Psychology 101 Chapter 5
Psychology 101 Chapter 5 PSYC 101012
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abbey Strott on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101012 at Towson University taught by Geri Willen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Psychology 101 Chapter 5 Consciousness Ordinary states of Consciousness -Aware of self and environment (future and past and present) -Selective (ex: choose to listen or look out window) Subconscious -Information just below consciousness -Can bring to conscious level at anytime Unconscious -Cannot bring information to conscious level -Freud’s unconscious unwanted, horrible thoughts -Impacts behavior without knowing it Medical Unconsciousness -Unaware of incoming signals/sensory information -Cannot produce outgoing information/motor function Biorhythm: mental and physical connection (Morning person = take hardest classes in AM) Circadian Rhythm -Once a day (period of 24 hours) -Controlled by lightness and darkness -Wake/sleep cycle -Jetlag Ultradian Rhythm -Changes many times during day -Hunger, blood pressure, body temp -Dreaming Infradian Rhythm -Infrequently occurs (less than once a day) -28 day cycle of females (periods) Endogenous: generated from within rather than external cues (Ex: sugar level drops) Suprachiasmatic (SCN): an area of the brain containing a biological clock that governs circadian rhythms Nucleus of pineal gland -Melatonin: a hormone secreted by pineal gland Involved in regulation of circadian rhythms (wake/sleep) I. Ordinary States of Consciousness A. Biological Rhythms 1. Infradian 2. Ultradian 3. Circadian -Sleeping -Research—1950s -Nathaniel Kleitman, Eugene Aserinsky -William Dement II. Altered States of Consciousness -Doing something deliberately to change state of consciousness -Different from normal state of consciousness Example: A. Psychoactive Drugs (influence perception, mood, cognition, or behavior) -Tolerance: increased resistance to a drug’s effects accompanying continued use -Withdrawal: physical or psychological symptoms that occur when someone addicted to a drug stops taking it -Addiction: pattern of behavior where people repeatedly and compulsively take a psychoactive drug; despite knowing it causes damages to living, relationships, jobs, and school B. Meditation C. Hypnosis -Outward focus -A procedure in which the practitioner suggests changes in a subject’s sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings, or behavior -Best people to hypnotized are children -Cannot be hypnotized to go against a persons will -Does not increase accuracy of memory -Does not produce a literal re-experiencing of a long ago event -Used effectively for many medical psychological purposes -Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815) -First to discover hypnosis (called “mesmerize” back then) -Jean Martin Charcot (1825-1893)—Paris Dissociation Theories of Hypnosis Ernest Hilgard Sleep Cycle: *sleep cycle occurs every 90 mins. Stage 1 Beta waves Stage 2 Alpha waves Stage 3 Stage 4 Delta waves Stage 5 REM (dreaming) Neurotransmitters released during sleep: Serotonin Norepinephrine Acetylcholine *During Non-REM: speed up *During REM: slow down Lucid Dream: aware that you’re dreaming WHY DO WE DREAM? FREUD: -Dreams are unconscious wishes “Dreams are the royal road to the unconscious.”- Freud What you are actually dreaming (the content, symbols) Manifest Content What the symbols/manifest content means Latent Content More Theories: -Dream as efforts to deal with problems -No manifest or latent content -Dreams as Thinking -Thinking about your daily activities, not trying to find solution to problems -Activation-Synthesis Theory -Dreams are interpreted brain activity (in lower part on the brain) PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS: Stimulants: speed up activity in central nervous system Depressants: slow activity in central nervous system Opiates: relieve pain and commonly produce euphoria Psychedelic Drugs: consciousness-altering drugs that produce hallucinations, change thought processes, or disrupt normal perception of time and space -Stimulants block reuptake and reabsorption of neurotransmitters
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