Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes HIST 202 - 01
Popular in World History since 1700
Popular in History
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan5294 on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 202 - 01 at University of Indianapolis taught by Emily Grayce Miller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see World History since 1700 in History at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 09/16/15
1b With the world being so focused on getting their business online it has many advantages Being able to reach customers that may not be able to get to a particular store because it is not located near them is now able to go online and shop around It also allows businesses to see what people are looking at and for how long and be able to predict what other types of items a person may or may not look at Some of the challenges are that many businesses are now online and the competition is becoming a lot more intense Each company has to now appeal to its online clientele and not just those that physically visit the company 2a There are six reasons why information systems are so important for businesses today The rst reason is Operational Excellence which businesses need in order to improve the ef ciency of their operations in order to earn higher pro tability The second reason is new products services and business models which allows a company to grow and expand their business in order to create wealth The third reason is customer and supplier intimacy and this helps a company because if they are able to keep suppliers and customers happy then they will have people that will want to do business with them The forth reason is improved decision making which is essential for companies to master because not everything goes the way in which you want so managers are required to use a process to help them make the right decisions The fth reason is competitive advantage which means that using information systems will allow companies to become one step ahead of the competitors The last reason is survival companies need to have some form of information systems in order to have their company survive because if not then it will be taken down by those companies that do 3a The organizational dimension of information systems involves issues such as the organization39s hierarchy functional specialties business processes culture and political interests groups Every company needs some form of structure in order to achieve their goals which means that they have to have some type of order and control within the company and make sure that each level of the hierarchy knows exactly what hisher job entails The people dimension of information systems involves issues such as training job attitudes and management behavior The people dimension is essential to information systems because it will be useless unless there is someone there that is a skilled worker The technology dimension of information systems involves issues such as the computer hardware computer software data management networking and telecommunications All of these things are essential in order for a business to run smoothly because all jobs have some form of computer and networking that they use and there has to be someone there that knows how to use it and x it when something goes wrong 3b An information system is a set of related components to work together to collect process store and relay information to managers that may use the information in order create new products visualize complex subjects and make decisions 3cData is steams of raw facts representing events occurring in organizations or the physical environment before they have been organized and arranged into a form that people can understand and use Information is data that have been shaped into a form that is meaningful and useful to human beings Information systems literacy is broadband understanding of information systems that includes behavioral knowledge about organizations and individuals using information systems as well as technical knowledge about computers Computer literacy is knowledge about information technology focusing on understanding of how computerbased technologies work 4a There are four steps that businesses use in order to solve a problem The rst step is problem identi cation which is understanding what kind of problem exists A business must agree that a problem exists about what the problem is and what its causes are and about what can be done about the problem given the limited resources of the organization The second step is solution design which is when the organization brainstorms ideas and ways in which to x the problem The third step is solution evaluation and choice which is when a company takes all the brainstormed ideas and solutions and decides which one they believe is the best and will solve the problem The last step is implementation which is when a business puts their plan into action and gures out whether or not it will work and if it is a long or short term solution Religious Reformations and Wars of Religion I The Protestant Reformation a Martin Luther 14831546 attacks Roman Catholic church practices 1517 b Writes NinetyFive Theses rapidly reproduced with new printing technology c Excommunicated by Pope Leo Xin 1520 d 152015305 dissent spread throughout Germany and Switzerland II Martin Luther a Luther s expanded critique i Closure of monasteries ii Translations of Bible into vernacular iii End of priestly authority especially