ANT 304 - Week 4
ANT 304 - Week 4 ANT 304
Popular in Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory
verified elite notetaker
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Bruederlin on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by F, Valdez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Texas at Austin.
Reviews for ANT 304 - Week 4
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/15/15
ANT 304 Intro to Archaeological Studies Week 4 September 14 2015 0 Every cultural system is at constant rate of change 0 As archaeologists to understand the pastancient human behavior we have to look at what survives in the ground 0 Structures buildings other types of artifacts such as stone tools 0 Everything that remains is archaeological record 0 Archaeological record is comprised of all kinds of archaeological nds o Pyramids of Giza to the smallest remain of a stone tool 0 In many cases the way the artifacts are preserved is due to environment 0 Tropical environments are the worst for preservation 0 Have heating and cooling lots of moisture and lots of decay 0 Inorganic materials preserve well 0 Organic materials tend to disappear o KNOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ORGANIC AND INORGANIC o In extremes of the environment there is good preservation o Waterlogged frozen or extremely dry 0 Otherwise artifacts tend to disappear Surveys looking for sites and excavation the digging up of materials make up the data in the archaeological record 0 From surveys we nd archaeological sites as well as artifacts 0 Same could be true for excavation but you have to be at the site already F o The way the archaeological record is modi ed after a site is abandoned is called 0 Where is the place that we nd traces of ancient or past human activity 0 Archaeological sites 0 May be gigantic or may be a simple camp site 0 We classify archaeological sites by the activities that took place there 0 Habitation site remains of houses cooking areas any other kind of domestic activity o location where there are lots of bones of some animal cut up butchered slaughtered etc or nd some of the weapon used to kill them or process them there 0 Quarry site location where materials are quarried Can be stone or stone tools Stone is quarried for the building of structures Artifacts objects found in archaeological sites that show evidence of some human activity or modi cation Knowledge of how artifacts are made or constructed is transmitted from generation to generation 0 Part of culture Whether it be bone tool modi ed piece of shell etc it has a relationship to another artifact 0 Where it is in space and time o It is what becomes vital for an archaeological that relationship in space and time AKA CONTEXT Context relationship space and time between artifacts o Artifact is worthless without its context 0 Foundation of modern archaeology Human prehistory stands several million years 0 Our lives today are governed by time work hours track of time time of day time of night 0 There s a need to keep up with everyone else and that sense of time measurement is a recent phenomenon goes back about 5000 years 0 Societies that have some kind of record keeping developed calendars that gave astronomical predictions o If we go earlier than 5000 years we enter a chronological vacuum If you ask when Washington DC was founded we have a precise placement 1800 When was Teotihuacan founded The BEST we can do is say 2008C give or take 100 years or so 0 utilizes the principle of superposition o Superposition is fundamental for archaeology 0 You excavate and have unique layers could be cultural arti cial etc o The stuff that s at the lowest layer is older and the stuff at higher layer is newer 0 We can tell where artifacts t and how they relate to other artifacts in other landscapes Relative dating doesn t have all of the pieces of the other site 0 Missing dates in between Relative crossdating compares artifacts between sites and makes sense of what is there or what is missing another aspect of relative chronology o The study of pollen 0 May have big trees for a while then they are cut down it changes the pollen dating in particular years 0 AKA absolute dating Various techniques for chronometric dating 0 Treering dating AKA Tree rings can give us up to 8000 years back Gives us speci c dates counting back from the present 0 Radio carbon dating you need some kind of organic material bone hair feathers C14 dating SPACE Every archaeological nd has an exact location latitude and long ude Space where it occurs precisely on the landscape 0 Ties directly into people s past behavior 0 It s the artifact and the association With both space and artifacts you can gure out what the people were like and their behavior and culture Law of association the artifacts found and what is associated to them is most likely to be contemporaneous 0 May tell you something about the activities that took place there We can determine activity areas at sites 0 Based on artifacts and association 0 Excavating house structure you might nd a bits of broken bones seeds pottery etc and nd that this was cooking area 0 Other side you nd broken tools and shell pieces so maybe a tool shed The concepts of culture time and space in archaeology are ABSOLUTELY inseparable ln archaeology we are studying the interrelations between the artifacts found at a site their date and their special location All scienti c archaeology whether survey excavation laboratory analysis is based on TWO critical concepts 0 Time 0 Space CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'