Chapter 4 Textbook Notes
Chapter 4 Textbook Notes HIST 145
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiara Notetaker on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 145 at Towson University taught by Dr. Andrew Diemer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see HIST 145 - HIST OF U.S. TO THE CIVIL WAR in History at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/16/15
Common Abbreviations Sp Spain or Spanish Fr France or French Eng England or English gt lead to est established N America North America MA CT etc state abbreviations w with Chapter 4 Continental Empires 16601720 Pages 87 120 Tituba Shapes Her World and Saves Herself p 87 Tituba South American or African heritage Sent to work on African dominated sugar plantations in Barbados Taken as a teen slave to Massachusetts 1680 by Samuel Parris w wife 3 kids Tituba s husband 1683 Betty Paris daughter and Abigail her cousin start playing w magic start feeling pain neighbors and Tituba make a witchcake to discover who is bewitching the children pain gets worse girls blame Tituba and neighbors in front of doctors and ministers Tituba fabricates a story Made a covenant with the devil Witches w brooms and long noses Wolves birds harry imps elements of Indian and African culture gt Everyone believes colony is filled with witches gtTituba gets off the hook The Plan of Empire p 89 Sp and Fr Governments involved w colonies Eng isn t Eng colonies all private ventures little supervised and supported yet look at which became the US Queen Elizabeth I gt King James I gt King Charles I Archbishop Laud directed Church of Eng away from Calvinism belief in predestination persecuted Puritans gt Scotland Presbyterian revolted King Charles I asks Parliament for funds to control Scotland they refuse gt Charles builds army gt Eng Civil War gt Parliament wins 1647 Puritan Oliver Cromwell rules as Lord Protector dies 1658 Son bad leader gt Charles II is asked to be King 1660 Eng now a constitutional monarchy power of the Crown balanced by Parliament King James II tries to fill government w Catholics and rules wo Parliament gt removed during Glorious Revolution bloodless revolution gt James daughter Mary and husband William to throne The Political Economy of Mercantilism Mercantilism economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances which a government should encourage Economic policy to serve the state 0 Money needed to grow military and bureaucracies 0 Wealth defined as gold and silver finite amount gt taking it from other countries one side s gain another s loss gt Navigation Acts 16511696 all goods shipped to Eng and Eng colonies must be carried on Eng ships items from Eng colonies tobacco sugar indigo cotton to Eng or other countries carried on Eng ships to be taxed goal colonies raw materials Eng finished products New Colonies New Patterns p 90 0 Pennsylvania and S Carolina est after 1650s 0 Dutch take New Netherland 0 Key to successful colony religious toleration opportunities to free white people New Netherland Becomes New York 0 Navigation Acts cut Dutch out of international trade 0 King Charles II est Royal Africa Company to take transport slaves from Africa to British West Indies 0 James Duke of York King Charles II baby bro 0 Persuades Charles for territory bw Connecticut and Delaware rivers present day PA NJ NY and part of CT then occupied by Netherlands 0 1664 Sends governor 400 troops and warships and conquers New Amsterdam 0 1665 gives present day NJ to Lord Berkeley and Lord Carteret 0 1667 NY governor gives territory to CT to complete what is now CT 0 New York Half Dutch NY City along Hudson river Half Eng Puritans Long Island gt governors a gave out manors 2 million acres of land in chunks owners rented out the land b guaranteed Dutch religious freedom 1683 NY est an elective assembly passes charter expressing principles of liberalism emphasizing individual liberty all humans are equally entitled to enjoy freedom and fulfillment in church work and family right to vote taxed by elected representatives only trial by jury due process property rights for women etc King refuses bc it gives them too much authority compared to other colonies and Parliament gt NY politically unstable gt fighting amongst themselves New Amsterdam New York 0 homes built Dutch style red and yellow brick functioned as workshops too 40 of households contained African slaves 0 Hans Kierstede German religious refugee first surgeon in N America Wife Sara Roelofs born in N America played w Indians as a child built backyard shed for Indian women to craft goods and sell given 2000 acres of land for translating for a treaty w Indians Diversity and Prosperity in Pennsylvania William Penn Quaker founder King Charles II paid debts by giving away New World land Quakers 4000 jailed in 1665 Protestant believed God offered salvation to all Rejected violence did