Chapter 1 notes
Chapter 1 notes Psyc 3318
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Dykes on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3318 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Gatchel in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/16/15
Psyc 3318 9215 Lecture and book notes Chapter 1 1 Understanding psychopathology a What is a psychological disorder i No one set de nition of psychological abnormality or psychological normality because of cultural relativism ii The book de nes a psychological disorder as a psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not a typical or culturally expected response 1 Phobia a psychological disorder characterized by marked and persistent fear of an object or situation 2The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM5 a DSM contains diagnostic criteria b Most recent update occurred in May 2013 3 The eld of psychopathology a The scienti c study of psychological studies b Scientistpractitioner i Practice treatment delivery and research mutually in uence each other ii Stays current with research in eld iiiEvaluates own assessment and treatment iv Conducts research 4 Psychological disorders a Clinical description i Prevalence how many people in the population as a whole have this disorder ii Incidence how many new cases occur during a given period iiiPresenting the problem symptoms chronic worry panic attacks etc Description aims to 1 Distinguish clinically signi cant dysfunction from common human experience v Describe prevalence and incidence of disorders vi Describe onset of disorders acute vs insidious onset vii Describe course of disorders episodic timelimited or chronic course viii Prognosis good vs guarded b Causation etiology i The science behind the disorder ii What contributes to the development of psychopathology iiiTreatment development 1 How can we help alleviate psychological suffering iV 2 Includes pharmacological psychosocial andor combined treatments c Treatment and outcome i prognosis iii Psychological dysfunction 1 Abnormal cognitive emotional or behavioral functioning 2 Behavior outside the cultural norms iv Impairment 1 Problems with job relationships daily routine 2 Impairment is set in the context of a person39s background and culture v Personal distress 1 This is common it is just a matter of how we handle the stress vi Criteria for de ning a psychological disorder 1 Psychological dysfunction 2 Distress or impairment 3Atypical response 2 Historical perspective a The supernatural tradition i Deviant behavior has been considered a re ection of quotgood versus evilquot ii Demons and witches exorcism 1 In the middle ages if exorcism did not work many people were subject to beatings dunking in ice cold water con nement and other forms of torture 2 Strangely these approaches sometimes worked iii The moon and the stars n 1The movement of the moon and stars had some effects on people39s psychological functioning aka astrology or zodiac 3 Roots of modern research a The biological tradition i Hippocrates the father of modern Western medicine 1 The rst person to believe that diseases were caused naturally ii Galen Roman physician that adopted Hippocrates39 ideas and developed them further 1The Humoral theory blood black bile yellow bile phlegm a Blood heart b Black bile spleen c Yellow bile liver d Phlegm brain iii John P Grey wellrespected American psychiatrist of the 19th century 1 said that the causes of insanity were always physical a mentally ill patients should be treated as physically ill patients i Rest diet proper room temp etc b In the late 19th century these treatments didn39t work and Grey believed they were incurable c Humane treatment declined b The psychological tradition i Dorothea Dix the mental hygiene movement 1 She made sure everyone who needed care received it through more humane treatment ii Sigmund Freud 7 a the father of E mgfij m 1 l Freud39s theoryr of the perennallty 1 Wish ful llment unconscious mind repression libido 2 Id 3 Ego 4 Superego iii John B Watson established 1 Rejected the study of consciousness 2 Mental activity can be observed iv lvan Pavlov behaviorist 2 Show the dog the iperaantrtundlltmnin fooddog salivating 3 Ring the bellno salivating I I 4 Ring the bell and show Reinforcement Punishment U p I e Ingma aha lm Emu555 EEI HWiDE salivating l l l 5 Only ring bel salivating l u I 6 A once neutral stimulus IS IE931 F 39 W W g tlve Eiddnnazumuuilimui lu Ermaa quota rm 39ul uii 39 39 hii i f ii b l i ehllmimgbahaviar riggingamen a lr aerrnm39H gmi hdqaqwhgm TrIIrg IVWFaszlai39 39yywA Ertm stimulus to bring the same I I response I I E a i Actth w l mm v BF Skinner behavnorist 1 Principle of reinforcement Mama39me H w a FreeWill If one does mif mmmltmu39m Hmariumnwrnsefn l mmus C0 a d Hmin 39 mmmtincmam he a iar they Won39t do again Funlshmanid tmascibem ar If the consequences are good they will likely do it again EganIa Himulug Mziizlilrim lawnm1 Mina ul39ui Sources quotUnclean spiritquot exorcism picture httpsenwikioediaorgwikiUncleanspirit Id ego and superego httpIcswstudybuddyblogspotcom Freud39s theory httpscommonswikimediaorgwikiFiledegosuperegojpeg Operant conditioning diagram httosenwikioediaor0wikiOoerantconditioning
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