the pope 1 Return to biblical text for authority 2 Justification by faith alone b German princes interested i Opportunities for assertion of local control c Support for reform spreads throughout Germany HRE III Expansion a Protestant Reformation branches out and creates new denominations i John Calvin Swiss codifies Protestant teachings while in exile in Geneva branch of the Protestant Reformation ii Predestination IV English Reformation a England King Henry VII has conflict with pope over requested divorce i England forms its own church by 1560 called the Church of England Anglican Church V The Catholic Reformation a Also called the Counter Reformation sometimes b Roman Catholic church reacts i Refining doctrine missionary activities to Protestants attempt to renew spiritual activity c Council of Trent 15451563 periodic meetings to discuss reform d Society ofJesus Jesuits founded by St Ignatius Loyola i Rigorous religious and seculareducation ii Effective missionaries VI Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment I The Copernican Universe a Reconception of the Universe i Reliance on secondcentury Greek scholar Ptolemy ii Motionless earth inside nine concentric spheres iii Christians understand heaven as lastsphere b Difficulty reconciling model with observed planetary movement c 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus heliocentric theory i Idea of moving Earth challenges Christian doctrine II The Scientific Revolution a Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei reinforce Copernican model b Isaac Newton revolutionizes study of physics gravity motion c Rigorous challenge to church doctrines III The Characteristics of enlightenment a Rationalism i Reason is the arbiter of all things b Cosmology i New concept of man his existence on earth and the place of the earth in the universe c Secularism i Application of the methods of science to religion and philosophy d Scientific Method i Mathematicalanalysis ii Experimentation iii Inductive reasoning e Utilitarianism i The greatest good for the greatest number f Tolerance i No opinion is worth burning your neighbor for g Optimism amp SelfConfidence i The beliefthat man is intrinsically good ii The beliefin social progress h Freedom i Ofthought and expression ii Bring liberty to all men modern battle against absolutism i Education of the Masses j Legal Reforms i Justice kindness and charity 1 No torture or indiscriminant incarceration ii Due process of law k Constitutionalism i Written constitutions 1 Listing citizens rights Cosmopolitanism i Individuals belong to a community with shared morals IV The Origins of Enlightenment a Religious i Deism 1 The belief in the existence of a god or supreme being but a denial of revealed religion basing one s belief on the light of nature and reason V Philosophes a John Locke Thomas Hobbes Rousseau Adam smith Montesquieu Voltaire The The French Revolution and the Era of Napoleon I The French Revolution a Serious fiscal problems in France i War debts 17805helped with the American Revolution participated in the 7 yea rs War later 1 50 of tax revenues to war debts 2 25 of tax revenues to military ii Excessive spending by the royals lavish lifestyle Versailles Palace 1 French Revolution Louis XVI amp Marie Antoinette b Leads to revolution more radical than the American i Reject many aspects of the ancient regime The Estate General a Three Estates i First Estate Clergy 1 100000 ii Second Estate Nobles 1 400000 2 Bourgeoisie still in the second estate doctors lawyers educated iii Third Estate Everyone else 1 24000000 serfs free peasants urban residents iv Estates General founded in 1303 had not met since 1614 v One Vote per estate I 1789 a Protest of nobility forces King Louis XCI to call Estates General for new taxes Ma 1789 b Third estate demands greater social cha nge Tennis Court Oath i Will not disband until we get a constitution c June third estate secedes i Renamed quotNational Assembly d July mob attacks Bastille bloody battle won by mob e quotGreat Fear i First and Second estate flee so the Third Estate becomes the only one IV Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen a August 1789 b American influence c Equality of men i Women not included Olympe de Gouges wrote a female version in 1791 Sovereignty resides in the people they have a voice Individual rights V Radicalization of Revolution a quotLiberty equality fraternity b National Assembly abolishes old social order c Seizes church lands redefines clergy as civilians d New constitution retains king but subject to legislative e Convention elected by universal male suffrage f Lev e en masse conscription of war g 1793 King Louis and Queen Marie Antionette found guilty of treason and sent to guillotine VI Maximilien Robespierre 17581794 quotThe ncorruptible leader of Committee of Public Safety b Lead of Jacobin party c Dominated Convention 17931794 d Churches closed priests forced to marry i Promoted quotcult of reason as secularalternative to Christianity e Calendar reorganized Tenday weeks proclaimed Yearl f Executed 40000 imprisoned 300000 VII The Directory 17951799 a Revolutionary enemies of the Jacobins b 1794 Robes pierre arrested sent to guillotine c Men of property take power in the form of the Directory d Unable to solve economic and military problems of revolutionary France VIII Napoleon Bonaparte a Established new government the Consulate b Crowed himself emperor in 1802 c Napoleonic Code i Rules that are still used today 0