AN 1103 Chapter 10 Notes
AN 1103 Chapter 10 Notes AN 1103
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Falyn Ruby on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AN 1103 at Mississippi State University taught by Professor Jean Marcus in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Introduction to Anthropology Chapter 9 Notes Neolithic Revolution Neolithic Revolution – the invention of the domestication of plants and animals o From Homo erectus until about 10,000 years ago, our ancestors made a living by combining hunting, gathering, and fishing collectively called foraging. These foragers were nomadic and moved from place to place according to the seasons. They did not overexploit the resources. What brought about this change from foraging to farming? o Decrease in number of big game animals available Maybe due to climate, or over-killing o Rise in sea level Broad Spectrum Revolution – broad-spectrum foragers became sedentary – exploitation of species of plants, animals, and sea life. o Women’s fertility increased due to an excess in body fat May have stimulated domestication of plants and animals in several places (marginal zones) Neolithic revolution o Experimentation over time during which the people continued to hunt, gather, and fish Experimentation may have caused artificial selection They chose the animals and plants to domesticate due to traits that were easier to produce and farm. Over time, these traits heightened and the domesticated plants and animals are far different than their wild counterparts. o Corns, beans, and squash were the magic three that could grow together and produce the most nutrients o Centers of Domestication: Middle East and Near East, Africa, China, South America, Mesoamerica, North America Domestication of species spread by diffusion through direct contact between the cultures Horticulture – a method of subsistence based on the domestication of plants without the domestication of animals. “slash and burn” Depends on fallow periods to restore soil fertility Pastoralism – refers to herding domesticated animals Simple Agriculture – horticulture with domesticated animals providing energy for plowing and transport and manure for fertilization Intensive agriculture – agriculture with irrigation, fertilization, and machines o Consequences? Populations increased Social organizations developed to regulate population and resources Development of tribes, chiefdoms, and state-level societies Costs and benefits of states: o Benefits: new discoveries and inventions including: Spinning and weaving Pottery, bricks, and arched masonry Smelting and casting of metals Trade and commerce by land and sea Markets, streets, temples, and palaces Sculpture and mural art Writing systems Weights and measures Calendars, astronomy, and architecture o Costs: Food producers must work harder than foragers Long distance trade Everyone must work Require specialties Social stratification (classes) Citizens are forced to serve in armies or projects Taxes and tribute Health declines Environment suffers
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