Hist1020 Hitler and the Nazi Party March 1-3
Hist1020 Hitler and the Nazi Party March 1-3 World history II
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaytlyn Notetaker on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to World history II at Auburn University taught by Dr. Cathleen Giustino in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see World History 2C in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Hitler 1 T HE R ISE OF H ITLER AND THE N AZI P ARTY Study Questions: I. What lessons did Hitler learn from his Vienna days? II. What did Hitler learn from the Beer Hall Putsch? III. How did two economic crises help Hitler? IV. How did Article 48 legally help Hitler rise to power? I. Intro A. Promise Questions: a. WWI: 1914-1918 b. WWII: 1939-1945 c. The interwar period is between these wars d. January 30, 1933: Hitler became Chancellor of Weimar Republic B. Rise of Authoritarianism in Weimar Republic a. Universal adult suffrage, parliament to pass laws and single party government (democracy is multi-party) = authoritarianism b. WWI left Germans feeling anxious (experienced much death) and outraged (Treaty of Versailles) c. Weimar Republic lost WWI and had to sign Treaty of Versailles i. Treaty of Versailles: 1. Article 231: war guilt clause – had to accept full responsibility of causing WWI and all of the damage 2. Reparations: monies paid in order to make amends for causing war, death and destruction. They had to pay an insane amount of reparations (John Maynard Keynes wrote Economic Consequence of the Peace which warned that the reparations would wreak havoc on Germany which would spread through Europe and the world) 3. The German military: great reductions in strength of the military; thousands were demobilized as the size was greatly cut back. There were many looking for work where there was high unemployment and wanted purpose. d. German war veterans resented the treaty the most and who signed it (German government) e. Ernst Junger was a veteran who loved and missed the war; he became a leading Novelist. One was Fire (1922) which was about his longing and missing of the fighting and war (war turned boys into men). These were very popular in the Weimar Republic in the interwar period. f. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) was also a veteran of WWI who loved Junger’s book Fire, hated the Weimar republic, and missed fighting on the front of the war. He was injured and continued to fight then was injured again by gas and then again, went back to fight. i. Munich is where Hitler moved (city). This is where he helped to organize a new political party that was initially called the German Workers Party (1919). ii. 1920, the party expanded and reorganized. Renamed to the National Socialist German Workers Party (NAZI Party). iii. Hitler was a founder and early leader of the Nazi party. iv. Hitler was born in Austro-Hungary (town: Linz), 1889. v. Moved to Vienna (Austro-Hungary capitol) to go to art school as an early adult. This was the Academy of Fine Arts. He hoped to be accepted to this famous school but was never accepted because the professors deemed he didn’t have the talent. vi. He worked to lay new modern sewer system of Vienna. vii. This time here is where he learned a lot as a young adult prior to WWI. 2 big lessons he learned in Vienna: SQ 1 II. Study Question 1(I): What lessons did Hitler learn from his Vienna days? A. Doctor Sigmund Freud (Lesson one: psychology) i. Professor or psychoanalysis at university of Vienna ii. Father of Psychoanalysis (discovered human psyche/emotions) iii. Lived in Vienna same time as Hitler. iv. Hitler learned of some of these ideas of human emotion and how humans are guided by emotions/irrationalism. He became very aware of the power of human emotions which he used as a tool of power later in life. v. The only book Hitler wrote was Mein Kampf (my struggle) which was a long sprawling book. 1. This contained many expressions of German nationalism and also expressed hatred towards Jews (anti-Semitism). 2. He also showed his awareness of the power of human emotions and how politicians can use human emotions to enhance his power. 