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Week 9 Bio Notes

by: Sierra Taylor

Week 9 Bio Notes Bio 111

Sierra Taylor
Cal Poly

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About this Document

Lecture notes and one workshop notes, one workshop was missed and notes are not included.
General Biology
Eric Noel
Class Notes
Biology, Genera biology, BIO111, Ecology, reproduction, growth, survival
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra Taylor on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 111 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Eric Noel in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.


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Date Created: 03/07/16
2/26: Alternative Final on Tuesday; use SAIL to evaluate Dr. Noel iClicker Questions Humans have innate behaviors (fixed action) ­ TRUE ­grasping, sensitivity to heat/light, swimming The Belding’s ground squirrel giving off an alarm signal in the picture above would most  commonly be an older female in the colony in which she was born. What is the ultimate explanation for modern human preference for fatty foods? Prey that provides the most energy relative to effort. Ch. 10: The Origin and Diversification of Life on Earth (10.10) Similar structures don’t always reveal common ancestry Bat vs. Moth: both have wings and can fly, share a wingless common ancestor and evolved  independently. The mapping of species characteristics onto phylogenetic trees include… 1. physical features­ appearances 2. DNA sequences: more accurate, became popular in the 1980’s 3. ex. African Golden mole is closely related to the African Elephant more so than the  common shrew despite such similar appearances. Convergent Evolution: “same function, different form”  Populations of different organisms live in different environments that create similar  pressures which end in the organisms having similar traits.  Analogous traits: characteristics created by convergent evolution and not because they  descended from a common structure from a shared ancestor. Homology determines Phylogeny “Same form, different function” Homologous traits: features inherited from a common ancestor, similar in anatomic structure (10.13) Adaptive radiation are times of extreme diversification 1. Mass extinction events: world of opportunities opened up for mammals, mammals increased  4­5,000 after dinosaurs went extinct 2. Colonization events: relocating species, moving to a new location with new resources,  Galapagos finches and Hawaiian fruit fly say were both on an island as opposed to SLO, they  would represent 1/3 of the population rather than being just like everything else and only being a  fraction of the population. 3. Evolutionary innovations: innovations like wings and rigid skeletons appeared in insects,  helped them to diversify into most successful group of animals, more than 800,000 species  today; ex: flowering plants, California poppy, 9/10 are flowering (advantageous) because it aids  reproduction in color attracts insects and pollination.  all result in access to plentiful new resources  special case of divergent evolution (where biodiversity is created) Ch.14 Population Ecology: how it influences the evolution of aging ­ the study of how populations interact with their environment. (14.1)  Ecology ex. Northwest, Maine, 6­7,000 lobster farmers, ecologists are the ones who regulate how many  can be harvested a year or season, whether to choose males or females, or what sized is  preferable. Levels: 1. Individuals, 2. Populations, 3. Communities, 4. Ecosystems Studying patterns of growth and how populations of organisms are influenced by other species  and by environmental factors. (14.2) Most ecological processes cannot be observed/studied within individuals ex. Giraffes, long neck trait gradually happened over many generations, one individual would not be a good reflection of what is driving the biodiversity. (14.3) Populations can grow quickly for a while, but not forever Stable populations: 1 Mom and Dad have a few progeny, stays consistent Exponential growth: when each individual produces more than 1 offspring necessary to replace  itself; populations cannot go unchecked forever, exponential growth will stop in nature.  Figuring out how population grows (or shrinks) 1. Growth rate “r”: (rate of births – rate of deaths) 2. # of individuals in the population = N x r ex. 500 individuals in population, 125 born, 25 dead= 0.20 individuals per person, 1 year­ 600  total, 2 years­ 720 total Workshop Notes Does an organism’s phenotype only include physical traits? If not, support your claim with a  specific example. No because it also includes behaviors, ex. mating bird dances, red belly fish Why are most human’s favorite food high in fat and sugar? Because the prey provides the most energy relative to the effort. Define innate instincts. fixed action, instincts that we are born with, innate behaviors that require no learning,  present in all of the individuals throughout the population. Male stickleback fish provide an example of innate behaviors, this behavior is attacking anything red