PSY 313 Week 3 Notes
PSY 313 Week 3 Notes PSY 313
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bria Harris on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 313 at Syracuse University taught by Amy Criss in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Intro. to Research Methodology in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/16/15
PSY 313 Research Methods Week 3 Lecture Notes September 14th and 16th Observational Research What is an observational study Watching behavior amp collecting qualitative and quantitative data about that behavior Types of data Quantitative quantifiable objective data amount duration usually numerical but can be comparisons eg less or more Qualitative quality of data type subjective description themes eg Friends video Quantitative of times Ioey tries to say a French phrase Qualitative Ioey didn t realize his failure to speak French Data Collection 0 What Behavior categories 0 Identify every category of behaviors PRIOR to observation 0 List everything that qualifies as a member of each category 0 Need clear operational definitions When Frequency Method 0 Count of times one observes behavior in a fixed amount of time Duration 0 Measure the amount of time spent engaging in behavior How Event sampling 0 Observe behavior 1 observe behavior 2 etc Individual sampling 0 All behaviors from person 1 all behaviors from person 2 Time sampling 0 Observe record observerecord most difficult Types of Observations Naturalistic Try not to disturb the subjects being observed hide habituate Participant Become one of themquot engage Contrived Structured Construct situation so that you can measure relevant behavior Examples of Observational Studies Jane Goodall Lived in Tanzania with chimps observed their behavior amp took careful detailed notes Naturalistic Through pure observation she discovered o Chimps make tools 0 Chimps hunt amp eat meat 0 Tribes go to war with one another Bobo Experiment Transmission of aggression Children broken up into 2 groups aggressive and nonaggressive Results Experimental group aggressive displayed more aggressive behavior than the control group nonaggressive Contrived Structured Operational definition of aggression o of X in a 20 minute free play period X was 8 different things including imitating the adult imitating adults verbal acts and hitting with the mallet On Being Sane in Insane Places Rosenhan 1973 Wondered how accurate medical staff were at diagnosing mental illness Participant He and 7 others pretended to be schizophrenic amp were admitted to psychological hospitals 0 Once admitted they resumed their normal behavior amp their new goal was to be released 0 Took observational notes during their stay ranging from 752 days Qualitative Data 0 Other patients not staff seemed to notice eg You re not crazy You re a journalist or reporter You re checking up on the hospitalquot 0 Staff often responded generally to a specific question eg Doctor could you tell me wen I m eligible for ground privilegesquot 0 Response Hello Dave How are you todayquot Quantitative Data 0 of days in hospital 0 of time staff ignored a question asked by a researcher Potential Problems with Observation 1 Reactivity people modify natural behavior when they know they re being watched Demand Characteristics Participant based people might do what they feel is expected of them based on clues from the researcher or research design Precaution to avoid these problems Choose the appropriate method naturalistic participant structured Replicate study Opinions amp Social Pressure Asch 1955 Show a control line Show 3 lines and pick the one that s the same length as the control line 7 researchers pretend to be participants confederates along with 1 real participant On some trials all researchers give the same answer 0 Sometimes their answer is right sometimes it s not 75 of the participants went along with confederates decision at least one Overall participants agreed with the incorrect answer 30 of the time How is this relative to observational research Experimenter expectancy effect researcher based Rosenhan U963 Students worded with lab rats to learn a maze Some RA s research assistants were told they were working with animals specially bred to learn mazes quickly Others were told that they were working with animals specially bred to have difficulty learning the maze Results Smart rats learn quicker dumb rats learn slower Precaution to avoid this problem Single blind study experimenter does not know hypothesis or the condition the participant is in Double blind study Neither the experimenter nor participant knows the condition Observation is subjective may miss something Precautions Welldefined behavior categories More than 1 observer Measure interrater reliability Scientific Writing vs English Composition Very plain Avoid owery prose amp hyperbole Fact based Anything you state as true must be supported by a reference eg peer reviewed article Don t attempt to use synonyms for constructs or technical terms use the same term for the same concept Eliminate needless words whenever possible Sections of a Paper Title Page abstract introduction methods results figures tables discussion and references
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