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Week 3 Notes

by: Amara Brinks

Week 3 Notes PSY 100

Amara Brinks
GPA 4.0
Introduction to Psychology
Gibson, Bryan

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About this Document

These are the Notes for week 3 of Psych 100. These notes also cover the reading from the book Psychology 11th edition. The material covered will be a part of the quiz on Friday, September 18th.
Introduction to Psychology
Gibson, Bryan
Class Notes
Psychology, Psychology 11th edition, reading notes
25 ?




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amara Brinks on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100 at Central Michigan University taught by Gibson, Bryan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Central Michigan University.


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Date Created: 09/16/15
Psychology 100 Book Notes Book Used Psychology 11th edition By David G Meyers and C Nathan Dewall This chapter is covered in Psychology 100 with Dr Gilbert before chapter 3 September 14th 18th Quiz on Friday September 18th will cover some of this material Chapter 4 Nature Nurture and Human Diversity Genes Our Codes for Life You have 46 chromosomes composed of a coiled chain of the molecule DNA deoxyribonucleic acid These chromosomes contain Genes small segments of the giant DNA molecules You have between 20000 and 25000 genes that are either active expressed or inac ve i Environmental factors quotturn on genes ii When turned on genes provide the code for creating protein molecules Vocab i Behavior Genetics the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior ii Genome the complete instructions for making an organism consisting of all the genetic material in that organism s chromosomes Humans have a shared sequence within DNA that makes us human rather than a plant or cow At a DNA level humans and chimpanzees are 96 the same It s the other 4 that is responsible for our differences Genes help explain both our shared human nature and our human diversity Environmental influences interact with our genetic predispositions Twin and Adoption Studies Identical Twins monozygotic twins develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two creating two genetically identical organisms i quotNature s own human clones ii Although identical twins have the same genes they do not have the same number of copies of those genes This can explain minor differences iii Most twins share the placenta but 13 of all identical twins do not this can result in different amounts of nourishment supplied to each fetus during natal period Fraternal Twins dizygotic twins develop from two separate fertilized eggs i Share the prenatal environment genetically are no similar to each other than brothers are to sisters Shared genes can result in shared experiences i Ex A person whose identical twin is diagnosed with a condition on the autism spectrum has a 3 risk of also being diagnosed o Traits extroversion outgoingness and neuroticism emotional instability have been reported to be more similarly present in a set of identical twins than in a set of fraternal twins 0 Separated Twins i University of Minnesota Thomas Bouchard studied separated twins 1 Located and studied 74 pairs 2 Found many similarities between the pairs even though they were raised completely separate of each other ii Sweden 1 Located 99 sets of identical twins and also found that they had many similarities 0 Biological Versus Adoptive Relatives i Genetic Relatives biological parents and siblings ii Environmental Relatives adoptive parents and siblings iii People that grow up together often do not have the same personalities iv Adopted people have traits more similar to their biological parents v The environment shared by a family s children has virtually no discernable impact on their personalities vi quotMost important puzzle in the history of psychology 1 quotWhy are the children in the same family so different vii quotGenetic leash may limit the family environments influence on personality but it does not mean that adoptive parenting is a fruitless venture viii Parents do influence their child s quotattitudes values manners politics and faith ix Identical twins in adolescence will have similar religious beliefs if raised together x Due to low tendency of neglect in adopted homes adoptive children th ve xi Many adopted children score higher than their biological parents in intelligence tests I Temperament and Heredity o Temperament a person s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity 0 Noticeable from birth 0 One form of a gene that regulates the neurotransmitter Serotonin predisposes a fearful temperament and in combination with unsupportive caregiving an emotionally reactive child IV Heritability Vl Heritability The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes The heritability of a trait may vary depending on the range of populations and environments studies Heritability of general intelligence is 66 As environments become more similar heredity becomes the primary source of differences Genes matter for behavior but so does environment GeneEnvironment Interaction i Humans have an enormous adaptive capacity ii Genes and experiences interact The New Frontier Molecular Behavior Genetics Molecular Genetics the subfield of biology that studies the molecular function of genes Most human traits are influenced by sets of genes Genes do not typically work alone Molecular Behavior Genetics goal is to find some of the many genes that together orchestrate complex traits Helps doctors determine if a patient is quotat risk for certain conditions Epigenetics studies the molecular mechanisms by which environments can trigger or block genetic expression Genes are selfregulating they react to changes quotExperiences lay down epigenetic marks which are often organic methyl molecules attached to part of a DNA strand If a mark instructs the cell to ignore any gene present in the DNA segment those genes will be quotturned off they will prevent the DNA from producing the proteins normally coded by that gene Environmental factors diet drugs stress etc can affect epigenetic molecules that regulate gene expression Epigenetics can help to explain differences in identical twins Evolutionary Psychology Understanding Human Nature Evolutionary Psychology the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of natural selection Natural Selection