids in size Prolactin and growth hormone Smaller shorter half life3 peptide Steroids cholesterol based consists of 3 6c ringed and one 5c ring fat cells can convert testosterone into estrogen Cortisol can also make you store more fat obesity can cause males to gain secondary female characteristics DHEAprecursor to testosterone that can cause terrible side effects 6 steps of steroid Hormone action 1 Go right through cell membrane 2 Find a specific receptor in the cell normally around the nucleosome 3 Forming this hormone response elementcomplex 4 The hormone receptor complex binds to recognition sites on the DNA Hormone 5 Changes the configuration of dna strands and in uences the ability of specific genes for transcription to mRNA 6 Steroid hormones may turn on inhibit or enhance rate of transcription Peptide hormone derivative of the amino acid tyrosine Thyroid gland mainly thryoxineT4 14X more than triodothyronine T3 when t4 binds it becomes t3 Within the cell Iodine has a steroid like affect They bind to proteins that increase their halflife Adrenal Medullary hormones norepinephrine and epinephrine 4X more epinephrine here than norepinephrine Bind to alpha and betareceptors Functions of the hypothalamus Neuralintegrating center senses nutrients in blood osmotic pressure of blood temperature kills bacteria in fever Cytokine hormones released to call immune cells Hypophysispituitary gland posteriorback part is called as the neural Hypophysis connects the hypothalamus Adeno Hypophysis hormone pituitary gland connected to blood vessels hypothalamic hypophyseal portal system the connection from the hypothalamus and the anterior connection of the pituitary gland Posterior neural connection Anteriorblood connection Neural Hypophysis releases antidiuretic hormone Pregnant females need to watch out for being dehydrated because ADH and oxytocin can be released that will cause contractions ADH ADP arginine vasopressin vasoblood vessels pressing raises pressure Vasopressin polypeptide containing 9 amino acids almost identical to oxytocin except that in ADH phenylalanine and arginine replace isoleucine and leucine Primarily formed in the supraoptic nuclei 16th as much is produced in the paraventricular nuclei Function increase blood volumepressure and reduces the osmotic pressure in the blood mainly acts on the kidneys Works on aquaporinswater channels to cause the reabsorption of water alcohol blocks ADH with alcohol urine is clear even though you are dehydrated because it blocks adh Regulation Osmolality Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus get to 2 bw loss ADH is secreted and also makes you thirsty Mechanoreceptors receptors in the tissues of the atria stretch the stretch receptors send feedback to the superoptic nuclei to release ADH Blood volume is low ADH is secreted and if its high its inhibited Bar0recept0rs in the carotid sinus and aortic arch blood pressure is low ADH is secreted and when its high it will be inhibited Pathology absence of ADH leads to diabetes Insipidus Continuous loss of water in the urine produces insipid urine classified as central DI when the hypothalamus posterior pituitary doesn t produce ADH classified as Nephrogenic when the kidneys don t respond to ADH Oxytocin love hormone causes contractions in pregnant mothers head of the fetus pushes against the cervix nerve impulses sent to the brain brain stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete oxytocin its carried to uterus and the oxytocin stimulates uterine contraction desire to touch and be touched mothers love for baby integral in attraction of mates Regulation acts in the mammary glands during milking in the uterine cervix and male reproductive tract during intercourse Synthesis Steroid hormones lead to increased production and storage during pregnancy Inhibited stress and alcohol Pathology absence of it is associated with a lack of empathynarcissism sociopathic behavior low oxytocin linked to solitary confinements long distance relationships libido patterns in females abandoned childrenpoor parenting Oxytocin and social interactions exogenous oxytocin has been shown to improve brain function in autistic populations Hypothalamus Releasing hormones Cold Thyrotropin Releasing hormone TRH halflife of 6 days released by coldincrease metabolism to increase body temp Brain manipulation Gonadotropin releasing hormone Stress corticotrophin releasing hormone prolactininhibiting hormone 5 Cell types Somatotropes corticotropes thyrotropes gonadotropes lactotropes opioids prolactin FLAGTOP FSH and LH act on the gonads releasing testosterone and estrogen acts on testes and ovaries first 14 days of the ovarian cycle is FSH the next 14 is the ovaries Adrenal Corticotrpic hormoneACTH outer part of the adrenal cortex that releases cortisol Ggrowth hormone main one released