3. He wrote “The leader must be primarily a psychologist.” B. Karl Lueger (Lesson two: how to use anti-Semitism to win votes in democratic elections) i. Karl was the mayor of Vienna at the time Hitler was there. ii. This was a huge deal back then (much political power and quite an achievement) 1. He was mayor of Vienna from 1897-1910 iii. Lueger was able to mobilized votes that got him into office. He won mainly by appealing to anti-Semitism (hatred towards Jews). iv. Hitler watched these repeated wins and won from him the politics by appealing to hatred and hostility. v. WWI began and joined German Army. This lead to him becoming a German citizen and he ended up in Munich where he helped found Nazi party. vi. Hitler and the Nazis wanted to do away with the Weimar republic and wanted to overthrow them. vii. They attempted to do this in the Beer Hall Putsch. III. Study Question 2 (II): What did Hitler learn from the Beer Hall Putsch? A. Beer Hall Putsch (1923) i. The attempt by Nazi arty to overthrow the Weimar government ii. Putsch = coup d-etat = intended overthrow of the state iii. This did take place in a beer hall near the heart of Munich. iv. This was unsuccessful; the rushed into the beer hall, jumped on table, fired guns and declared they were overthrowing the government and were arrested and put on trial. v. Nazi was put on trial as treason against the state. The punishment in the constitution was execution. 1. Trial lasted 5 weeks 2. Hitler openly admitted that he was trying to overthrow the government 3. He said that this was not an act of treason; this is a terrible and hated government and trying to overthrow them was an act of patriotism. Many people agreed. 4. Hitler received a lot of public attention and nobody knew of he or the party until this trial and this is what introduced their cause to the Weimar Republic. 5. Hitler wasn’t sentences to death because the judges agreed. 6. Sentenced to 5 year imprisonment and could have early release if he had six months of good behavior. vi. In jail, Hitler had a fully furnished cell and could have visitors who could bring food. He had a maid and secretary! Hitler was starting to gain weight from all the food gifts so his friends were worried. vii. Hitler was released early for good behavior after nine months. viii. During the nine months was when he wrote Mein Kampf. His secretary wrote down the words; a dictation of his thoughts. This work was initially named Four and One-Half Years of Struggle Against Lies, Stupidity and Cowardice. 1. This name appealed to people; the Nazi party struggle against Weimar republic. 2. Appealed to Human emotion 3. The published changed the name to Mein Kampf. ix. Next time the Nazi would use democratic constitutional means to overthrow government. Violence alone wasn’t effective to take over the government. Also used power of emotion. x. Weimar Republic was a hub for human emotion to work with during interwar period. 1. Germans were upset (death) 2. Germans were resentful (treaty) 3. Economic crises (two of them) adding to anxiety and resentment. IV. Study Question 3 (III): How did two economic crises help Hitler? A. First crisis was the Hyperinflation of 1923 a. Germany suffered enormous inflation b. The led to the loss of value of German money in a very short time (about five years from 1919-1923) c. Burning the money was cheaper than buying wood or coal (that’s bad) d. Weimar tried to pay the reparations but they didn’t have enough money. e. They started printing off money non-stop to pay off reparations which led to its loss of value. f. This caused much human emotion. B. Second crisis was the Great Depression of 1929. a. October 1929 stock market crash b. Economy of Weimar republic went further downhill and had sever unemployment (all over world). c. The higher the unemployment, the more votes Nazi party got. d. Weimar Republic had a lot of multi-party rule. i. But too much multiparty rule? ii. There were over 20 parties at one time which makes it hard to build majorities to pass laws. e. This made Nazi party the strongest of all of the parties in parliament. i. The got all the votes by appealing to the emotions of the German people. ii. He also blamed the Jews for the hardship the German people were suffering (anti-Semitism). f. Hitler gained the position as Chancellor of Germany. i. Very important position of the democratic government ii. One of two executive positions in the Weimar republic. g. Chancellor: i. Like Prime Minister of England. This was the head of parliament making sure parliament was doing what necessary to pass laws. ii. Had the power to appoint members of the cabinet that had ministers of state (secretaries of state) like minister of interior 1. Minister of interior was like the minister of homeland security in charge of police and other internal security. iii. Chancellor is also the advisor of the President h. President: i. Did not run the parliament and not very involved in day to day stuff ii. Basically a symbolic figurehead iii. The president under (under constitution) Article 48 is the president’s emergency powers. 