the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations i Organisms compete for survival ii Certain differences contribute to an organisms survival iii This organism is more likely to survive and pass its traits to its offspring Mutations Random errors in gene replication VII VIII 0 quotOur adaptive flexibility in responding to different environments contributes to our fitness our ability to survive and reproduce An Evolutionary Explanation of Human Sexuality 0 Women are choosy when picking a partner because they have a limited number of children they can carry and they have to carry the child for at least 9 months Women prefer a partner who will offer support 0 Men pair widely women pair wisely 0 Men look for youth able to rear more children 0 Social Scripts their cultures guide to how people should act in certain situations Culture Gender and Other Environmental Influences o Interactions the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor such as environment depends on another factor such as heredity 0 Our genes create a genetic predisposition to a certain thing then our culture pushes us to follow that predisposition more i Humans are like coloring books with lines already guiding us being our genetic predispositions and our experiences come in to fill the rest of the picture 0 quotNature and nurture interact to sculpt our synapses 0 quotBrain maturation provides us with an abundance of neural connections Experiences trigger sights and smells touches and tugs and activate and strengthen connections Unused neural pathways weaken 0 This explains why when we re young we can learn much easier than we can when we are older This is due to the filling up of neural pathways 0 Our neural tissue is always changing and reorganizing in response to new experiences called neural plasticity 0 Parenting only affects a child s future behavior if it is to the extreme such as an abusive parent is likely to produce a child that will become an abusive parent 0 Parentings power also shows in children with great academic and vocational success 0 Shared environmental influences from the womb onward typically account for less than 10 of the child s differences 0 Children are easily influenced by peers to combat this parents can have them live in a nice neighborhood and go to a nice school 0 Culture the behaviors ideas attitudes values and traditions shared by a group of people transmitted from one generation to the next 0 Because of our understanding of language humans enjoy the preservation of innovation We have the accumulation of thousands of years of information right at our fingertips 0 Culture allows for an efficient division of labor o Humans in different cultures share many basic moral principles 0 Norms rules for accepted and expected behavior 0 Cultures adapt to survive in the ever changing world 0 lndividualist giving priority to one s own goals over group goals and defining one s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications o Collectivism giving priority to the goals of one s group and defining one s identity accordingly 0 Children are raised in whatever culture they are exposed to Children thrive in all cultures 0 National stereotypes exaggerate differences we aren t that different from people across the world 0 quotOur gender is the product of the interplay among our biological dispositions our developmental experiences and our current situations 0 Of our 46 chromosomes 45 are unisex Only one is different between the two sexes o Aggression i Men are more likely to be straight out aggressive ii Women are more likely to spread gossip relational aggression 0 Social Power 0 W0 i Men place more importance on power and achievement and are therefore usually socially dominant ii Men tend to be directive when leading telling people what to do iii Women tend to be more democratic when leading take others input into account iv Men are more likely to have differing opinions v Men often talk assertively interrupt initiate touches and staring and tend to smile and apologize less 0 Social Connectedness i Females tend to be more interdependent ii Males tend to be more independent iii Women s brains are better wired to improve social relationships iv Males are better wired to connect perception with action v Differences between men and women can even be seen in texting vi Male answer syndrome males are more likely to answer a question they don t know than women vii Women s interests are more towards individuals rather than things viii Women are less likely to be driven by money and status and are more likely to opt for less work hours ix Bonds of feeling and support are stronger among women x Men value freedom and selfreliance xi Gender gap peeks in adolescence and early adulthood o Prenatal Sexual Development i About 7 weeks after conception the Y chromosome triggers testosterone production 0 Adolescent Sexual Development i Puberty flood of hormones triggering sexual changes Occurs at about 11 in boys and 12 in girls ii Primary Sex Characteristics the reproductive organs and external genitalia iii Secondary Sex Characteristics nonreproductive sexual traits such as female breasts and hips male voice quality and body hair iv quotFor boys puberty s landmark is the first ejaculation which often occurs first during sleep this is called spermarche happens around 14 v For girls puberty s first landmark is the first menstrual period menarche usually happens around 12 12 0 Sexual Development Variations i Disorder of sexual development when a fetus is exposed to unusual levels of sex hormones or is especially sensitive to sex hormones they may develop this resulting in chromosomes or anatomy that are not typically male or female 1 Often led to sex reassignment surgery a Can create confusion and distress IX The Nurture of Gender Our Culture and Experiences 0 Gender Roles i The social expectation that guides our behaviors as men and women ii Gender roles shift over time iii Gender roles vary from place to place 0 How do we learn from gender i Gender Identity personal sense of being male female or a combination of the two ii Social Learning Theory We learn behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished iii Gender Typing The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role iv Androgyny Displaying both traditional masculine and feminine psychological characteristics v Transgender An umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex


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