during mating season. What is an example of an innate instinct? Human babies grasing from birth, Momma Geese retrieving lost eggs, dogs swimming  over water. Define learned instincts. Instincts that are learned, involves behaviors that are altered and modified over time in  response to past events. Why are some behaviors easier to learn that others? Evolution has allowed it to become a genetic component rather than a completely new  behavior. Explain the monkey and rubber snake experiment. Include how it is an example of a learned  behavior. When they were exposed to the fear of snakes by watching wild monkeys, they then  developed the fear of snakes and were afraid of rubber snakes. Are human infancts more fearful of guns or snakes? Why? This is an example of what kind of  learning? Prepared learning, because evolutionarily snakes were more harmful in the past, even  though guns are more dangerous now. Because evolutionary change cannot always keep  up with a rapidly changing environment. How come a complex learned behavior, like fear of snakes, does not require complex thought to  evolve? Natural selection favors behavior that increases reproductive success. What is kin selections? Provide an example. Kindness towards relatives, the ground squirrel What is reciprocal altruism? What are some conditions must be met for reciprocal altruism to  show up in a population? Must always have reciprocal attraction, kindness towards unrelated individuals because  you expect something in return, recipient must gain more than giver. Kin selection and reciprocal altruism are both types of altruism. How are they similar and  different? They both involve kindness and selfishness of preference of the organism’s own gene  survival. But one is related to relatives and the other to strangers. What are homologous structures? Provide an example. Features that are inherited from a common ancestor and are similar in anatomic structure; arms and hands in humans, cats, whales and bats. A mutagen induced by over­exposure to gamma­rays has caused an individual to develop super­ human strength. This mutation will have an effect on the total alleles of the population IF this  mutation increases an individual’s ability to reproduce. Define convergent evolution, provide an example. Organisms that are unrelated but exposed to similar environmental factors express similar  phenotypes; bat wings and insect wings What is adaptive radiation? Provide an example. Case of divergent evolution of which results in plentiful new resources, small # of species diversify to a large # of species at a fast rate. What 3 phenomena can lead to an adaptive radiation? Mass extinction events, colonization events and evolutionary innovation. How can we organize evolutionary trees? By DNA sequences and physical features. What is ecology? The study of how populations interact with their environment. What is the ceiling on growth termed? Carrying capacity 3/2: Alternative Final on Tuesday, 10am­12pm, 33­356, No office hours on Friday,  complete SAIL iClicker:  The evolution of flight in birds would likely be considered adaptive radiation as a result of  evolutionary innovation. Which structures are analogous? Bat wings, insect wings, and bird wingers; same function, different form. Which structures are homologous? Human forearm, bat forearm, eyes of an insect, fish, bat and human; same form, different  function. (14.4) Population’s Growth is Limited An insect’s size increases the organism’s experience: ­ reduced food supply due to competition ­ diminishes accessibility to living/breeding ground ­ increases incidence of parasites and disease ­ increased predation risk Density­dependent factors The limitations on a population’s growth that are a consequence of population density. This ceiling on growth is the carrying capacity, K, of the environment. ­ as population approaches K, death increases, migration increases, birth decreases, and  food supply decreases. How K Influences Population Growth N x r Multiply by [(K­N)/K] – varies between 0 and 1 If close to 1, population growth is essentially unchanged, and as a consequence population is  growing exponentially. If close to 0, environment is nearly full to capacity and population growth reduces to almost zero  as the population size nears the K. Logistic growth describes population growth that is gradually reduced as the population nears the environment’s K. Density­independent forces ex. fires, floods, and earthquakes­ can dramatically reduce population size; these are factors that  strike populations without regard for the size of the population. How many people can Earth support? Why does the answer keep increasing? 