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Soc 354, Week 7 notes

by: Clarissa Hinshaw

Soc 354, Week 7 notes Soc 354

Clarissa Hinshaw
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

Notes on the gender chapter.
Families and Social Change
Jan Reynolds
Class Notes
sociology, Families and Social Change
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clarissa Hinshaw on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 354 at Northern Illinois University taught by Jan Reynolds in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Families and Social Change in Sociology at Northern Illinois University.

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Date Created: 03/07/16
Chapter 5 Gender  Biological sex: our sex, based on whether we possess xx, xy, or another combination of  chromosomes.  Assigned sex: the sex we are legally assigned at birth solely based on the appearance of  our external genitalia.   Sexual identity: Recognition of one’s assigned sex  Gender: our social and psychological construct of whether we are female, male, or  another gender.   Gender identity: a person’s sense of being female, male, or another gender. Their gender identity does not always match the sex they were assigned at birth.   Gender expression: how a person expresses themselves in dress or personality in a  masculine, feminine, or androgynous way. This may or may not correlate with gender  identity.   These terms are separated because they do not always match in stereotypical ways.  Gender roles and stereotypes are influenced by culture and the world around us.  There are biological and social influences on gender.   There are no ‘opposite’ sexes, as our organs all started out the same. Genders are actually quite similar.  Race and the economy affect how gender is viewed.   Height differences are exaggerated, with tall men and short women being preferred  because of dominant/submissive roles.   Women are judged more harshly on their appearance than men.   People within the same gender differ greatly, despite social construction.  Intersex: a combination of female and male genitalia. These happen in a least 5% of the  population. The real number will never be known because, because many are surgically  reassigned at birth without even telling the parents.  o Hermaphrodites: people who have testes and ovaries.  o Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: people with female chromosomes and internal  organs, but male external genitalia  o Androgen insensitivity syndrome: genetic males who’s masculine genitals are  deformed and female­looking because  they lack testosterone.  o Dominican Republic Syndrome: genetic males with a large clitoris,  undescended testicles, and partially formed female external genitalia. More  testosterone is developed at puberty, causing these people’s testes to descend and  clitorises to grow into penises, often out of surprise. Most of these people identity  as male in adulthood, despite being raised as girls.   Assigning sex based solely on genitalia can have great repercussions, especially when it  does not match gender identity.   Cisgender: a person whose gender identity matches their sex assigned at birth.  Transgender: a person whose gender identity does not match their sex assigned at birth o Transsexual: a medical term often used for transpeople who have medically  transitioned in some way through sex reassignment surgery, other sex change  surgeries, or hormone treatment. Physical transition is not necessary to be  transgender and this term is starting to die out in the trans community. o Transwoman: a person assigned male at birth who identifies as female, usually  goes by female pronouns (she, her, hers).  o Transman: a person assigned female at birth who identifies as male, usually uses  male pronouns (he, him, his).  o Genderqueer: a person who identifies outside of the male/female binary. These  people may possess masculine and feminine personality traits, dress in a  combination of ways, or dress one way and act another. Genderqueer people  usually use neutral pronouns (ex: they, them, their) o Genderfluid: people who may identify as female some days, male others, or  neither other days.   These are only some of the gender identities under the transgender umbrella. There are  debated to be many more.   Because of social pressure to label everyone’s gender on the binary, people who identify  outside the binary often feel like outsiders than unaccepted.   Transgender identities vary throughout history across cultures, including third gender and two­spirit.   Some organizations are recognizing other genders, but may still have a long way to go.   Gender perspectives: o Biological perspective: the differences between the genders are natural and  cannot be changed.  o Feminist theory: Belief in gender equality for society. This could include equal  division of labor, more women in government, and promoting androgyny (a  combination of masculinity and femininity) rather than traditional gender  expressions.  o Masculinity: the social pressure to lead and be assertive. If men do not possess  this ideal, they are ridiculed for being feminine.  o Symbolic interaction: people seeing themselves through the point of view of  others, and behaving accordingly. This includes all the roles a person can have  such as student, employee, parent, child, etc.  Parents are the first people who socialize gender. Father usually are most stereotypical  when socializing their children and are stricter with boys than girls.   Mixed gender siblings are more stereotypical than same gender siblings.   Parents socialize their children based on how they were socialized.   Teachers socialize students based on academic expectations for each gender.   Children often divide and pressure each other into gender typical roles in adolescence.  Those who do not conform are often ridiculed and isolated.   Neighborhood conditions and socioeconomic status influence how gender expectations  are divided.   Gender is often divided in many occupations, while some occupations are more equal.   Many jobs will gender segregate solely from screening and women were often excluded  from decision­making situations.   Women and men often differ in their college majors and women usually make less than  men in the same occupation. 


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