HIST 1378 Chapter 21 Notes
HIST 1378 Chapter 21 Notes HIST 1378
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Taboh on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1378 at University of Houston taught by Professor Matthew Clavin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see The U.S. Since 1877 in History at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
The U.S. Since 1877 HIST 1378 – 11 (25824) Prof. Clavin Chapter 21: America and the Great War Identification Terms Treaty of Versailles Red Scare World War I (The Great War) Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt was the architect of the American empire his goal was to build a great Navy Purchased the bill of the Panama Canal and inspired a revolution in Panama; recognized Panama as an independent nation from the Columbian government and was able to quickly construct the canal Roosevelt thought America should be the world’s policeman The U.S. entered World War I 6 months before it ended It was the first modern war; it was the first war that had gasoline powered vehicles, tanks, blimps, submarines and used machine guns During the civil war, the rifles could only fire 23 bullets in a minute; by WWI, the maxim gun could fire 600 rounds within 60 seconds Chemical and biological warfare (mustard gas, chlorine, etc.) became widespread Nearly 10 million soldiers lost their lives; about 7 million civilians died; there were about 35 million casualties and deaths in total Tyrants/dictators/monarchs kept order in their countries; WWI destabilized the world The Ottoman empire disappeared after World War I Causes of WWI Imperialism: empires were fighting for land and resources Nationalism (love of country) 1914 Bosnia – the Austrian prince was gunned down by a Serbian nationalist who was his people to be free; the assassination was what sparked World War I Trench Warfare Soldiers dug out trenches and stayed there for months, and sometimes years; they only peeked over the edge to fire at the enemy Landmines blew up people’s legs A series of revolutions took place during the War Arab Revolt The Arab people fought for their freedom from the Ottoman empire; they were helped by the British and the French Russian Revolution It was led by Vladimir Lenin Lenin was an advocate of Marxism He believed in bloody revolution and the dream (the working class would overtake the industries and get rid of capitalism); wanted to have the largest socialist democracy U.S.S.R – Union of Soviet Socialist Republics He pulled the Russian troops out of World War I; thought the war was imperialistic and only benefited the richer countries * The U.S. arguably has the #1 economy and Navy in the world* Lenin died and Joseph Stalin took over, killing many Russians; he committed mass murder to secure socialist nation Stalin wanted to spread communism throughout the world, especially in America The U.S. issued a Declaration of Neutrality, then became the world’s lender nation; the rest of the world became indebted to the U.S. The U.S. economy was peaking, and labor unions returned Submarine warfare Germans are utterly destroying the British vessels and others on the high seas; they were bombing unsuspecting ships with their submarines Woodrow Wilson called it an immoral act of war and told Germany to stop Germany becomes the “bad guy” Telegram intercepted by the U.S. The Germans sent a telegram to Mexico promising them land that the U.S. had taken if they helped Germany defeat the U.S. The U.S. declared war on Germany and its allies U.S. wanted its view of the world to be manifested, and to get involved in the war in order to be in a position to do so It takes a year for U.S. troops to actually cross the Atlantic Ocean Three acts were passed during this time The Selective Service Act was passed by congress; it allowed the federal government to raise a national army Espionage act – people were thrown in jail for resisting draft Sedition Act – people were arrested for speaking out against the war Propaganda machine: the government tried to convince Americans that the war was a good one When the U.S. entered the war, the British and French began winning wars, and the German and Ottoman empires crumble The U.S. lost around 100,000 men Treaty of Versailles There was a major peace conference in France, and many countries were invited; most attended, but the U.S.S.R opted out the Big Three emerged: America, Britain, and France Woodrow Wilson wanted to sit at the head of the peace table; he brought a bulleted list, known as the Fourteen Points; the list included ways in which he intended to change the world proposed democracy, free trade, freedom of the seas, capitalism also proposed the League of Nations meant to help implement the new principles and settle future conflicts peacefully Britain and France wanted revenge The Big Three brought out a map of the world and began mapping out new countries The Treaty punished the Germans They lost all the colonies they had, and their European borders were shrunken They were told to disband their army, military, air force, and navy Germany had to pay war reparations Forced to sign a War Guilt Clause in which they apologized and asked for forgiveness Congress rejected the Treaty of Versailles Don’t want to be told when and where to intervene; wanted to be free agents Significance Germany was punished and humiliated Germany was desperate; nationalism Treaty was so hard of them economically that they embraced Hitler and genocide Planted the seeds of World War II 1920s: U.S. enters a violent period of time Racial conflicts: Nearly half a million African Americans served in the military; they fought in segregated units, and weren’t allowed to fight alongside the white soldiers Black soldiers were mistreated, but they stood up for themselves White mobs rioted and burned down black towns Houston Race Riot (1917) Black soldiers in Houston challenged the racial norm Corporal Charles Baltimore, who was one of the twelve black military men serving with the police, was shot at and put in jail; the other black soldiers marched to the station to get him out 19 received the death penalty (they were hanged), and 63 got life sentences Seattle “General Strike” (1919) I.W.W – International Workers of the World; took the soviets as their role model They wanted better hours and wages, and were not afraid to fight for it The entire west coast was shut down; it brought the north western economy was shut down for weeks Thousands of police officers walked off the job in Boston, MA Red Scare Communism and socialism are associated with race Opposers of equality accused “radicals” of being communist st May 1 , 1919 – dozens of bombs were found in mailboxes of politicians and business men all over the country Bombs went off targeting politicians 1920: a bomb went off in front of Carnegie Steel; there were several casualties There was a fear that communism was in America and that it was spreading quickly Red scare: racism; nativism, xenophobia Americans wanted to get rid of Marxism by force J. Edgar Hoover: formed the Federal Bureau of Investigation to root out race mixers, homosexuals, “radicals” They began arresting hundreds of thousands of people, and conducted searches without warrants Palmer Raids: armed gangs of FBI agents searched homes and arrested people; performed a lot of deportations; arrested immigrants and sent them back to their home countries ACLU – a group founded to stop the oppression of the Red Scare; helped those who were targeted Civil rights disappeared Significance The Red Scare showed what effect fear had on things like Civil Rights, the Constitution, people’s way of life Socialism, communism, and Marxism become associated with evil