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Introduction to Culture

by: Justine Vincent

Introduction to Culture PSYCH 307 002

Justine Vincent
GPA 70.0
Cultural Psychology
Dr. Rita McNamara

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About this Document

Here is the first week of notes, for the 9th and 11th of September. These notes are basically an introduction to culture, the differences between culture and society, and an introduction to both th...
Cultural Psychology
Dr. Rita McNamara
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Justine Vincent on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 307 002 at University of British Columbia taught by Dr. Rita McNamara in Winter 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Cultural Psychology in Psychlogy at University of British Columbia.


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Date Created: 09/16/15
00000000000 0 00 What is culture It IS information that is learned from other people it is socially transmitted and accumulated across generations beliefs attitudes ideals values practices traditions norms rules abt behaviour cognitions that guide behaviour It ISN T civiliazation being refined or sophisticated explanation for everything behaviour BUT can be inferred from patterns in behaviour just food music and costumes these r parts not whole perfect agreement or consensus society A cultural group is SOMEWHAT society culture is a set of cognitions that inform behaviours groups of people who share culture cultural group A society is often united by a common social economic industrial or other institutional infrastructure common social infrastructure is CULTURE societies are often composed of multiple cultural groups How does culture affect psychology 0 some psychological processes are cultural universals present across all cultures around the 0 world language distinction between animate and inanimate objects basic understanding of number 6 major emotions and of course culture culture provides context to shape these universal basic processes to help people s minds adapt to the particulars of each cultural group s shared environment MAIN POINTS Cultural groups VS Society Cultural universals PWNT O O I O 009 0 The WEIRD Person Problem Recap from last class 090915 Culture the stuff in people s brains that leads them to behave in ways deemed approp by the group Cultural Group subset of individuals that share a particular set of cultural variants ideas that make culture Society A cultural group but may include multiple cultural groups united under the same infrastructure Infrastructure legal systems government religion etc Identify who WEIRD people are Why WEIRD is problem for psychology What are the 4 levels of universals An example for each universal WEIRD gt Western Educated Industrialized in a society in a heavy degree of factory labour not in a farmhunting or gathering Rich Democratic Making assumptions for parts that do not have the data to support those assumptions Samping Bias research participants in a sample are not representative of the entire population because some members are less likely to be included in the research than others Results may not generalize to the whole population Initiations and Orientations look up and 4 The 4 Levels Accessibility Functional Existential Nonuniversal First and highest level of universality ACCESSIBILITY requirements exists across all cultures is used to solve the same problem across cultures and is accessible to the same degree across cultures EX small number counting and basic additionsubtraction Core coonition concepts intuitive theories and cognitive mechanisms that develop early in life and are present in all societies ex Pica et al 2004 baby counting study Second level of universality FUNCTIONAL requirements exists across all cultures used to solve the same problem across cultures is more accessible to people from some cultures than others EX costly punishment all punished unfair at personal cost varied in amount willing to pay to punish also varied in what was considered unfair everyone willing to pay money to help others out or punish people in some cases but depends on amount and some people willing to keep their own money Third level of universality EXISTENTIAL requirements exists across all cultures is not necessarily used to solve the same problem 000 EX Social group formation and identity individualism people prioritize their own individual goals actions and emphasize how they are unique collectivism people place relatively more emphasis on collective goals actions and identities Fourth and lowest level of universality nonuniversal requirements does not exist in all cultures can be considered a cultural innovation X Abacus Mathematics Abacus reasoning develops from use of an abacus to do calculations It is common in some parts of middle east and asia favour distinction between odd vs even numbers Think in base units of 5 Make numerical errors not seen in nonabacus users Nature VS Nurturewish how do universals apply into this What do you need in order to make a gene express They need an environment take for example POUTINE Take a bunch of canadians who like poutine put them in California see if they still like it in that new climate OR introduce poutine to another cultural group You could do a survey of cold vs warm climatebased cultural groups and see which groups eat more starchy deepfried foods The third variable problem to pinpoint variables you gotta conduct experiments research this SUMMARY cultural psych helps alleviate the WEIRD person bias in the psychological science WHY one of the goals of psychology is to identify universals 4 levels Learning about how culture affects cognition also tells us about how cognition develops and adapts to environmental differences QUESTIONS How was the Sambia example of initation and secual orientation related to the WEIRD person problem gt sexuality seems xed and predetermined in WEIRD cultures not so much elsewhere quotHow did the Costly Punishment experiment workquot lt research more gt Assumption Everyone wants the most possible Fairness experimenter gives person A tells person A to share with person B If person B thinks offer is too small they can reject and BOTH get O Punishment experimenter gives person C tells person C they can pay the experimenter to take from person A if they do not give enough money to person B this time person B cannot reject How do the levels of universals work gt Human Universal theoretical stance Assumption all humans are the same species so all humans should have some things in common Different levels mean different degrees of commonality everywhere gt Nature VS Nurture ln 19thearly 20th century was eitheror In modern science we know it is both Still have impulse to ask which is it MORE of


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