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Book Notes Ch 1 - 2

by: Abbi Stark

Book Notes Ch 1 - 2 JOUR 3741

Abbi Stark
U of M
Diversity and Mass Communication
Jennifer Williams

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About this Document

These are notes from Chapters 1 and 2 of the Diversity and Mass Comm textbook
Diversity and Mass Communication
Jennifer Williams
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abbi Stark on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JOUR 3741 at University of Minnesota taught by Jennifer Williams in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Diversity and Mass Communication in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Minnesota.

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Date Created: 09/16/15
Social identity usvietnam war civil and women s rights arabisraeli conflicts Henri Tajfel understanding sources of group conflict and role of social identity 0 a selfconcept that is based on group membership and the emotional attachments associated with that membership deveops as a social process where people selfcategorize and everyone else create schemas to encode info emphasis of differences can be considered as being made up of multiple identities gender age racialethnic sexual orientation national religious class political this is how mass communication plays a role in forming your identity 4 RacialEthnic Identity classification of individual genetics physiological characteristics based on where you are from now they call it ethnicity we are all the same race with such fluctuations in the racialethnic makeup of the Us it is important to understand how these groups have been historically and are currently represented in the mass media Gender Identity distinct from biological sex social construction generated within a particular cultural context male vs female 5 might be ridiculed or ostracized for being different metrosexual new category of men who don t fit within societal notions gender is learned not biologically coded media contributes things are changing slowly 6 Sexual Identity homosexuality used to be considered abnormal more well rounded images can be seen in more content in the media Age Identity tend to adopt cultural notions regarding what type of language pattern or behavior is appropriate for certain age groups schemas are internalized at a young age reinforced throughout lifetime 7 Disability Identity Our cultural ideas about disability influence how we view and make judgements about people with disabilities Class Identity socioeconomic mainstream mass media present images or perspectives of the upper or middle class lower class infrequently and usually negative CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF RESEARCH IN MASS MEDIA REPRESENTATIONS Social Psychological emphasis on understanding media representations through empirical means systematic content analysis of media material more criticalcultural perspective with concentration on how meaning is generated by mass media MASS MEDIA REPRESENTATIONS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES cognitive schemas interrelated conceptual units of information that assist individuals in coherently organizing information stereotypes when schemas are perceived useful in grouping and understanding individuals and are communicated to others beliefs about characteristics or attributes of a social group pictures in our head people s ability to process info is limited and stereotypes act as heuristic deviceshort cut some are problematic others are not Framing a perceived reality is organized in such a way that certain aspects of the reality are stressed while others are deemphasized leading to a particular definition or understanding of the social world Erving Goffman every individual engages in producing mental schemas or frames that enable them to efficiently identify and interpret info mass media promote the development of frames and hhow to use them women in ads subordinate career roles emotionally withdrawn below the man Katharina Linder 1955 2002 few significant changes had been made in gender framing subordinate obectified secondary in relation to men Robert Entman the process of culling a few elements of perceived reality and assembling a narrative that highlights connections among them to promote a particular interpretation Journalists try to not frame but they frame crime highlights african american males negative framing of african americans in general Social Comparison Theory individuals have a natural drive to compare themselves with others for self evaluation purposes Leon Festinger people seek info that allows them to make personal evaluations of themselves thought the individual had control over comparison process and not the environment people engage in social comparisons with others as a way of resolving discrepancies between their actual self and their ideal self researchers now recognize the potential role media plays in comparison process Advertising can foster consumer desires through process of social comparison Socialization means by which individuals beginning at early age and continue forever learn about societal norms values and beliefs for a society to survive you have to have commonality among its members Socializing agents family peers school media cognitive script theory individuals form cognitive templatesscripts of behaviors that help them quickly assess and react to future behaviors effectiveness of media to socialize is determined by manner in which social behaviors are presented by media rewardspunishmentaffirmationopposite an individual is being exposed to similar patterns of images from an early age on into adulthood socialization is long term Cultivation Theory mass media contour or cultivate the viewpoints of individuals regarding their surrounding environment George Gerbner correlations or associations tend to exist between the messages conveyed in Tv programming and the levels of television consumption Tv s representation of women as powerless is leading heavy viewers of tv to be less likely to express support for a female political candidate criticisms causality between tv exposure and viewer opinion cannot be shown MEDIA REPRESENTATIONS CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES critical perspective long term view of impact of mass comm on social notions root of critical perspective is traced to Europe neo Marxist viewpoint Hegemony dominance of political and social elites over those with less power the Concept of Representation forms of language that are used to convey ideas that are generated in society for purposes of communication Hall representation is the production of meaning of the concepts in our minds through language reflective assumes that language is simply a reflection of the true meaning that is inherent within an object person idea group or event an imitation or mirror of whatever reality that exists intentional focuses on the creators of meanings and assumes that meanings that exist are conscious creations of the authors constructionist affirms that language does not reproduce things or convey the intentions of the language producer but part of the systems of knowledge production through which meanings are created things do not have inherent meaning and private meanings created by authors cannot be directly imposed on others meanings generated through representation are shaped by historical and cultural context in which they are produced through representation oppressors at various levels of social life can exert their power over the oppressed Hall stereotyping is reducing people to a few simple essential characteristics hich are represented as fixed by nature social boundaries can be created and broken through popular culture in such areas as race class sexuality and gender pop culture able to serve as hegemonic force or counter hegemonic force FEMINIST THEORY Marxist feminist class division serves as a factor of oppression of women Radical feminist root of female oppression tied to sexuality reproduction and mothering All assert acknowledgement of female perspective is needed further improve social inquiry and encourage a diversity of approaches and perspectives to research 3 waves of feminism 1st Wave UK US mid 1800s feminisme France struggled for right to vote 1920 s UK and US women can vote 2nd wave continued until 1990s Marxism Freudian reproductive freedom and workplace equality Redstockings Manifesto doctrine 3rd Wave greater acknowledgement of differences between men and women and a celebration of those differences women should have a choice what to do with their lives lipsticks feminists situation has improved over the last few decades


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