Organic Notes- Week of Sept14th
Organic Notes- Week of Sept14th CHEM350
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Emery on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM350 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. John Bartmess in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 09/16/15
914 0 Observed alphaconcentration grammL Iength decimeter specific rotation alphawaveengthtemp in front of the IUPAC name means rotating counter clockwise d dextrorotatory Ievorotatory enantiomeric excess eeRS if you have optical activity in reactants can keep invert or lose it in products 0 if you don39t have it in reactants you can t have it in products enantiomers can be drastically different DarvonNovrad 916 AcidityBasicity Arrhenius De nition 0 Of an acid proton donor 0 Of a base hydroxide donor limited de nition BronstedLowry De nition 0 Of an acid proton donor 0 Of a base proton accepter 0 Always come in pairs 0 HClacidHzObaseCl39conjugate baseH3O conjugate acid 0 Conjugate base what s left when an acid donates a proton o Conjugate acid what s formed when a base accepts a proton Mechanisms critical concept shows how a reaction actually happens shows intermediate steps quotdescription of the changes in bonding and energy as a reaction proceedsquot Show electron flow with curved arrows 0 Show actual change in bonding AND show resonance relationships 0 Draw with head and tail in the right place 0 just because something is usually an acid or is named as an acid doesn t mean it can t act as a base Anything with lone pairs can accept a proton and act as a base 0 Pi electrons in a double or triple bond can also act as bases Endothermic reactants more stable than products uphill energy must be added Exothermic products more stable than reactants downhill energy is released Thermoneutral products and reactants have roughly the same stability 0 practice reading rxn coordinates O AGdouble dagger EA pKa Weak acids have high pKa values 0 Strong acids have low or negative pKa values 0 The molecules with the lower pKa values will be in higher concentration at equilibrium than molecules with higher pKa values Memorize v just to the integer decimals not needed Acid Base pKa CH3CH3 CH3CH239 5 1 NH3 NH239 38 EtOH EtO39 159 H20 HO 157 NH4 NH3 92 H28 HS39 7 0 HF F39 32 H3PO4 H2P0439 2 1 HON02 NO3 1 H30 H20 17 H2804 HSO439 5 HCl Cl39 7 HBr Br 8 HI I39 10 Aqueous range Leveling effect a stronger acid lower than the aqueous range added to water will make the water into H3O and a weaker acid higher than the aqueous range added to water will make the water into OH39 Zwitterion Protons that can be transferred within the same ion