Modern History- Week 3 notes
Modern History- Week 3 notes Hist 12071
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US History: Modern
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Schmidt on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 12071 at Kent State University taught by Brenda Faverty in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Modern America in History at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Kayla Schmidt Modern History 9815 Chapter 18 This is an online class so the text book information is important Text Book REVEL for American Stories Volume 2 Access Card 3rd Edition H W Brands T H Breen R Hal Williams Ariela J Gross 2014 ISBN13 9780134082370 The Industrial Society 18501901 181 What enabled the United States to build an industrial economy 182 What were the main characteristics of the new steel and oil industries 183 Why were the new methods of advertising so important 184 Who were the wage earners in the new economy 185 How did wage earners organize in this period and what demands did they make Introduction 0 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia Pennsylvania 0 180 buildings 0 9 million visitors 0 Expressing the new industrial era I Introducing the first bicycle I Linoleum I Root beer 181Industrial Development 0 Relied on 0 Coal 0 Iron 0 Timber o Petroleum 0 Waterpower o Laborexperienced farmers and European immigrants 0 1870s and 1880s 8 million immigrants 0 18901914 23 million immigrants o 1900 population 76 million 0 New inventions such as the telegraph and telephone 0 Industry growth involved human choices and economical choices 0 1890 more than 85 of American s manufactured goods Kayla Schmidt 0 Westprovided raw materials 0 South manufacture iron textiles and tobacco 0 Gross national product 0 quotThe total monetary value of all goods and services produced in a year with prices held stable 0 18651914 increased 4 per year 0 The steamship 0 New transport for people and goods 0 Twice as fast to transport 0 The telegraph 0 400000 miles of wires in 1880s 0 Railroads o Yearround service Direct routes Safe and reliable granting comfort and faster speeds Traveled 50 miles in an hour and around 700 miles in a day European railroads only went from town to town and carried goods American railroads created new towns and carried cattle and goods 0 Was a contributor to mass production and mass consumption 0 Robert E Lee 0 1865surrendered Appomattox 0 After the Civil War railroad mileage more than Europe 0 1865 35000 miles 0 1900 193000 miles 0 1916 254037 miles 0 Federal government loaned nearly 65 million to westward railroads 0 Federal land grants built 18738 miles of track 0 Gauges quotdistance between the rails 4 85 to 6 o Trunk Lines 0 quotFour major railroad networks that emerged after the Civil War to connect the eastern seaports to the Great Lakes and western rivers They reflected the growing integration of transportation across the country and that helped spur largescale industrialization 1 Baltimore and Ohio went to Chicago in 1874 2 Erie Railroadfrom New York to Chicago 3 New York Central Railroadby Cornelius Vanderbilt 4 Pennsylvania Railroad Philadelphia to Pittsburgh soon stretched to New York Chicago and Washington DC By J Edgar Thomson and Thomas A Scott 0 November 18834 time zones were set 0 Transcontinental railroad o Combining the Pacific and Atlantic oceans o 1862 and 1864 I Used the Union Pacific Railroad Company west and the Central Pacific Railroad Company east 0 Native Americans fought for their lands 00000 0000 Kayla Schmidt 0 Charles Crockeremployed 6000 Chinese laborers 0 May 101869 I Dodge s crewbuilt 1086 miles of track I Crocker s crew built 689 miles of track 182 0 1870s 0 Steel was primary material 0 1850s Henry Bessemer increased steel production with William Kelly 0 More durable steel 0 Processor withstood 5 tons of melted metal at a time o Costly and used chemical based processes 0 Steel districts grew in Pennsylvania Ohio and Alabama 0 Pittsburgh was known as the center of industry 0 1874US produced half of the amount of steel that Britain produced 0 1900US produced 4 times the amount of steel that Britain produced 0 1880 9 companies 100000 tons a year 0 1890s250000 tons and 2 companies produced 1 million tons a year 0 Andrew Carnegie 0 Worked in a cotton mill when he was younger o 1859he was a divisional superintendent o 1878he was granted the steel contract for the Brooklyn Bridge 0 1900Carnegie alone produced more steel than Britain I 20000 employees 1901sold his business to J Pierpont Morgan 0 Morgan made the United States Steel Corporation1901 I 14 billion capital I 168000 employees I 9 million tons of iron and steel a year 0 o Edwin L