Landscape Archaeology (3)
Landscape Archaeology (3) ANTH 4953
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heidi Hilts on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 4953 at University of Oklahoma taught by Asa R. Randall in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Landscape Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Landscape Archaeology Week 3 notes 2/2/16 Sites exist independently of archaeologists Can be discovered, but exist independently Reverses importance of artifacts vs site Post –processual critique (1980s- 90s) Science in general and processual archaeology in particular criticized for lacking attention to meaning, influences of culture and history on interpretation and politics surrounding uses of knowledge about the past Objectivity is an illusion All knowledge serves a purpose Archaeological record o Structure and method and means through which past cultures reproduced Embodied landscapes o Thinking about how space is arranged How to reconcile between traditional/anthropological o How to incorporate bot a scientific and humanistic narrative into viable research Archaeological landscapes are collections of artifacts o Survey Walking Shovel test Remote sensing o Monument Building that is larger than functionally necessary o Do sites exist o Should we treat site as the most important unit of analysis 2/4/16 Ontology: does something exist? Epistemology: how can we identify, record, or delineate them? “by discrete, we mean spatially bounded with those boundaries marked by at least relative change in artifact densities” o Distance Discrete or continuous o Density How to break down into multiple or one site o Optimum Can an artifact be a site? Why does it matter? o Cultural resource management/heritage management Prior to ground disturbing acts, look for stuff that meets archaeological criteria o Basis for signifance and preservation is the site o Nat’l register criteria for evaluation “Quality of significance in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, and culture is present in districts, sites, buildings, structures and objects that possess integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association” Have to meet at least one of four criteria Has to tell you something significant about history of prehistory o How to determine archaeological sites in field Shovel test A defective and deleterious concept? makes sites discrete which may not be accurate David Hearst Thomas Random probability sample 10% sample Can solve problem of significance Also assumes discrete sites ‘Off-site’ or nonsite arch Studies concerned with total population of artifacts rather than discrete clusters Test outside bounds Anthrosols Amazonian dark earth/terra preto de indio People made the soil fertile, organically enriched Soil itself is a sign of humans affecting environment in the past Dunnell siteless archaeology Artifact as the minimal unit of observation o Smallest unit that is acted upon by formation processes and has time-transgressive characteristics o Potential problems: Overemphasis on surface finds View of human behavior as robotic By emphasizing artifacts or other human products, downplays the significance of non-artifact bearing areas Epistemology of Landscape Focus on variation o Need archaeology and environmental analytical units Spatial scales define what’s important o Extent: absolute size of a study areas o Grain: absolute size of smallest analytical spatial unit o Effective scale: scale at which a spatial pattern is comprehensible Recognizable and interpretable Often need multi-scalar perspective Compare what is happening at different scales
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