Landscape Archaeology (5)
Landscape Archaeology (5) ANTH 4953
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heidi Hilts on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 4953 at University of Oklahoma taught by Asa R. Randall in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Landscape Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Landscape Archaeology Week 5 notes 2/16/16 Unintended consequences o Humans perceive and participate in the landscape Not omniscient or necessarily benevolent o Practices engaged in today can have unanticipated results Research Postulates – Balee 2006 Practically, all environments have been affected by humans Humans are not genetically programmed to increase or decrease biodiversity o 2 common models of human interaction with the world Ecologically noble savage Homo devastans Piltdown man hoax 1912 o “proof” of humans originating in England Taung child o Australopithecus Africanus o “evidence” of violence o Holes in skulls (later found to be from large predatory felines) o Violent ape theory/killer ape hypothesis We’ve evolved to be violent 3 different kinds of societies impact landscapes differentially o Spatial problems Did different groups use same space (perhaps different intervals) o Historical problems Did one society replace another? Was conflict involved? Earl colonial encounters Patchwork landscapes at contact o Mistaken for natural o Actually product of centuries of human interaction Burning to increase biodiversity Divergent land use o Indian Mobile Land access Use-right Subsistence Horticulture, hunt and gather Modification: Burning o Colonist Sedentary Landaccess: Ownership and tenure Subsistence: Agriculture supplemented by hunt and gather Modification: Land clearing /timbering “improvement” Landscape perspective: commodification o Anything scarce in Europe was commodity in America Land Timber Fish Beaver Colonial contradictions o Beaver dam, initially great for planting, eventually leads to land transformation Erosion Flooding 2/18/16 Chronology Vikings Settled Subsistence o Pastoralism Skraelings o Ancestral inuit o Relationship with norse unclear Limited genetic evidence for sustained contact Limited trade Mentions of nflict o Hunted ring seals Can only be hunted on pack ice through breathing hole Requires complex technologies which inuit had but norse didn’t 14 and 15 century historical conjunctions Trade o Shift in Norwegian interests towards bulk dried fish, away from prestige commodities Global climate o Decreased temps Research postulates o Human interactions with landscape should be studied as integrative Phenomenology “study of the structures of human experience and consciousness” o Centered on “being in the world” or “dwelling” o Focus on how people move about and experience the world Martin Heidegger o Human experience Relationship between locations Understand themselves as being part of the world o The body Merleau-Ponty Body is the point of interaction between humans and the world Space is existential o Dispositions o Orientations Space and Place Series of relations between places (Tilley 1994) o Somatic (habitual, unreflexive) o Perceptual (as perceived by individuals) o Existential (movement and reproduction of order) Space o Places only understood in relation to other places Memory and place o Experiences place as familiar or unfamiliar bound to memory o Social commemoration Link present with past All memory includes some amount of forgetting Inscriptive practices Those that modify physical landscape o temporality
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