1. This said that the president could decide if there was a national emergency. Didn’t need approval of parliament. The president could dissolve the parliament and dissolve powers making any laws. 2. Also said the president (in emergency) could suspend civil rights. 3. Also gave president (in emergency) power to arrest and jail anyone who the president decided was an enemy of the state and had no rights to due process. 4. One limit on Article 48: the president could only declare an emergency for up to one month’s time. iv. The president at this time was the famous General Paul von Hindenburg (1925-1934) v. He was born in 1847 so he was old and in power (died age 87). He was losing his mental state near the end. vi. January 30, 1933 Hitler became Chancellor. 1. First thing he did was appoint members of the cabinet (Nazis) as well as the minister of interior (Nazi). 2. Hitler wasn’t happy as just chancellor. He wanted more power. 3. He used article 48 to build authoritarianism V. Study Question 4 (IV): How did Article 48 legally help Hitler rise to power? A. Able to rise to power using Article 48 i. Parliament met in a building called Reichstag. ii. February 27, 1933 a fire broke out in the building in the dead of night. iii. Hitler used this to convince the President that there was a national emergency iv. February 28, 1933 Hindenburg declared the Reichstag fire Decree (emergency) v. Hitler called this (emotionally) the Degree of the President for the Protection of the People and the State. vi. The people rounded up as enemies of the state were the main political opponents and put into concentration camps. The first camps weren’t built for Jews. Mainly for socialists and communists. vii. This decree was only good for a month and parliament met again March 23, 1933. 1. The parliament was much different now 2. The parliament was very pro-Nazi with minimal opponents. 3. Hitler called for a vote March 23, 1933. This was the Enabling Act. a. Passed by parliament giving Hitler the power to issue laws without the consent of parliament. b. Hitler called this act the Law for termination of the Suffering of the People. c. This established single party rule viii. July 15, 1933 law against other political party formation led to single party rule in Germany. 1. Didn’t have full control yet 2. August 2, 1934 President Hindenburg passed away. 3. August 1, 1934 Hitler decreed that the President and chancellor positions would merge calling this position the Fuhrer. 2 T HE N AZI ”C OMMUNITY OF THE P EOPLE ” Study Questions I. Discuss Hitler’s ideal Volksgemeinschaft. II. Discuss Nazi cultural policy. III. Discuss the Nazi policy of “bribery through the stomach.” IV. Discuss the Nazis’ Euthanasia Program. I. WWII A. September 1, 1939, Nazi and Soviets decided to invade Poland a. Nazi-Soviet Pact (Molotoc-Rippentrop Pact (August 23, 1939)). b. They invaded Poland Sept 1, 1939. i. Nazi got one half, Soviet got the other half of independent Poland. ii. In response, Britain and France declared war on Germany and Soviet Union September 3, 1939, marking the start of WWII. iii. There were 6 years between Hitler becoming chancellor and WWII. II. Study Question 1 (I): Discuss Hitler’s ideal Volksgemeinschaft A. Volksgemeinschaft: ideal community of the people (by Hitler) a. Hitler had a precise idea and notion of this. 2 characteristics 1. Loyalty and obedience to the Nazi party. a. He was able to do this for the most part. 2. He wanted only people who belonged to what the Nazis called the Aryan race. This “Aryan” race doesn’t exist. a. This mythic notion had certain physical qualities like tall stature, blonde hair, and blue eyes. b. This was not invented by the Nazis. This was from Arthur de Gobineau called Inequality of the Human Races (1855). PROMISE QUESTION i. Gobineau was a French diplomat who was stationed all around the world so he was able to see people of the world and make observations which are in his book. ii. He argued there were 3 races of the world: black, white, and yellow. iii. The white race was the Aryan race. iv. Of the three races, the Aryan race was the superior race. v. He also talked about racial mixing which he was very opposed to. He argued racial mixing was bringing down civilization by polluting the Aryan race. vi. Jews were a part of his superior white Aryan