from 20 minute half life goes to the liver that produces IGF Thyroid stimulating hormoneTSH release of T4 T3 that raises your beta metabolic rate Oopioids all over the body P prolactin breast Hypothalamic causing Pituitary hormone carried by blood vessels GNRHDFSH LH CRHl ACTH GHRH GHINDGH TRHDTSH Anterior Pituitary hormones FLAGTOP Growth hormone chief hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland plays large role in breaking up fat by IGF insulinlike growth factors hGHSomatorophin 191 amino acids doesn t bind well to the plasma proteins so it has a very short half life of 20 minutes regulated by the hypothalamus IGF s somatomedins strongly connects to carrier proteins and has a halflife of over 20 hours Function Increases protein deposition in tissues puts amino acids in muscle cells and stimulates synthesis of proteins and prevents atrophyIGFl Enhances fat utilization for energy causes lipolysisrelease of fatty acids from adipose tissue 3 fatty acids and a glycerol head enhance beta oxidation of fatty acids Spares carbohydrate utilization reduces glucose uptake by the tissues increasing time till exhaustion Stimulates cartilage and bone growth GH increases DNA transcription therefore leads to an increase risk in cancer common denominator of people living till 100 is they have low levels of IGFl Telomere end part of DNA that shrinks after each replication Excessive GH is considered diabetogenic because it can lead to a resistance to insulin Second wind Free fatty acids increase as time goes on through exercise but some people believe that since GH is released around 3060 minutes in is the cause of the second wind phenomenon Adult163ngmL Childhood 6ngmL Prolonged starvation 50 ngmL Anecdotal Drop in blood sugar will lead to strong release of GH and would also increase weight loss and muscle retention Pathology deficiency can cause dwarfism in excess Gigantismend of lone bones become fused with the shaftsprior to puberty have hyperglycemia and Type II mellitus Acromegaly the bones in the face become more distinct because the bones cant grow longer ACTHadrenocorticotropic hormone CRH corticotrpic releasing hormone causes the release of ACTH Alerts adrenal glands above the kidneys to release cortisol epinephrine and norepinephrine the fight or ight Cortisol antiinsulinsteroid hormoneglucocorticoid steroid increasing blood sugar by breaking down amino acids in muscle through lipolysis of fatty acids and glycogen break down during fight or ight need energy Helps the in ammation sustained during injury it s an immune suppressant Gonadotropic Hormones FSH reproduction Dominates in the 14 days in the ovarian cycle In males it stimulates sperm development LH seX steroids Surges on 14th day releasing the egg and releases estrogen that lowers body temp in males it causes testosterone production in males Testosterone and estrogen play a role in bone mass Androgens in males causes libido hair loss facial hair body hair and sperm production vocal cord enlargement can be converted to estrogen Thyroxine lipophilic passes through cell membrane that contains T4 and T3 T4 gets converted to T3 and enters the nucleus and then binds to DNA on its complex that affects DNA transcription will increase sensitivity to sympathetic hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine Hyperactive thyroid high HR hot and high metabolism Human Physiology Atrial ventricle valves Right side tricuspid valve Left side mitral bicuspid valve Veins goes back to the heart Arteries take blood away from the heart Arterioles the stopcocks of the circulation the arterioles can stop circulation to parts of your body when you get cold they constrict and slow blood ow to outer skin and it goes more to keep your core warm Venus return 1 Muscle pump muscles around blood vessels around extremities squeezes blood back up to the heart locomotive Veins have oneway valves that prevent the back ow of blood Varicose veins are caused by damage valves If the muscle pumps cant work properly the blood pools 2 Thoracic pump the pressure generated in the thorax from breathing in and out causes the blood to pump up through a vacuum type mechanism as you breathe in the vessels constrict and as you breathe out it acts like a vacuum and sucks the blood up Vassal tone vasomotor control how we are going to regulate BP Vasodilation opening of arteries Vasoconstriction constriction of arteries A tubes resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power to its radius the larger the radius the weaker the resistance BP measured in carotids and aorta Blood pressure total peripheral resistance X cardiac output Vascular tone and compliance how well they can dilate and their stiffness highly processed diets lead to too much sodium in the diet and stiff muscles


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