Week 3 - Lecture 5
Week 3 - Lecture 5 EBIO 1210-001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tatiana Tabares on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1210-001 at University of Colorado taught by Dr. Barbara Demmig-Adams in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see General Biology 1 in Biology at University of Colorado.
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Date Created: 09/16/15
Lecture 5 Membranes continued Two aspects of movement across membranes are key 0 Proteins 0 Energy ATP Small nonpolar hydrophobic substances do not require a protein for movement Polar or charged hydrophilic substance do require a protein for movement Substance moved from low to high concentration against gradient requires ATP energy for movement Substance moved from high to low concentration does not require ATP energy for movement iClicker question point steroid is fairly small and hydrophobic because of this it would not require for a protein to move through the membrane Passive Transport 0 Energy is not required 0 Facilitated diffusion uses a transport protein Active Transport 0 Energy is required 0 Goes from low to high concentration 0 quotpumpquot sounds like work needs to be done SodiumPotassium pump Both against concentration gradient Sodium is released outside the cell Potassium is released inside the cell 1 ATP to do this process 3 Na out and 2 K in are pumped actively Causes a surplus of positive charges on the outside ATP energizes these pumps by phosphorylation The gradient itself is some form of energy potential energy contained in the concentration gradient can aid movement from high to low ATP adenosine triphosphate Lecture 5 Membranes continued 0 ATP transfers an energized high energy phosphate group to phosphorylate and therby energize 1 Mechanical Work ex muscle contraction 1 Transport Work ex pumps especially in brain heart muscle a SodiumPotassium Pump amp Caquot2 2 3 Chemical Work ex synthesizes large molecules ATP does not need a quotnudgequot to release energy because it contains unstable bonds A adenine A Ribose adenosine Adenosine monophosphate AMP one phosphate group Adenosine diphosphate ADP two phosphate groups Adenosine triphosphate ATP three phosphate groups 5 What energizes ATP Each phosphate group adds more negative charges that repel each other Same charges in proximity they want to get away from each other This makes the ATP molecule very unstable and it wants to break apart They can rotate around axis but cannotgetoutofbond ATP donor of an energized phosphate group 0 Loading from low to high potential energy adding another phosphate group on requires energy input because the ATP does not want that phosphate group 0 Popping off a phosphate group releases energy and makes it more stable and lower in chemical potential energy Summary of Action Potential When Na channels open Na rushed into the cell amp rapidly reverses the original electrical gradient High to Low gradient Lecture 5 Membranes continued 0 Passive Transport whenever something rushes it usually means passive Little or no energy used The action potential propagates along the axon the reversed electrical charge opens K channels behind the action potential K rushes out of the cell which restore gradient High to low gradient 0 Passive Transport NaK pump reestablishes the full electrochemical gradient with Na accumulation outside and K accumulation 0 Active Transport whenever it says pump it sounds like somebody is going to do work SodiumPotassium Pump The NaK pump is essential for nerve impulses critical for proper brain function thinking process the heart rhythm Pump requires conformational changes 0 Only possible with the presence of unsaturated fatty acids as components of membrane phospholipids o Omega3 fatty acid DHA Deficiencies can cause health problems Calcium is important in the process of muscle contraction Ca2 Sudden arrival of calcium during muscle contraction allows myosin head to bind to actin filament during muscle relaxation Ca2 removed Calcium is stored in the Sarcoplasmic reticulum SR sack o Membrane of the SR has several diff transport protein Some do active transport some do passive ATP binds to myosin head 0 Transfer of highenergy phosphate group to myosin head causes head to move into high energy conformation 0 Release of the phosphate group back to its original low energy position 0 Binding of another ATP
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