race!!! a. The Nazis were interested in this racial science. Nazi racial scientists took these ideas and developed it further. i. They argued Jews were their own race and were very inferior to the Aryans. ii. They argued this on scientific ground. iii. They argued Jews were the greatest polluters of the races, especially the Aryan superior race. iv. They wanted the purification of the Aryan race and wanted reproduction engineered to be purified. v. They conducted many experiments. Some very brutal. vi. Racial science was taught in schools between Hitler becoming chancellor and WWII. III. Study Question 2 (II): Discuss Nazi cultural policy A. Nazi Cultural policies a. End of March 1933, Hitler announced the creation of the Reich Ministry of Propaganda (using enabling act). i. This was supposed to use cultural policy to instill Nazi policy and values into the non-Jewish German population. ii. Education was part of the cultural activity. iii. Hitler but his friend and fellow Nazi, Josef Goebbels, in charge of that ministry. iv. He was a very fierce anti-Semitist. v. Goebbels was in charge of making and designing Nazi social policy and to ensure there was no discrepancy in expression (all expression has to be in line with Nazi values) vi. Art had to be within Nazi cultural policy and teachings as well as all books and publications. ALL forms of cultural expression. vii. In his role as Minister of Propaganda, he was trying to bring about Gleichschaltung which is the act of coordination of bringing into line making all cultural expression in line with the Nazi party values. viii. He was a very dedicated man. ix. One of the first things he did to coordinated expression was bringing about massive book burnings. The first was May, 1933, in Berlin. x. Berlin was the capital again. In this mass book burning, young people were encouraged to go into libraries and pull books off the shelves that weren’t in line such as books of Jews and political enemies such as socialists and communists. 1. Albert Einstein books were burned because he was a Jewish author. This hurt the Nazis in developing atomic weapons (luckily) 2. Karl Marx was communist so his works were burned 3. Jack London was a socialist so his works were burned. xi. Goebbles also attacked certain forms of art which were known as “degenerate art” 1. This was deformed, sick, and Jewish art. 2. This wasn’t even usually done by Jews, much of it was modern and abstract art such as that of Pablo Picasso, etc. 3. Hitler and Nazis wanted natural art and art that closely depicted real life like photographs. 4. This began the Nazi looting of art. Sometimes this was sold. xii. At one point they captured Picasso in Paris but let him go because he was so world famous and were scared pf being judged. xiii. New German Art was very naturalistic and realistic. 1. New German Artists: Adolf Ziegler, Adolf Wissel and Arno Breker xiv. Hitler organized the Exhibition of Degenerative Art in July, 1938. After opening in Munich, it travelled to 11 other cities. There were about 650 different works on display that were known as bad and degenerative. This was to teach the German people not to like this work and some were hung crooked with sloppy labels. People lined up and waited for hours to see this. These people went because they liked these paintings and knew they may never see them again. xv. This exhibit backfired and they never gained all the control over the hearts and minds of the German people. They were never totally effective. b. They also had degenerative music i. Jazz and Swing music were hated by the Nazis. ii. They argued this was the music of inferior races. iii. There were groups (especially young) who refused to stop listening and playing this music. 1. Edelweiss Pirates 2. Swing Youth iv. These were rebellious teenagers who refused to be coordinated. They played, danced to and listened to their own music. v. They even beat up Hitler Youth (youth dedicated to Hitler) c. Baldur von Schirach i. Leader of Hitler Youth ii. Made membership mandatory because most didn’t want to do with Hitler and the Nazis. They wanted freedom to express themselves. iii. The rebellious groups were hung and arrested for listening to the wrong kind of music. This didn’t stop them. Hitler never had full control but they did have a lot and much power. iv. Nazis did at time use non-violent means of control. IV. Study Question 3 (III): Discuss the Nazi policy of “bribery through the stomach.” B. “Bribery through the stomach” a. Nazi cultural policy for the ideal