Drake drilled oil in Pennsylvania 0 Use oil for I Lubricating oil I Grease I Paint I Wax I Varnish I Naphtha I Paraffin 0 John D Rockefeller I Marketing highquality products at low cost I 1879had control of 90 of oil companies Kayla Schmidt I Standard exports to Asia Africa and South America I Trust 0 quotA device to centralize and make more efficient the management of diverse and farflung business operations It allowed stockholders to exchange their stock certificates for trust certificates on which dividends were paid John D Rockefeller organized the first major trust the Standard Oil Trust in 1882 I 1897Rockefeller retired with 900 million I 1890s200000 patents I 1866Cyrus W Field made the transatlantic cablelinking to Europe I 1870sland and submarine cables were inventedreaching Brazil Japan and China I 1890slines reached Africa I 1867typewriter I 1867stock ticker I 1879cash register I 1887calculating machine I 1888 adding machine I 1879 George Eastman patented celluloid film 0 1888 He created Kodak camera I 1871Alexander Bell invented the telephone I 1895310000 phones distributed I 1879incandescent lamp was invented 183 The Sellers 1867spent SSOmillion in advertising 1900SSOOmillion in advertising 1875new era for newspapers RH Macy in New York John Wanamaker in Philadelphia and Marshall Field in Chicago 0 Tried experimenting with department stores 0 quotBrowse and buy concept 1872Aaron Montgomery Ward introduced mailorder trend 184 The Wage Earners Before 1900wage earners works 10 hour days and 6 days a week Skilled earned 20 cents an hour 400500 yearly salary Made more than average 0 Construction waorkers o Machinist 0 Government jobs Kayla Schmidt 0 Printers 0 Clerical workers 0 West miners 0 Less than average salary 0 East coal miners 0 Agricultural workers 0 Garment workers 0 Unskilled factoryjobs 0 Safety was not liable o Accidents did happen 0 Railroads 1 in every 26 were injured 1 in every 399 were killed 0 Some died from disease or pollutants Alice Hamilton made this connection 0 1870 15 of women were over 16 years old worked for wages o 1900 20 of women were over 16 years old 0 1900 out of 303 occupations 296 were occupied by women 0 18701900amount of child labor doubled o 1900 1 out of every 10 girls and 1 out of every 5 boys were between 1015 years old worked 0 Child labor consisted of girls and boy under 14 0 Girls were paid less than boys 0 Most women who worked in factories were single and waiting for marriage 0 1900 5 of married women had a job outside the house 0 25 of African American women worked servants 0 Later on women learned typing skills 0 Few women became ministers lawyers and doctors o Arabella Mansfield 1869first woman lawyer o In factories women continued to be stationed with household priorities 0 Chinese Exclusion Act 0 quotLegislation passed in 1882 that excluded Chinese immigrants for 10 years and denied US citizenship to Chinese nationals It was the first US exclusionary law aimed at a specific racial group 185 Culture of Work 0 Knights of Labor 0 quotFounded in 1869 this labor organization pursued broad reform and practical issues such as improved wages and hours The Knights welcomed all laborers regardless of race gender or skill o 1885Knights won victory in Louis Kansas City 0 The Haymarket Riotagainst the Knights o In 1886 the American Federation of Labor AFL o quotFounded by Samuel Gompers in 1886 the AFL organized skilled workers by craft and pursued specific practical objectives such as higher wages shorter hours and better Kayla Schmidt working conditions The AFL avoided politics and while it did not expressly forbid blacks and women from joining it used exclusionary practices to keep them out 1890S AFL was most important labor union quotiron law wages supply and demand determined wages Injunction to break Pullman Strike of 1894 Supreme Court held injunction in 1895 Between 1880 and 1900 23000 strikes 66 million workers 1877great railroad strike stopping railroads from West Virginia to California killing 100 workers 1886police shot and killed 2 workers on strike at Haymarket Square in Chicago 0 O 0 May 4 3000 protestors were at Haymarketsomeone threw a bomb at police and killed one policeman and injured 6 0 Police then killed 4 workers Homestead Strike quotIn July 1892 wagecutting at Andrew Carnegie s Homestead Steel Plant in Pittsburgh provoked a violent strike in which three company hired detectives and ten workers died Using ruthless force and strikebreakers company officials broke the strike and destroyed the union National wealth O 0 16 billion in 1860 0 88 billion in 1900 Event Location Year Great Railroad Strike Chicago Pittsburgh Martinsburg Baltimore 1877 Haymarket Riot Chicago 1886 Homestead