Biology 150: 3/7 Notes
Biology 150: 3/7 Notes Biology 150
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shea Flannery on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 150 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Brian O'Meara in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Organismal and Ecological Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
3/7 – Global Biogeography Biogeography – the study of how organisms are distributed geographically. Abiotic and biotic factors affect where a species lives. An organism cannot live everywhere. It’s important to examine the historical and biotic factors to understand a species’ distribution. o The first factor to consider is the dispersal history of the species. If a species is not found in a certain area, a physical barrier may exist. Climate – long-term weather conditions. Weather – short-term conditions. Areas closest to the equator receive the most moisture. Hadley cell (3 in both Northern and Southern hemisphere): o The warm air at the equator rises and begins to cool. o As it cools, it is unable to hold as much water causing it to rain more. o The cool air is pushed toward the poles. o As the cool air travel is becomes warm again from the solar radiation off of Earth’s surface and can now hold more water causing it to not rain much. The earth’s spherical shape causes the equator to have more sunlight and the poles to have less sunlight. More sunlight = warmer temperatures. Less sunlight = colder temperatures. Seasons are a result from the earth being tilted on its axis. The Southern and Northern hemispheres experience opposite seasons. Mountain ranges can create a large amount of precipitation on one side of the mountains and a very small amount of precipitation on the other side due to the rain shadow effect. Biomes – major groupings of plant and animal communities defined by a dominant vegetation type. o Each have distinct abiotic conditions. 2 factors help to develop a specific biome: o Average annual temperature and precipitation o Annual variation in temperature and precipitation. Temperature and moisture influence NPP. In terrestrial environments, NPP is determined by measuring the aboveground biomass. Temperate Wet Forests (Rain Forests) o Near the equator o High temperatures and precipitation o Abundant plant growth o High aboveground biomass o Known for species diversity o Plants are evergreens and have broad leaves Subtropical Deserts o Around 30°S and 30°N latitude o High temperatures o Low precipitation o Plants grow at a slow rate year-round Temperate Grasslands o Mainly grass o Highly fertile soil o Too hot and dry to support forests Temperate Forests o High precipitation Boreal Forest (Taiga) o Subarctic lands below the Arctic Circle o Highly cold-tolerant conifers o High aboveground biomass o Very cold winters and short, cool summers o Low precipitation Arctic tundra o Throughout arctic regions o Permafrost o Small woody shrubs, lichens, and herbaceous plants o Low aboveground biomass o Very low temperatures o Very low precipitation 4 tools to predict how global warming will affect ecosystems: o Simulation studies o Observational studies o Historical studies o Experiments Word to Know Aboveground Climate Historical Factors Biomass Dispersal Historical Studies Biogeography Geographical NPP Biomass Distribution (Range) Observational Biotic Factors Hadley Cell Studies Permafrost Seasons Specific Heat Rain Shadow Simulation Studies Weather
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