Week 3 Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kerrigan Reading on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Life 102 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Attributes of Living Systems in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/16/15
Notes Week 3 Life 102 Nucleic Acids Continued Thymine is in DNA only Uracil is in RNA only Phosphodiester bonds create a sugarphosphate backbone RNA is single stranded DNA forms a double helix Since DNA is antiparallel and complementary it makes the perfect molecule for replication DNA is held together by hydrogen bonds ATour of the Cell A Cell Size Prokaryotes bacteria one organism one cell one micrometer long Cells are small because they must exchange with their environment and their volume increases faster than their surface area B Microscopy Light and Electron Microscopy Magnification allows viewer to see a much larger image of a specimen Resolution clarity Contrast enables viewer to see specific features Staining techniques increase contrast Light microscopes work by light passing through the specimen and then through bent lenses that magnify the image Electron Microscopy Tissues are treated with metals and an electron beam is passed across the tissues Excited electrons are then detected and act to produce an image Cell Fractionation Sequential centrifugation to obtain smaller and smaller cell constituents C 3 Kingdoms of life all share common ancestor Bacteria prokaryote Archaea prokaryote Eukarya eukaryote Prokaryotic before the kernelnucleus Eukaryotic true kernelnucleus Archaea are more closely related to eukarya than bacteria Prokaryote smaller than eukaryotes no nucleus no membranebound organelles Bacteria and archaea have incredibly diverse metabolism functions and have the ability to thrive in extreme environments Free living prokaryotic cells within the human body outnumber an individual s own cells 10 to 1 D Cellular components Nucleus holds cell information DNA Nuclear envelope double membrane layer separates nucleus from cytoplasm Pore complexes protein lined pores that regulate what goes in and out of cell Nucleolus assembles ribosomal subunits Endoplasmic reticulum massive expanse of membranes involved in lipid and protein synthesis Smooth ER synthesizes lipids detoxifies Notes Week 3 Rough ER synthesizes proteins Transitioned ER wraps materials in vesicles for transport Golgi Apparatus acts in modification of proteins storage and transport Lysosomes intracellular digestion and recycling Vacuoles storage and movement selectively permeable membranes specific to plants Mitochondria converts sugar to energy through respiration Chloroplasts use light energy from sun to create food for plants and some protists Peroxisomes lipid break down and detoxification of compounds Removes and H and adds it to water Cytoskeleton provides support for cell motility movement and manipulates the plasma membrane Microtubules Tubulin polymers hollow tracks for motor proteins provide shape and support resists compression within all eukaryotes Intermediate Filaments provide structural support not involved in motility most common in animals is keratin Microfilaments twisted double chain of actin molecules combine with proteins provide motility and structural support bears tension Found in plants and animals Localized contractions of microfilaments cause amoeboid movement Centrosomes are found only in animal cells Are important for flagella and cilia Have a 9 2 structure of microtubule doublets Plant cell walls provide shape support and prevent excessive water uptake thick layer of cellulose fivers in matrix of polysaccharides middle lamella glues cell walls of adjacent cells together as cells mature they add thickening substances to create a secondary cell wall like the bark on a tree Animal cell extracellular matrix glycoproteins collagen and carbohydrate molecules Cell Junctions Plasmodesmata in plants Channels that connect cells in areas of fused plasma membrane Porelike Allows cytosol to be continuous amongst cells Fuses cells and allows for free exchange Tight junctions proteins bind plasma membranes together to form tight seals and prevent the movement of interstitial fluid Desmosomes intermediate filaments that hold cells together Gap Junctions membranebound proteins form pores between cells to allow intracellular exchange of materials and information Not free exchange but regulated
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