not serve in or pay taxes to the military Charter in 1681 promised selfgovernment freedom of religion reasonably priced land Philadelphia Greek city of brotherly love 1682 population of 4000 Penn mapped settlement of city on a grid Laid farms neatly along rivers and creeks Set each house at adequate distance to prevent fires from spreading Established a relationship with Indians gt rapid population growth each community had its own language and religion immigrants indentured servants redemptioners worked to pay back cost of transportation Pennsylvania Assembly passed laws recognizing slavery many questioned the morality of it but weakly opposed Indians and Africans in the Political Economy of Carolina Proprietary colonies PA MD SC South Carolina gt Fundamental Constitutions famous John Locke political philosopher helped Representative government Religious toleration Hierarchy of nobles on top and serfs on the bottom Recognized African slavery 1St colony to do so right off the bat First representative assembly rejected it SC aristocracy developed based on wealthy slave owners 1670 first settlers Charles Town renamed Charleston fights w Indians and other Euro nations Westo War 1680 Tuscarora Indians 1711 Yamasee War 17151716 The Barbados Connection Est 1627 first Eng slave society most productive colony per person income gt Eng Slave codes brutal gt Adopted by Carolina 1650 allowed immigration of Jews and other religious minorities gt increased freedom of Europeans gt decreased freedom for Africans 1690 Carolina rice staple crop 1720 slaves 70 of Carolina population The Transformation of Virginia p 97 Bacon s Rebellion rebels sought to secure a legit government to protect economic opportunity Social Change in Virginia Apple orchards gt apple cider gt yay No more drinking dirty water Servants came in Fall lived out their labor period gt went to grow their own tobacco western land still Indian owned tobacco high taxes low prices More and more lower class servants gt more disturbances gt owners extending labor period Bacon s Rebellion and the Abandonment of the Middle Ground Nathaniel Bacon Young wealthy well educated Invited to join colony s council of state by Governor Berkeley Gov B Gov B levied high taxes gt free men no longer indentured complained gt violence caused by both Europeans and Indians Indians delivered goods to a planter planter never paid Indians kill planter s overseer gt Euros copy this method of taking revenge into their own hands 1000 person militia sieged Susquehannocks reservation Gov B refuses to join Bacon Bacon leads a full out war on Indians massacred Occaneecchees Gov B ees to eastern shore 1677 1000 royal soldiers arrive Bacon is already dead Gov B back in position King removes Berkeley Government in hands of rich planters Indians gone higher tobacco prices slaves instead of servants Virginia Becomes a Slave Society 1698 Eng authorizes private merchants to carry slaves to America 1680 slaves 7 of population 1700 28 bottom of hierarchy now slaves better opportunity for whites 1705 est slave code Elements slavery is life long no legally recognized family violence occurred including rape American Slavery Elements Hereditary Latin American manumissions the freeing of slaves Based on race even if father was white so color began to matter Slave codes defined gender roles Women slaves denied privileges of Euro women Men and women taxable Children inherit status of their mother Slavery gt more freedom for white indentured servants New England Under Assault Social Prosperity and the Fear of Religious Decline New England population 1650 23300 1700 93000 Life expectancy higher than Eng 1660s70s wealth gt spiritual decline 1662 the HalfWay Covenant full church membership for those who were born again children and others could be half way members gt con ict among those who wanted the Puritan faith to be pure King Philip s War 0 1660s Rhode Island MA and Plymouth all claimed Wampanoag land Wamp Leader King Philip 0 1671 colonists come together and order King Philip to submit to Plymouth King Philip MA and Plymouth prepare for war Rhode Island opposed 1675 King Philip attacks Plymouth 0 Indian brutal warfare gt Euro brutal warfare King Philip s head on a stake Indian captives sold into slavery 4000 Indians died also of starvation Eng destroyed comfields 2000 Eng died 1 out of 25 1200 homes burned near Boston Puritans won Indians and the Empire 0 Fr and Indian allies controlled Great Lakes and all along Mississippi river 0 NY welcomes King Philip s war survivors 0 Covenant Chain British ally with Iroquois 0 Albany center of Indian trade The Empire Strikes p 104 0 16891763 AngloFr Rivalry drew colonies into 4 international wars The Dominion of New England 0 1688 MA Plymouth CT NY NJ NH and Rhode Island joined in the Dominion of England Governed by Edmund Andros 0 James II began to revoke the charters of