Notes from Week 2
Notes from Week 2 PHIL 1106
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1106 at University of Connecticut taught by Richard Anderson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Non-Western and Comparative Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 09/16/15
PHIL 1106 Class 2 9102015 The Logic Quiz has been pushed back to Thursday 917 muments and a Problem with Justified True Belief Refresher We will be revisiting the three themes that we discussed last class Metaphysics Epistemology Ethics Morality Metaphysics concerned with the nature of reality Epistemology the theory of knowledgehow we can actually know something Ethics Morality right vs wrong Things can either be a morally permissible b morally requiredobligatory or c morally forbidden Deductive Arguments Notes from powerpoints and class discussion Basic Tenet Statements that we hold to be true ought to be supported by good arguments We will be looking at Vaid vs Invalid arguments Sounds vs Unsound arguments Is the identical twins argument from slide 3 a good argument The argument is okay but not as good as it could be This slide is just a warm up question to start the class discussion about good arguments vs bad arguments Slide 4 discussion You want to start off the argument with a solid foundation structure It is important to both have a good design for an argument and to build it on a solid foundation Arguments are like buildings just like a building will collapse if it is not built on a solid foundation or if it has a faulty designstructure an argument will also collapse if it does not have a solid foundation and structure The ideal conditions for an argument are as follows Founda on True premises IDEAL Structure Reason logically or validly IDEAL quot On the quiz we won t be asked to recite the definition of a deductiver valid argument or an invalid argument we will be asked to show that we know what the definitions really mean Arguments Arguments are sets of sentences and are either valid or invalid there is not in between There are two categories of arguments valid and invalid There is an important subcategory within the valid arguments categorysound arguments which are the really good arguments N valid quotValid Arguments should be structured as follows 1 Premise 2 Premise 3 Conclusion Look at slide 4 on the second handout 1 All humans are mortal 2 Richard is a human 3 Therefore Richard is mortal Is this argument valid It is valid The diagram to the right shows that not all mortal beings are human but humans are mortal beings So in this case humans can be thought of as a subcategory within the larger category of mortal beings Valid or Invalid How to tell a valid argument from an invalid argument Step 1 Assume or pretend that the premises are true Step 2 Look at the conclusion Is it possible for the conclusion to be false under the assumption that the premises are true If YES then at least one of the arguments are INVALID If NO then it is VALID In other words If POSSIBLE then INVALID If IMPOSSIBLE then VALID Now let s take a look at example 4 1 If Richard is in NYC then Richard is in New York State 2 Richard is not in NYC 3 Therefore Richard is not in New York State Is this argument valid or is it invalid It is invalid Why Because Richard might be in Albany New York NYC is not the only place in New York state and just because Richard isn t in NYC doesn t mean he is not in New York state at all Now let s compare example 4 above to example 5 below 1 If Richard is in NYC then Richard is in New York State 2 Richard is not in New York state 3 Therefore Richard is not in NYC Is this argument valid or is it invalid It is valid Why is this Well premise 1 tells us that if Richard is in NYC he must be in New York state since NYC is located in NY state Premise 2 tells us that Richard is not in NY state and the conclusion tells us that Richard is not in NYC The conclusion is valid because there is no possible way that Richard can be in NYC if he is not even in NY Take a look at examples 2 and 3 These two examples give us the two basic structures of an argument Argument A Example 2 1 Either A or B 2 Not A 3 Therefore B Argument B Example 3 1 lfA then B 2 Not A 3 Therefore B Note that the words that are no colored Either or not therefore if then are filler words that can be applied to almost any argument They are the structural components of the argument On the quiz we will have an argument similar examples 2 and 3 UConn example and Obama example We will be asked to show the underlying structure of the argument as shown above If you wish you can replace the letters A and B with lines on the quiz to show the structuresame idea Valid and Invalid Arguments There are 8 different structure possibilities for an argument sound valid valid valid valid validinvalidvalid Premise 1 T T F F F T T Premise 2 T F T T F T F Conclusion T T F T F F F This is the only combination that matters because lf combination is POSSIBLE INVALID If combination is IMPOSSIBLE VALID Inductive Arguments Most arguments in science and in the social sciences are not deductiver valid They are invalid We can still have good arguments that are not deductively valid these are strong inductive arguments Strong Inductive Arguments The premises if true provide good but not completely conclusive grounds for accepting the conclusion There is no absolute guarantee that the conclusion is true if the premises are true But it is highly likely that the conclusion is true if the premises are true Example of a strong inductive argument 1 The sun has risen in the East every day in recorded history 2 Therefore the sun will rise in the East tomorrow Inductive Strength Factors that determine inductive strength 1 Survey sample size 2 Randomness of the survey sample the larger your sample is and the more random and unbiased the better because you will have more support for your conclusion Quiz Review What you need to know 0 The main concepts valid arguments invalid arguments sound arguments inductively strong arguments etc o How to tell if a basic argument is valid invalid or sound 0 How to give the logical form of a basic argument 0 Be able to determine if an inductive argument is strong or not and have some reasons to support your position Use these notes to work on the practice worksheet Answers are posted on HuskyCT Good luck