Notes 9/16 302-001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Hall on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 302-001 at George Mason University taught by Nicole DelVecchio Shelton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Delinquency in Criminology and Criminal Justice at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/16/15
Chapter 4 notes Social Factors amp Delinquency What are the social factors believed to cause or affect delinquent behaviors lnterpersonal interactions Community ecological conditions Social change Socioeconomic status Minority poverty The consequences of racial disparity amp poverty take a harsh toll on minority youths Oscar Louis coined the phrase quotculture of poverty The view that lower class people form a separate culture with their own values amp norms The impoverished are deprived of a standard of living enjoyed by the other citizens The theories tie delinquency rates to both socioeconomics conditions e g poverty neighborhood deterioration and cultural values Social Disorganization Culture con ict lack of cohesiveness lots of issues Relative Deprivation Conditions that exist when ppl of wealth and poverty live in close proximity to one another Community Change Community Fear Poverty Concentration Collective Ef cacyprocess in which mutual trust and a willingness to intervene in the supervision of children and help maintain public order create a sense of well being Transitional Neighborhood Area undergoing a shift in population and structure Dale city PWC Social ControlAbility of social institutions to in uence human behaviorschools churches and mentorship programs Cultural transmissionThe process of passing on deviant traditions and delinquent values from one generation to the nextgangs etc Socioogists argue that the root cause of delinquency may be traced to learning delinquent attitudes from peers experiencing con ict in the home etc Sociaizations is the process of guiding ppl into acceptable behavior patterns 0 Early socialization experiences have a lifelong in uence on selfimage Critical Theory 0 Society is in a constant state of internal con ict 0 Those in power use the justice system to maintain their status while keeping others subservient The poor may or may not commit more crimes than the rich but they are being arrested for them Theory amp Delinquency Prevention Socia programs have been designed to reduceeliminate delinquency such as sports after school programsetc Deinquency can be prevented by strengthening the socialization process Restorative justiceAn approach that relies on nonpunitive strategies for delinquency control Cultural deviancy Theorylinks delinquent acts to the formation of independent subcultures w a unique set of values that clash with the mainstream culture Culture TheoryWhen the values of the subculture clash w those of the dominant culture Social Process theories SocializationThe process of learning the values amp norms of the society of the subculture to which the individual belongs Parental Ef cacyWhen parents are supportive and effectively control their children in a noncoercive fashion Social learning theories Delinquency is learned through close relationships with others Social Reaction Theories Beief that the way society reacts to the individuals and the way individuals react to society determined individual behavior Stigmatizednegatively labeled as a result of their participation in a delinquent act examples Labeling theoryRegardless of their actions and acts society labels them Selflabelingperson labeled accepts the label amp role Reducing Stigma DeinstitutionalizationRemoving juveniles from adult jails and placing them in communitybased programs to avoid the stigma attached to these facilities Restorative justicenonpunitive strategies for dealing with juvenile offenders that the justice system a healing process rather than a punishment Key Terms Culture of poverty Social Structure Theories Social Disorganization Transitional Neighborhood Social Bond Cultural Transmission Social Control Collective Ef cacy Strain Anomie General Strain Theory Socialization Parent Ef cacy Social Control theories Stigmatized Labeling theory Selflabeling Critical Theory Deinstitutionalization Restorative justice Chapter 5 Notes Kia39s Story He had problems in middle school when he was 14 was placed in an intervention program Kia was at risk for school disciplinary action Kia39s parents moved to the US several years before Kia Life course view According to the life course view even as toddlers ppl begin relationships and behaviors that will determine their entire life course Disruptions in life39s major transitions can be destructive and ultimately promote criminality Development process A positive life experience may help some kids desist from delinquency Deinquent careers are also said to be interactional because ppl are in uenced by behavior of those around them Life course theories also recognize that as ppl mature the factors that in uence their behavior change Life Course concepts We know that most young criminals desist and do not become adult offenders Most of these early onset delinquents begin their careers w disruptive behaviors Eary the onset the more likely the adolescent will engage in serious delinquency Adolescentlimited offenders vs life course limited offenders Not all persistent offenders begin at an early age A few even skip antisocial behavior in their childhood in contrast life course persistent offenders remain high rate offenders into young adu hood Problem behavior syndrome The life course view is that delinquency is but one of many social problems faced by atrisk youth Youths who drink in the late elementary school yours who are aggressive and have attention problems are more likely to be offenders during adolescence Multiple Pathways The authority con ict pathway begins at an early age w stubborn behavior The concert pathway begins w minor underhanded behavior that leads to property damage Overt pathwaypathway to a delinquent career that begins w minor aggression leas to physical ghting and eventually escalates to violent delinquency The best predictor of future criminality is past criminality Research shows that kids who persist engage in more aggressive acts and are continually involved in theft offenses and aggression As they emerge into adulthood they report less emotional support Age graded theory Socia theorist have formulated a number of systematic theories that account for onset continuance and desistance from delinquency One of the most prominent of these is age graded theory Turning points in life course Two critical turning points are career and marriage Adoescents who are at risk for delinquency can live conventional lives if they can nd good jobs or achieve successful careers Pp who cannot sustain secure marital relations are less likely to desist from delinquency thoughts Developing social capital A cornerstone of age graded theory is the in uence of social capital on behavior Losing or wasting social capital increases likelihood of getting involved in deanuency Social capital is critical to social groups and communities Positive relationships w individuals and institutions marriages churches etc Severa indicators support the validity of age graded theory Research has shown that children who grow up in a 2 parent home are more likely to have happier marriages Youths who accumulate social capital in childhood are most likely to maintain steady work as adults Love and Delinquency Agegraded theory places a lot of emphasis on the stability brought about by romantic relationships leading eventually to a good marriage Kids headed toward a life of crime can knife off that path if they meet the right mate ove is primary conduit of informal social control The latent Trait view The propensity of inclination to commit delinquency is stable but the opportunity uctuates over time Pp age out of delinquency bc as they mature they are simply fewer opportunities to commit such acts those who carry one of these traits are in danger of becoming career criminals Are ppl born as criminals or learn to be criminals General Theory of crime Deinquency is rational and predictable Deinquent acts such as robberies or burglaries are illegal events or deeds that ppl engage in when they perceive them to be advantageous Selfcontrolrefers to a person39s ability to exercise restraint Testing the general theory of crime One approach involved identifying indicators of impulsiveness and selfcontrol impusivity predicts the likelihood that a person will engage in criminal behavior Another study has found that victims have lower selfcontrol than nonvictims Evaluating the development view the developmental view is that a delinquent career must be understood ife course theories emphasize the in uence of changing interpersonal and structural factors the perspectives differ in their view of human behavior Development theory and delinquency prevention there have been a number of policybased initiatives based on premises of development theory some programs aim to prevent delinquency in the long run helping parents improve their parenting skills This is another form of family support that has sown some success in preventing juvenile delinquency Key Terms Developmental Theory turning points Life course theory social capital Latent trait theory Early onset general theory of crime Life course persistent offender Impulsive Authority con ict pathway Covert pathway Overt pathway Problem behavior syndrome Selfcontrol
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