The New Deals
The New Deals HIST 222
Popular in History of the United States, 1877 to Present
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johnson Womack on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 222 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Julie Reed in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see History of the United States, 1877 to Present in History at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
FDR’s first 100 days Conditions that lead to the response of his work 1. The Dust bowl in Oklahoma of 1935. This was not only around Oklahoma, Texas and Dakota southwards. a. This would get into your homes and skin. You would have cloth over your face to not breathe in the dust. The dust was due to human activity and environmental changes occurred. Farming was lifting the grasses that held the plains together, so there is nothing to hold it together. 2. The Iowa, Farm Foreclosure of 1933. 3. Labor strikes in 1934 in California. 4. The Minnesota Striking Truck Drivers in 1934. 5. California Squatter camps for those farmers who were hit hard and had to abandon their homes. They retreated to tents and other campsites. 6. New York City, Breadlines, 1932 7. Employment agencies were filled with people but some people didn’t get a position fulfilled. Response 1. North Carolina, Recruits, 1933 2. Norris Dam, 1936 3. Virginia, Veterans 1933 4. Idaho, Beaver Relocation, 1938 5. Virginia, US Army Soldiers, 1942 a. Soldiers documenting war through artwork. b. Build up of new propaganda, which is artwork produced by veterans. c. This encourages people to do things that they never thought possible. d. Federal Writers Project comes out of this period. e. This wasn’t just about national parks and roads, but every part of life gets touched by this. 6. Arizona Auto mechanics class, 1936 7. Idaho swim instructions, 1936 8. North Carolina, Quilting project, 1935 9. Massachusetts, Teaching women about machinery, 1940 10. Oregon, Art Workshop for the blind, 1941 Classs’ thoughts 1. Job based approaches to getting people back on their feet. 2. Seem governmental. 3. Positions for those previously excluded. 4. Group focused. 5. Overlaps with presidential elections. 6. Many of these, although using federal funds, are at the state and local level. They are driven by local needs. 7. Interracial mingling. 8. They are all working class positions. First New Deal (19331934) President Roosevelt’s New Deal was considered active and overreaching government. This was built on other trends that we are seeing through all of the benefit programs. To do things in an activist’s ways. Wisonson’s ways to address the dairy products is one example, Public schools were expanding, Child Labor laws were also being used. During WWI, activity on the government’s behalf happened before and after to create an agency and budget to provide aid to Europe after the war. The New deal does something unprecedented in size and scope. The budget is completely unheard of. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) o Guaranteed bank deposits up to 2500 dollars. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) (1934) o Regulated the stock market and other financial measures. (1933) Homeowners loan corporation and the farm credit administration were created to enable many people to refinance their mortgages and put off foreclosures. Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) o Furnished funds to state and local agencies o Provided word rather than just cash payment. This cost $3 billion. o Civil Works Administration (CWA) o $1 billion was spent to create jobs such as teachers and railroad workers. PWA spent billions from 1933 to 1939 to create schools, court rooms, landscapes, hospitals, dams, bridges and other projects to help the state. Civilian Conservation Corporation (CCC) o 1933 employed 2.5 million men to work on reforestation and flood control projects. o Men lived in camps to make $30 a month and send back to their families. o It remained in existence until 1942 because of its popularity. These programs dealt with finances in ways that Hoovers’ programs couldn’t address on the conservative level. They didn’t have the feeling of relief that Roosevelt’s day did. Emergency Banking act and a Bank holiday was done to try and keep everything in check. Roosevelt wanted to restore confidence in the banks. When you have layoffs, people don’t get paid which doesn’t expand the economy of a group of people. This didn’t end the Great Depression but it help. It did have some criticisms. Right and Conservatives o The expansion was said to not help businesses grow. o The aid of nonbusiness groups was considered socialistic with the excessive spending on unemployment relief. o Industrialists and bankers organized the American Liberty League as a direct attacks on the larger New Deal. Left o Despite all of the progress for giving jobs, it was also said to have still forgotten the poor or “the forgotten man”. o Communists and socialists really did focus on the poor in rural areas. o In California, Communists organized Filipino, Mexican and Japanese Farm workers were organized into the Cannery and Agricultural Workers Union. In Arkansas and Tennessee, Socialists in 1934 organized sharecroppers into the Southern Tenant Farmers union. They protested the raw deals they received from the programs up to that point. Second New Deal (19351938) Frances Townsend California physician proposed to assist the nations’ elderly who were considered destitute since they had little to no ability to work because of age. If people are going to be cut out of the labor market it is going to be those that can’t work or perform the labor. The elderly were vulnerable. There was a call for government pensions for those over the age of 60. It provided that the recipient retired from all work and spent the entire pension. The idea would open up jobs for younger people who were unemployed and would stimulate the economy. Over 5,000 “Townsend clubs” were in support for this system. This was shot down due to the hefty cost. Huey P. Long Senator from Louisiana also proposed a similar program. Taxation and educational reform as well as public jobs program after he was elected Governor in 1928. He proposed more social welfare policies. 1934, he organized the Share our Wealth society, and this called for taxes for much higher emphasis on the rich to provide every family with the basic necessities. Long had great zeal and his organization had more than 27,000 clubs and 7 million members. This weren’t really clear as to how they would be implemented nor were they practical. This spoke to dissatisfaction with what FDR did. He’ll have to think bigger for his relief efforts. Reforms Social Security Act Believed that the government should protect the poor. Provided unemployment compensation, single mothers got help as well and this would set the stage for other things. Dustbowl Oklahoma was hit hard Individuals left for California John Steinback described in Grapes of Wrath. Resettlement administration (1935) Soil Conservation service (1935) Emergency Relief Appropriation Act o All of these three were for reforming the soil and impoverished farmers. But there were so many people were affected, that not everyone could be helped. $5 Billion Works progress Administration (WPA) Set up relief programs to boost the economy Provided jobs to 9 million people by its end in 1943, 1/5 of the labor force. Spent 12 billion dollars. 3/4ths went on construction projects to provide manual labor. o Built 125,000 schools, post offices and hospitals, 8,000 parks, 100,000 bridges and enough roads and sewer systems to circle the earth 30x. This also helped writers, actors and musicians. Federal Writers Project Employed state authors to write guide books, historical pamphlets and record the memories of the former slaves. National Youth Administration (NYA) Part time jobs to students to learn skills and do productive work 2 million high school and college students did this NYA students at the University of Nebraska built an observatory. Richard M. Nixon did research in a library of Duke University earning 35 cents and hour. University of Arkansas’s football stadiums were dedicated to Roosevelt’s WPA projects.