History 105: Week 8 Lecture Notes
History 105: Week 8 Lecture Notes HIST 105
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christian Benson on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 105 at University of Oregon taught by Prof. Furtado in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Lecture – (2/22/16) Manila Galleons consequences: o Prices Rise in Europe o Silver values fall o Production does not o Spanish economy is hardest hit Chinese silver: European perspective o Europe finally has abundant silver to trade with China o Luxury goods Trade Deficits: European o European view: European dynamism vs. Chinese stagnation Chinese view o Silver as “Grease,” need silver to grease up economy o Melting Buddhas o Japan, then spain testing of silver to make sure there was a high silver content Gold was worth twice as much in Europe as in China o China preferred silver Consumer demand: Bimetallic o Silver needed but copper used for smaller stuf “Single Whip Reform” National Market economy Rural economic change o Classic Chinese agriculture was: Cereal production Human labor over animals Vegetable over fruit Fruit was a luxury, could use the space to grow more substantial food State maintained granaries Change in China: o Doubled population (New world crops) o Potatoe could grow where rice couldn’t and had more calories o Chinese were first to use peanuts and potatoes outside New World o Abandoned state granaries since they had food o Doubling cultivated land and crop diversity o Commercial vs. sustenance agriculture Sustenance = for survival only o Regional/national vs. personal o Used to be focused on local level o Some foods now grown solely for exportation Change from servile to contractual labor o Servile = slave, contractual = paid o Serfdom declining, serfdom is when you are a possession that comes with the land Gender Relations o Classic China: women always wove inside and men worked on the farm o Later, men take over silk weaving because it becomes huge export economy o Same thing occurred in Europe Happened with beer making in Europe If some things made for exportation or sale men take it over Urbanization: o Teahouses o Smoke Shops o Sumptuary laws Merchants have more opportunity, can look like a noble even thought they’re not Sumptuary law: you have to wear certain clothes according to your class o Need to be able to tell who is who for rank o Now merchants couldn’t have noble possessions (Jade, nice clothes) Flow of wealth challenges traditional values Leisure and status o Wealthy people are increasingly having time for leisure activities Qingming festival: Visual ID o Big festival, challenging traditional values o Homosexuality becoming more accepted/mainstream o Brought on by time for leisure activity o Challenging existing Chinese morality o Confucians are not happy If money only greases the wheels, what drives the engine creating unprecedented wealth? Was Capitalism a unique mentality of early modern Europe? What hypotheses have been advanced to explain European economic rise? Capitalism o The corporation o Joint stock company o Stocks, bonds o Stock exchanges, high finance o Innovative attempts at creating wealth How did it work? Investment of productivity enhancement o Better technology o Better organizations o More resources o More discipline Lecture – (2/24/16) China: o National market o Superior manufacturing o Higher population o Confucian values Europe: o Capital market o Superior trading o Access to raw materials o Protestant work ethic Theories o Europe’s protestant work ethic favored individual entrepreneurship while China’s Confucian value system worked against it th o China’s withdrawal from the sea in the 15 century led to Europe’s rise o European system more conclusive (by virtue of fragmentation and competition) actively promoting economic development Chinese examination system o Began in Han dynasty (206 BCE – 22 CE) o Accelerates from 6 to 10 century o Abolished in 1905 o 1400 years Original purpose of examination system was to curtail existing aristocracy Consequence was that civilians elevated above the emperor can’t have military in charge (warlords) Hereditary family and wealth survive Because of meritocracy, best and brightest rise up The Scholar elite o Percentage of degree holders from families with no official connections o Ming dynasty (47.5 percent) o Qing dynasty (36.6 percent) ABCs o Logographic (idea based writing) o 4-600 syllables o Squares with brushstroke Hard to become literate in China o Would have to been memorizing over 40,000 characters Linguistic Diversity o Universally legible Mandarin o Vernacular no transcribed Primary education o Boys (8-15) o Some girls Girls could get education but not do examinations Temple, village, private, or lineage schools Former officials and failed scholars taught at the schools Four Books o Analects o Mencius o Great Learning o Doctrine of the Men Five classes o Books of changes o Documents o Poetry o Rites o Spring and autumn annals Need to memorize the four book and five classes to pass the exams Steep in tradition First exam: district exam, magistrate o 5 sessions – 20 days o Couldn’t leave You would be able to finish a quote and analyze it Compose poetry in approved style Essay on government or history with quotes from readings from memorization Quote one of the emperor’s 16 articles o To fail to quote exactly what the emperor said is insulting him bad If passed the first exam, go onto Prefectural exam (capital monitored) Quotas per district (25 percent pass) o Kind of like Affirmative Action Qualifying exam o Three sessions o National level imperial director of studies th Licentiate – 9 level – “BA/BS” o Eligible for CS exams o Can start wearing scholar clothes o 1/300 made it, vs. 20 percent today o now exempt from corporal punishment and Corvee o Corvee is when gov. calls on you to do some labor Provincial exam o Every 3 years o 10-20,000 examinees o 3 days, 2 nights o some die and go crazy o Recommend Man if pass “Masters degree”