Chapter 7 Notes and Quizzes
Chapter 7 Notes and Quizzes Psyc 2010-003
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alise Robison on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Chong Hyon Pak in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Chapter 7: Learning Brief History of Psychology Early structuralists and functionalists (late 1800s): Wundt, James… Behaviorists (c 1920-1960s): Pavlov, Thorndike, Watson, Skinner… Cognitive (1960s-today) Learning—Classical Conditioning The process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors Structure of mind and what it does—Pavlov, Thorndike Learn by o Experiencing events o Observing relationships between events o Noting regularity in the world around us Stimulus: any event or situation that evokes a response Cognitive learning: the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language Types of learning Associative learning: learning that certain events occur together o The events may be two stimuli (classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (operant conditioning) Non-associative learning o Habituation: process of adapting to stimuli that don’t change You get used to it (a bad smell, for example) o Sensitization: showing progressively larger responses following repeated presentations of stimuli (tapping on a desk) o Don’t actively do anything, it just happens Classical Conditioning Why do you panic when you see blue lights of a cop/get nervous for public speaking? Learned responses from observed relationships around the world A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events Pavlov o Gave dogs food and measured their salivation o Group one: dogs presented with meat and they salivated o Group two: dogs presented with musical tone (bell) and did not salivate o In the 2 ndphase, dogs presented with bell then given meat powder and salivated Paired neutral bell stimulus with a natural reflex (salivation) Neutral stimulus: in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning (bell) Unconditioned response: an unlearned, naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus (salivation) Unconditioned stimulus: a stimulus that unconditionally— naturally and automatically—triggers a response (food in mouth) Conditioned response: a learned response to a previously neutral, but now conditioned, stimulus (tone) Conditioned response: an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response (salivation) Continued pairing of the conditioned response with the unconditioned response strengthens behavior Acquisition: in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response o In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response High-order conditioning: a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second, often weaker, conditioned stimulus o For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone o Also called second-order conditioning Extinction: the diminishing of a conditioned response o Occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus o Occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer enforced Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response o Behavior quickly returns to normal, no long training required Stimulus generalization: the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses o Different pitch in tone still creates salivation, but maybe not as much Discrimination: in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus o Generalization must have limits o Learn to differentiate between various stimuli; react to some, not others o Process balances with stimulus generalization Factors influencing learning conditioned responses Timing Predictability Signal (stimulus) strength Attention to stimulus0—what the organism was paying attention to Applications of Clasical Conditioning Can lead to development of intense, irrational fears of objects or situations (phobias) Systematic desensitization uses classical conditioning principles to treat such fears Watson used classical conditioning procedures to develop advertising campaigns for a number of organizations, including Maxwell House, making the “coffee break” an American custom Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Is the organism learning associations between events it does not control? Classical Is the organism learning associations between its own behaviors and resulting events? Operant Operant A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher Thorndike’s Law of Effect If a response made to a particular stimulus is followed by satisfaction, that response is more likely to occur the next time the stimulus is present o “Instrumental Conditioning” o Used a “Puzzle box” Skinner extended this idea by saying that an organism learns a response by operating on the environment o “Operant Conditioning” o Used a “Skinner box” o Consequences shape behavior Law of Effect: Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely Operant chamber: in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforce; attached devices record the animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking o Pigeon ping-pong Basics of Operant Conditioning Operant: response/behavior that has some affect on the world Reinforcer: a stimulus even that INCREASES the probability that the operant behavior will occur again o Positive Reinforcer: pleasant stimulus that when given strengthens the response if it follows that response Getting a hug, receiving a paycheck o Negative Reinforcer: an unpleasant stimulus that—if removed—strengthens the response that removes the stimulus (something bad gets taken away) Fastening seatbelt to turn off beeping Not a punishment Reinforcement: in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Forming and Strengthening Operant Behavior Shaping: an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior Types of Reinforcers: o Primary reinforcer: an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need Events or stimuli that satisfy basic needs of survival o Secondary (conditioned) reinforcers: rewards that people or animals learn to like