Strike Homestead 1892 Pullman Strike Chicago nationwide 1894 Chapter 19 191 Why did cities in the US grow between 1880 and 1900 192 How did the growth of American cities affect social cultural and political life 193 Why did Jim Crow laws spread across the South after the end of Reconstruction 194 How did life in the growing cities lead to ideas of reform Introduction 1900 0 Harriet Vittum tried to help a poisoned pregnant 15yearold Kayla Schmidt 0 The girl ended up dying o Vittum thought if she did save her and bring the girl back quotto the misery and hopelessness of the life she was living in that awful place 0 18601910 0 Rural population doubles 0 People migrated more towards cities I Urban familieshigh rates of infant mortality I Decline fertility rate I High death rate 0 From injury 0 From disease 0 Two major components between 1870 and 1920 I Industrialization I Urbanization 191 The Lure of City 0 1870 and 1900 city was a major component 0 1861 16 of Americans lived in cities with 8000 people or more 0 1900 13 of Americans lived in cities with 8000 people or more 0 1920 12 of American lived in cities with 8000 people or more 0 1890 The Wainwright Building St Louis Chicago 0 Louis Sullivan was the architect o 10 stories 0 1900 6 cities had more than a million people 0 Curtain wallsconcealed framework and included large windows 0 Famous architects in this time 0 John Root I Plain strippeddown style bold in mass and form I Focused on office buildings 0 Louis H Sullivan I Studied at MIT I 1886 he was 30 developed the Chicago Auditorium 0 Masonry building I Skyscrapers was his focus 0 They both wanted to restore Chicago after the great fire 0 1871Electric elevator was invented o 1871 Streetcars became popular 0 Streetcars expanded a city s radius 0 Middle class left cities 0 Immigrants and working class came in the cities 0 Late 1870s 0 James E Ware Kayla Schmidt I Architect who won a competition with his quotdumbbell tenement I 1890 I 1887 8 stories 30 4room apartments 25 x 100 lot Shaped like a dumbbell Half of NYC were tenements Flashlight photography invented I 1870s and 1880s Cities were polluted and smelled Dumped wastes near bodies of water 1880s homicide rate tripled Slum gangs Hayes Valley Gang in San Francisco Baxter Street Dudes in New York Daybreak Boys in New York 0 Alley Gang in New York Suicide rate rose between 18701900 000 I 1877 and 1890 63 million immigrants entered the US 1882 789000 immigrants in the US 189015 were foreign New Immigrants 0 quotStarting in the 1880s immigration into the US began to shift from northern and western Europe to southern and eastern Europe The new immigrants were mostly poor nonProtestant and unskilled they tended to stay in closeknit communities and retain their language customs and religions Between 1880 and 1910 approximately 84 million of these socalled new immigrants came to the US 192 Social and Cultural Change 18771900 0 1877 47 million people 0 1900 76 million people 0 910 of the population were white 0 110 of the population were black 0 66000 American Indians 0 108000 Chinese 0 148 Japanese 0 Most of the white population were Protestant o Came from AngloSaxon countries in Northern Europe Britain Germany Scandinavia o WASP White AngloSaxon Protestants Kayla Schmidt 1877 0 Most people lived on farms I Primary activities involved the farm church and store 1880 75 of people lived in communities lt 2500 people 0 Average family had 3 children 0 Life expectancy was 43 years 1900 60 of people lived in communities lt 2500 people 0 Life expectancy was 47 years 0 For minorities it was 33 years Louis Pasteur discovered germs through microbiology o Diseases such as tuberculosis typhoid diphtheria and pneumonia Infant mortality declined from 18771900 Few hospitals 1877 0 Children only spoke when spoken to o Middleclass gentlemen wore black suits o 1900 sports gear becomes popular for menswear o Middleclass women wore long draped skirt or tailored suit I Goal was to have a 18inch waistlines o 8 out of 10 churches were Protestants o The rest were Roman Catholics Mugwumps o quotEducated and upperclass reformers who crusaded for lower tariffs limited federal government and civil service reform They were best known for helping elect Grover Cleveland president in 1884 Women s Christian Temperance Union WCTU o quotThis organization campaigned to end drunkenness and the social ills that accompanied it By 1898 it had 10000 branches and 500000 members The WCTU illustrated the role women played in politics and reform long before they won the right to vote quotSilver Threads Among the Gold 1873 0 Popular musical form quotMaple Leaf Rag 1899 0 Popular ragtime Classical music was also popular 1869 0 Baseball