community of the people b. This was a “non-physically violent” way of gaining control c. This was bribing the population by controlling consumer goods like food, refrigerators and cars that were available to those obedient. i. They were buying loyalty from Germans ii. They made all sorts of technologies available for good loyal Germans d. Volkswagen vehicles like the Beetle bug were part of their bribery by promising to make cars available to those obedient Germans. i. Many didn’t receive their cars because when WWII happened, the car factories were made into tank factories. e. Strength through Joy Program i. This was what made consumer goods available. ii. This was led by Nazi Robert Ley iii. He was in charge of making the Volkwagen available and this was the Strength through Joy car. iv. He also tried to make vacations possible like cruises in exchange for loyalty. v. They tried to build a massive tourist resort known as Prora. This was in Germany on Baltic Coast. This was a cold part of the world. vi. By the start of WWII, Prora was almost ready for visitors. 20,000 rooms were finished. The only things not finished was the movie theatre and wave pool. vii. This was a very elaborate system. viii. This ended up a school to train the military when WWII began. V. Study Question 4 (IV): Discuss the Nazis’ Euthanasia Program C. The Euthanasia Program rd a. This is less known (3 policy) b. Euthanasia: deliberately killing someone to put them out of their misery. i. This really was not a program for people to put out of their misery. ii. These were people dying or in pain iii. The people who were killed had autism, down syndrome, schizophrenic, epilepsy, polio, dementia, etc. c. This was more of a Eugenics program i. Eugenics: the study and manipulation of genetics in the name of improving human qualities ii. This was happening all over Europe and even in the US prior to Hitler’s rise to power. 1. These included forced sterilization of people with mental and physical ailments iii. Nazis took this further. 1. They forcibly sterilized people to purify and strengthen the Aryan race. 2. Nazis started systematically and deliberately killing people to avoid breeding. 3. The minority of these people were Jews, The majority were non-Jew Germans who were Christian! d. This began in the summer of 1939 just before WWII. i. Began with children up until 3 years old aka babies and infants with disabilities. ii. It was then increased to children up to 16 years old. They were killed by deadly injections and deliberate starvation. 1. Paraldehyde: a drug to paralyze people so they would lay in bed and die of starvation iii. Doctors helped in this. People went to doctors not knowing this. iv. Adults were extended into this. v. Nazis decided that injections and starvation wasn’t efficient enough. There were too many people and these took too long. e. Fall 1939 i. Decided to gas people to death. ii. The first gas chambers were set up for mentally and physically disabled Christians and some were Jews. iii. When this was developed, it was named the Action T4 Program. 1. Got its name from location of first gas chamber at a street in Berlin named after a nearby zoo and number from house number (Tiergartenstrasse #4) iv. They used carbon monoxide gas at first by using a gas engine. This was efficient either. v. They started using Zyklon B which was an insecticide used by farmers to kill mice and insects. vi. This ended in 1941. 72,000 disabled Germans had been killed. A small number were killed were Jews. 1. It ended due to public protest. This shows they never had absolute power over the people. 2. The people learned, due to church activities, what were happening to disabled individuals in the Action T4 Program. The churches set up homes to help these people and they noticed that their patients were being taken and not coming back. The church members spread the word. vii. Bishop Clemens von Galen was the most vocal critic 1. He used his Sunday sermons to criticize the Nazis and got away with it. He gave three in particular in summer 1931. a. 1 attached Nazi violence b. 2nd was that Nazi were the enemy c. 3 let people know what was happening to the disabled. He called the Action T4 Program the “massacre of innocents” 2. The Nazis were so worried about public judgement that they discontinued the program in summer 1941. 3. Galen was arrested but not killed because they knew they would suffer much upset. He was placed under house arrest and survived WWII.
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