7 billion on Earth now, growing around a billion every decade, will reach K around 2050­ 2060. Why? 1. agricultural technologies­ crop rotation (nitrogen in the soil), pest managements,  fertilizers (14.5) Populations Cycle between Big and Small ex: locusts, snowshoe hare and lynx (populations rise and crash within a 10 year cycle) (14.7) Life Histories shaped by Natural Selection Life histories are the survival strategies for populations in particular environments. Variation:  Antechinus (Australian mouse): BIG BAND REPRODUCTION: ­ reaches sexual maturity at one year ­ mates intensely over a 3 week period ­ male dies shortly after mating period ­ females die after birth of 1  litter House mouse: FAST, INTENSIVE REPRODUCTION INVESTMENT: ­ reaches sexual maturity in one month ­ produces litter of 6­10 offspring every month Little brown bat: SLOW AND GRADUAL: ­ reaches sexual maturity at one year ­ produces about 1 offspring every year Evolution nearly always finds more than one way to solve a problem. Why all the variation? – when to reproduce, how to reproduce, how much to reproduce Life History Vital statistics of the species Includes: age at 1  reproduction, probabilities of survival and reproduction at each age, litter size and frequencies, and longevity. Reproductive Investment Maturity and energetic reproduction that an individual will make for its offspring. Single vs. repeated episodes of reproduction. I DID NOT ATTEND WORKSHOP THIS DAY DUE TO PREPARATION FOR A  STATS EXAM SO I CANNOT INCLUDE THE WORKSHOP NOTES, SORRY FOR  THE INCONVENIENCE. 3/4: Same announcements iClicker: POPULATION GROWTH QUESTION Since K= 0.5, the population we are studying is experiencing logistic growth due to  dependent factors ex. independent factors would like a forest fire Closer to 1, growing exponentially Closer to 0, coming close to carry capacity and there’s not much room to grow Life History­ the executive summary of the life of an organism, which life strategy is best? 1. What is the cost of reproductive investment during any reproductive series? Smaller litters; allows for additional litters in the future and maxes lifetime  reproductive success. 2. What is an individual’s likelihood of surviving to have future reproductive episodes? Predators? Easier to look after 1­2 offspring rather than 15, but if you do lose 1  then you’ve lost 50% of your progeny. Natural selection favors lifetime reproductive success. Why do humans defer reproducing so much longer than cats or mice? ­ humans have fewer offspring ­ low mortality rate ­ low predators (14.8) Tradeoffs between Growth, Reproduction, and Longevity Designing and Organism The perfect organism would be: ­ produce many offspring ­ begin at birth ­ continue every year ­ grow large to reduce predation risk ­ live forever Evolutionary Constraints Not all possibly because selection that changes one feature tends to adversely effect the other. Evolutionary tradeoffs: 1. increased reproduction, decreased survival: salmon, reproduce then die 2. increased reproduction, decreased growth: beech trees, grow slowly when they  reproduce 3. increased number, decreased size of offspring: medium size eggs more sufficient 3 Areas: growth, reproduction, and survival: hard to develop all 3 equally Ch. 15 Ecosystems and Communities Ecosystems: community of biological organisms and non­living components with wich the  organisms interact. ex. Montana de Oro, back of beetles (microecosystem)­ lichens, symbiosis between fungi and eukaryotic algae, mites, small insects= happiness Biomes: large ecosystems that occur around the world, determined by temperature and rainfall Average temperature? Average rainfall? Temperature constant/vary? Rainfall constant/vary? Terrestrial biomes (very diverse): tropical forests, desert, savanna, temperate grassland,  temperate deciduous forest, chaparral, coniferous forests, tundra, polar ice Aquatic biomes: physical features: salinity, water movement and depth: lakes and ponds, rivers  and streams, estuaries and wetlands, open oceans, coral reefs (15.3) Global air circulation patterns create deserts and rainforests Solar energy: sun shines most directly at the equator, SE spread out over small area= warmer  temperatures Poles: SE spread out over large distance, reducing heat, reducing rainfall. Formation of Rain 1. Air if heated and rises 2. Rising air cools, hot air rises getting further for warm Earth, cooling it 3. Cooling air loses moisture because cold air holds less moisture than warm air, clouds  form and rain falls, warm air holds more moisture than cold air  Formation of Deserts 1. Warm air rises and cools 2. Cool air falls towards earth’s surface and become colder (30 degrees) 3. As air moves down towards Earth’s surface and becomes warmer, it can hold more and  more moisture; in these areas, there is little rainfall (60 degrees) Temperature gradient generates atmosphere circulation patterns that results in heavy rain at  the equator and many deserts at 30 degrees latitude. (15.4) Topography Influences Weather Formation of Rain Shadows 1. Wind blows from ocean to land, rising when hitting mountains 2. Rising air cools and can’t hold moisture, leading to cloud formation and rain 3. Air passes over mountains and falls, the warmer air increases moisture Modern Landscapes Influence Weather Asphalt, cement, and building tops absorb heat, raising the temperature. “Urban heat islands” Tall building force wind downward, friction on the ground, dilutes wind, skyscrapers bridge  vicious wins above and funnels it through the city.


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