A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer Reinforcement schedule: a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced Continuous reinforcement: reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs Partial reinforcement: reinforcing a response only part of the time o Results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement o Response based: reinforcement based on the number of behaviors Fixed-ratio: reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses Variable-ratio: reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses o Time-based: reinforcement based on time Fixed-interval: reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed Variable-interval: reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals Respondent behavior: behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus Operant behavior: behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences Punishment Presentation of a bad stimulus or removal of a good stimulus o Always results in the decrease of the response Drawbacks o Can become aggressive o Doesn’t erase behavior o Sensitive—needs immediate recompense o Shows behavior is inappropriate but does not correct it Cognitive Processes in Learning Challenges to a behavioral view of classical and operant conditioning o Argued that learning may result from not only automatic associations but also from mental processes Learning is more than just associations, reinforcements, and punishment o More to it mentally Cognitive map: a mental representation fo the layout of one’s environment Latent learning: learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it o “Hidden” learning Intrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake Extrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment Learning by Observation Higher animals, especially humans, learn through observing and imitating others Imitation onset: learning by observation begins early in life Observational learning: learning by observing others Modeling: the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior Mirror neurons: frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so o The brain’s mirroring of another’s action may enable imitation and empathy Prosocial behavior: positive, constructive, helpful behavior Opposite of antisocial behavior QUIZ QUESTIONS 1. Which of the following types of cells are located in the brain’s visual cortex? a. Rods and cones b. Bipolar cells c. Hair cells d. Feature detectors 2. A door casts an increasingly trapezoidal image on our retinas as it opens, yet we still perceive it as rectangular. This illustrates a. Retinal disparity b. Interposition c. Shape constancy d. Linear perspective 3. When we look at a clock showing 8 AM, certain brain cells in our visual cortex are more responsive than when the hands show 10 AM. This is most indicative of a. Sensory interaction b. Feature detection c. Perceptual adaptation d. Accommodation 4. Early in the twentieth-century, a group of German psychologists noticed that people tend to organize a cluster of sensations in to a(n) a. Just noticeable difference b. Masking stimulus c. Nociceptor d. Gestalt 5. Carmella, Jorge, and Gail were all sitting behind the same bowling lane, so Ruth perceived that they were all members of the same bowling team. This best illustrates the organizational principle of a. Proximity b. Interposition c. Closure d. Continuity 6. The perception of the letter “t” as two intersecting lines rather than as four nonintersecting lines illustrates the principle of a. Accommodation b. Proximity c. Closure d. Continuity 7. Relative height is a cue involving our perception of objects higher in our field of vision as a. Brighter b. Farther away c. Hazier d. Smaller 8. Which theory best explains how we perceive low-pitched sounds? a. Place theory b. Opponent-process theory c. Frequency theory d. The Young-Helmholtz theory 9. As a rock musician who has experienced prolonged exposure to high-amplitude sounds, Rodney is beginning to lose his hearing. It is most likely that this hearing loss involves problems in the a. Auditory canal b. Eardrum c. Tiny bones of the middle ear d. Cochlea 10. The quick succession of briefly flashed images in a motion picture produces a. Retinal disparity b. Synaesthesia c. Stroboscopic movement d. Linear perspective QUIZ ANSWERS: 1) D 2) C 3) B 4) D 5) A 6) D 7) B 8) C 9) D 10) C QUIZ TWO 1. McKayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone a. Discrimination b. Spontaneous recovery c. Extinction d. Generalization 2. Blinking in response to a puff of air directed to your eye is a a. CS b. UR c. US d. CR 3. Bill once had a blue car that was in the shop more than it was out. Since then he will not even consider owning blue- or green- colored cars. Bill’s aversion to green cars is an example of a. Extinction b. Discrimination c. Generalization d. Latent learning 4. Long after her conditioned fear of dogs had been extinguished, Mary experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when first shown her cousin’s new cocker spaniel. Her unexpected nervousness best illustrates a. Delayed reinforcement b. Shaping c. Spontaneous recovery d. Latent learning 5. In Pavlov’s original experiment with dogs, the meat served as a a. CR b. US c. UR d. CS 6. Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates a. Spontaneous recovery b. Generalization c. Secondary reinforcement d. Shaping 7. In Pavlov’s original experiment with dogs, salivation to meat was the a. UR b. US c. CS d. CR 8. Learning is best defined as a. A change in the behavior of an organism b. Behavior based on operant rather than respondent conditioning c. Any behavior produced by an organism without being provoked d. A relatively permanent change in the behavior of an organism due to experience 9. Which of the following is an unconditioned response? a. Running through a maze to get a food reward b. Sweating in hot weather c. Clapping after a thrilling concert performance d. Playing jump rope QUIZ ANSWERS 1) C 2) B 3) C 4) C 5) B 6) B 7) A 8) D 9) B
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