Soc 354, Week 7 notes
Soc 354, Week 7 notes Soc 354
Popular in Families and Social Change
Popular in Sociology
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clarissa Hinshaw on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 354 at Northern Illinois University taught by Jan Reynolds in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Families and Social Change in Sociology at Northern Illinois University.
Reviews for Soc 354, Week 7 notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/07/16
Chapter 5 Gender Biological sex: our sex, based on whether we possess xx, xy, or another combination of chromosomes. Assigned sex: the sex we are legally assigned at birth solely based on the appearance of our external genitalia. Sexual identity: Recognition of one’s assigned sex Gender: our social and psychological construct of whether we are female, male, or another gender. Gender identity: a person’s sense of being female, male, or another gender. Their gender identity does not always match the sex they were assigned at birth. Gender expression: how a person expresses themselves in dress or personality in a masculine, feminine, or androgynous way. This may or may not correlate with gender identity. These terms are separated because they do not always match in stereotypical ways. Gender roles and stereotypes are influenced by culture and the world around us. There are biological and social influences on gender. There are no ‘opposite’ sexes, as our organs all started out the same. Genders are actually quite similar. Race and the economy affect how gender is viewed. Height differences are exaggerated, with tall men and short women being preferred because of dominant/submissive roles. Women are judged more harshly on their appearance than men. People within the same gender differ greatly, despite social construction. Intersex: a combination of female and male genitalia. These happen in a least 5% of the population. The real number will never be known because, because many are surgically reassigned at birth without even telling the parents. o Hermaphrodites: people who have testes and ovaries. o Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: people with female chromosomes and internal organs, but male external genitalia o Androgen insensitivity syndrome: genetic males who’s masculine genitals are deformed and femalelooking because they lack testosterone. o Dominican Republic Syndrome: genetic males with a large clitoris, undescended testicles, and partially formed female external genitalia. More testosterone is developed at puberty, causing these people’s testes to descend and clitorises to grow into penises, often out of surprise. Most of these people identity as male in adulthood, despite being raised as girls. Assigning sex based solely on genitalia can have great repercussions, especially when it does not match gender identity. Cisgender: a person whose gender identity matches their sex assigned at birth. Transgender: a person whose gender identity does not match their sex assigned at birth o Transsexual: a medical term often used for transpeople who have medically transitioned in some way through sex reassignment surgery, other sex change surgeries, or hormone treatment. Physical transition is not necessary to be transgender and this term is starting to die out in the trans community. o Transwoman: a person assigned male at birth who identifies as female, usually goes by female pronouns (she, her, hers). o Transman: a person assigned female at birth who identifies as male, usually uses male pronouns (he, him, his). o Genderqueer: a person who identifies outside of the male/female binary. These people may possess masculine and feminine personality traits, dress in a combination of ways, or dress one way and act another. Genderqueer people usually use neutral pronouns (ex: they, them, their) o Genderfluid: people who may identify as female some days, male others, or neither other days. These are only some of the gender identities under the transgender umbrella. There are debated to be many more. Because of social pressure to label everyone’s gender on the binary, people who identify outside the binary often feel like outsiders than unaccepted. Transgender identities vary throughout history across cultures, including third gender and twospirit. Some organizations are recognizing other genders, but may still have a long way to go. Gender perspectives: o Biological perspective: the differences between the genders are natural and cannot be changed. o Feminist theory: Belief in gender equality for society. This could include equal division of labor, more women in government, and promoting androgyny (a combination of masculinity and femininity) rather than traditional gender expressions. o Masculinity: the social pressure to lead and be assertive. If men do not possess this ideal, they are ridiculed for being feminine. o Symbolic interaction: people seeing themselves through the point of view of others, and behaving accordingly. This includes all the roles a person can have such as student, employee, parent, child, etc. Parents are the first people who socialize gender. Father usually are most stereotypical when socializing their children and are stricter with boys than girls. Mixed gender siblings are more stereotypical than same gender siblings. Parents socialize their children based on how they were socialized. Teachers socialize students based on academic expectations for each gender. Children often divide and pressure each other into gender typical roles in adolescence. Those who do not conform are often ridiculed and isolated. Neighborhood conditions and socioeconomic status influence how gender expectations are divided. Gender is often divided in many occupations, while some occupations are more equal. Many jobs will gender segregate solely from screening and women were often excluded from decisionmaking situations. Women and men often differ in their college majors and women usually make less than men in the same occupation.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'