colonies James and MA imposed religious toleration limited town meetings to 1 per year ordered all titles of land to be reconfirmed by Andros for a fee Andros seized all common land Installed taxes Some partnered w him to win his favor The Glorious Revolution in Britain and America 0 Put Parliament in charge of government 0 Put Anglican religion back on top 0 1690 John Locke s Two Treatises of Government human equality political theories government created by people not God gt natural rights purpose of government to protect lives liberties fortunes not achieve the glory for nation and God 0 News of Glorious Revolution hit MA colonists threw Andros in jail 0 Rhode Island and CT get charters back MA becomes royal colony to prevent too much independence 0 NH also becomes a royal colony 0 MD 45ths Protestant government Catholic Coode s Rebellion bloodlessly overtook government gt royal colony gt Anglican church state church The Rights of Englishmen 0 Glorious Revolution gt restored selfgovemment 0 Colonists believed their government was equivalent to Parliament gt same rights of Englishmen 0 Eng believed colonies needed mother country s parental protection Con ict in the Empire 0 King William s War and Queen Anne s War 0 Eng against Fr Started w Canadian amp Indian attacks Massachusetts in Crisis p 107 0 1692 MA executed 20 people convicted of witchcraft The Social and Cultural Contexts of Witchcraft 0 Puritans believed in magic to predict the future or to hurt their enemies 0 355 accused of witchcraft 80 women 0 women who had no male heirs owned land and were displeasing to Puritan beliefs 0 age of marriage decreased gt increased pregnancies outside of marriage Witchcraft of Salem 0 1692 Hathome and Corwin sent to Salem to investigate 156 jailed 2 executed those accused were typically older mean Quaker or Baptist nice to Indians darker skinned eventually wealthy women were accused governor s wife Witchcraft in the Global Perspective 0 110000 people put on trial in Eng and half executed hanged or burned gt 2 German villages each only had one woman 0 The Witch Hammer published 1486 taught that women were more likely to have children by the devil for him to eat 0 Historical view 20 of women unmarried or widowed witch trials gt controlling this population The End of Witchcraft 0 Educated people depended more on their knowledge instead of superstition 0 New attitudes toward women gt no longer believing they set out to cause harm Empires in Collision p 110 0 1750s Indian population gt Euro population 0 Eng gt United States 0 Sp gt Mexico Latin America 0 Fr gt West Indies France Attempts an Empire 0 Minister Jean Baptiste Colbert controlled Quebec 0 Ensured female emigrants were healthy 0 Dowries offered to all men who married before 20 0 Very few people immigrated didn t want to be controlled distantly by Paris 0 Fr est outposts in Louisiana and Mississippi 0 Louisiana Colony unattractive Fr deports criminals to colony no food could be grown slaves smuggled in from Caribbean Euro Indians Africans intermarried depended on each other for survival 380000 slaves imported to Fr Islands including Santo Domingo produced more sugar than any other colony also world s greatest coffee producer The Spanish Outpost in Florida St Augustine military outpost no settlers high maintenance desired to abandon it Eng est South Caroline gt Sp again caring about St Augustine populated by runaway slaves Sp captured slaves converted them to Catholicism 1693 Sp King offers freedom to all runaway slaves gt 1st free black community in N America Conquest Revolt and Reconquest in New Mexico 1598 O ate appointed governor of New Mexico colony great grandchild of Cortes persuaded or forced Indians to join him 1610 est capital Santa Fe goal to be an outpost against Fr Encomienda system system in which a Spanish soldier or colonist is granted a tract of land or a village together with its Indian inhabitants Pueblo Indians gt demanding labor or taking land gt women abused S punished Pueblos for returning to their religious beliefs gt revolt believed if they continued to pray and kick out the Sp that the drought would end 1680 seized all horses and mules blocked the roads destroyed each Sp settlement one at a time 400 p killed drove Sp from New Mexico most successful Indian revolt ever but the drought didn t end Native Americans and the Country Between Great Plains Indians got guns from Fr and horses from Sp Buffalo hunters gt food and clothing Sioux Arapahe Cheyenne Blackfoot Cree gt fight for horses gt selling captives as slaves to Sp gt Sp built armed settlements to present day Texas Conclusion 1700s Eng N America stable society that would last until the Am Revolution New Eng farming and shipping to Eng Middle mixed farming South singlecrop plantations slave societies though slaves present in every colony Indian con ict persisted w Eng Fr Sp for trade and land