Landscape Archaeology (7)
Landscape Archaeology (7) ANTH 4953
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heidi Hilts on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 4953 at University of Oklahoma taught by Asa R. Randall in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Landscape Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Landscape Archaeology Week 7 notes 3/1/16 Geoarchaeology o Formation processes o Systemic context o Archaeological context Formation/taphonomic processes Archaeological excavation and interpretation Scalar effects o Macro scale or regional investigation Traditional geoarchaeology Sample wider portions of the landscapes but represent long periods of time o Micro scale Shorter timer represented Sediments and soils o Backbone of geoarchaeological inquiry Materials deposited on the earth’s surface o Reflect Origin, transport, environment of deposition Soils are static deposits that develop in situations o Sediments are altered by mechanical and chemical weathering and biological processes Geomorphology o Study of relationship between the configuration Facies o A particular body of sediment that is differentiated from adjacent sediments based on the environments of deposition o Walther’s Law of Facies The succession of facies reflects lateral differences in depositional environment When the depositional environment moves laterally o Deposition environment Geomorphic configuration Landscape history Climate Vegetation structure Techtonic uplift Sea level Each will affect the origin and transport of sediments o Coastal Complex intersection of high and low energy environments Sea level change Local: processes such as mantle uplift or submergence Eustatic: global variation due to a change in the volume of water or a change in the volume of ocean basin Transgression and regression are central processes of burial erosion and progradation o Aquatic paleolandscapes o Clast size and facies o Alluvial and fluvial landscapes Water is a dominant factor in most environment Erosion Sediment transport Dynamic geomorphology related to water budget Characteristic features and sediment types Flood plains Zones of relatively low relief Fluvial geomorphology 3/3/16 Charcoal analysis significance o How people affected landscapes o Whether wood types found are local o Can tell about economy or labor , how far people went to get wood to burn o Cultural significance of different wood types Fluvial geomorphology o Flood plane Fining upward sequence o Fine stuff at top o Coarse at bottom o The more deposits, carries less water Lateral migration o Rivers move Flood plains have a history o Need to know sequence of events o Channel width and profile Width and crosssection of channels is directly related to the magnitude of frequent floods o Megafloods disrupt human settlements o Paleofloods Recent history often does not record full range of flood magnitudes Indicators Scouring Tree scars Large “clastic” deposits at unexpected elevations (gravel bars) Avulsions Fluvial response to climate change o Causes: Change in magnitude/frequency of precipitation Change in sea level Change in sediment load o Effects: Channel incision or aggradation deeper or hollower channel River plan form change Straight to meandering to plaited Bank width change How much water in system o Implications for soil development Terraces farthest are most developed This can tell us about history of river Reconstructing environment and change o Paleoproxies Dataset serves as indirect measure of climate or ecological structure Recovered at site or depositional level Infer human modification o Microbotanical o Macrobotanical o Invertebrate o Vertebrate o Chemical o Palynology Fossilized pollen Morphology Specific genus and species Preservation Acidic, waterlogged Assemblage of archaic pollen Vegetation communities represented o Vegetation and landforms Landscapes Sampling Core of sediment removed intact Lakes, ponds, closed systems Sediment sampled at intervals, pollen removed o Radiocarbon dating in sequence o Rate of deposition (assuming it stays the same) Pollen diagrams don’t represent frequency of vegetation on landscape
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