became a national sport 0 1901 the American League was organized 1869 0 Princeton and Rutgers played the first intercollegiate football game 1891 0 Basketball was invented Femme conuverte Kayla Schmidt 0 Wives could not legally control earnings 0 Revised in 1890 o 1905 1 in 12 marriages ended in divorce 0 1870s and 1880s 0 Women standing up for humanness o Fought for equal pay 0 Interest in medicine and psychology 0 National American Woman Suffrage Association 0 quotFounded by Susan B Anthony in 1890 this organization worked to secure women the right to vote It stressed careful organization and peaceful lobbying o 1900 31 states51 made school mandatory for the ages up to 14 o 1870 160 public high schools 0 1900 6000 public high schools 0 Average adult had 5 years of schooling 0 1892 Joseph Rice toured 1200 classrooms in 36 cities 0 quotdamp chilly environment 0 Civil Rights Cases 0 quotA group of cases in 1883 in which the Supreme Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment barred state governments from discriminating on the basis of race but did not prevent private individuals or organizations from doing so The ruling dealt a major blow to efforts to protect African Americans 0 Plessy v Ferguson 0 quotA Supreme Court case in 1896 that established the doctrine of quotseparate but equal The Court applied it to schools in Cumming v County Board of Education 1899 The doctrine was finally overturned in 1954 in Brown v Board of Education of Topeka o 1890 35 of black children attended school in the South 0 55 of white children attended school in the South 0 23 of blacks were illiterate 0 Kindergarten movement in 1873starting in St Louis 0 Between 1880 and 1900 150 new colleges 0 The Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862gave states land to teach 0 Women s colleges opened 0 Vassar 1861 Wellesley 1870 Smith 1871 Bryn Mawr 1885 Barnard 1889 Radcliffe 1894 o Du Bois sociology o quotThe Philadelphia Negro 1898 o quotThe Souls of Black Folk 1903 00000 193 The Spread ofJim Crow 0 1870s many northerners had lost interest in guarding the rights of blacks Kayla Schmidt 0 Supreme Court decisions between 18781898 picked apart Reconstruction amendments Case Effect of court s decisions Hall v DeCuir 1878 Struck down Louisiana law prohibiting racial discrimination by common carriers railroads steamboats buses Declared the law a burden on interstate commerce over which states had no authority United States v Harris 1882 Declared unconstitutional federal laws to punish crimes such as murder and assault Declared such crimes to be the sole concern of local government Ignored the frequent racial motivation behind such crimes in the South Civil Rights Cases 1883 Struck down Civil Rights Act of 1875 Declared that Congress may not legislate on civil rights unless a state passes a discriminatory law Declared the Fourteenth Amendment silent on racial discrimination by private citizens Plessy v Ferguson 1896 Upheld Louisiana statute requiring quotseparate but equal accommodations on railroads Declared that segregation is not necessarily discrimination Williams v Mississippi 1898 Upheld state law requiring a literacy test to qualify for voting Refused to find any implication of racial discrimination in the law although it permitted illiterate whites to vote if they understood the Constitution Using such laws southern states rapidly disfranchised blacks 0 Jim Crow laws spread 1920s and 1930s 0 Lychings also spread 0 18891899 I 187 blacks were lynched every year 194 The Stirrings of Reform 0 Social Darwinism o quotAdapted by English social philosopher Hebert Spencer from Charles Darwin s theory of evolution this theory held that the quotlawsquot of evolution applied to human life that change or reform therefore took centuries and that the quotfittestquot would succeed in business and social relationships It promoted competition and individualism saw government intervention into human affairs as futile and was used by the economic and social elite to oppose reform o What Social Classes owe to Each other 1883 o The Absurd Effort to Make the World Over 1894 I Argued that government action to help poverty would interfere with evolution 0 Henry George s bestseller Progress and Poverty 1879 0 Saw society rich and complex Kayla Schmidt 0 quotA quotsingle tax on the increment replacing all other taxes would help equalize wealth and raise revenue to aid the poor 0 Edward Bellamy 0 Looking Backward 20001887 0 Social Gospel 0 quotPreached by urban Protestant ministers the Social Gospel focused as much on improving the conditions of life on earth as on saving souls for the hereafter ts adherents worked for childlabor laws and measures to alleviate poverty 0 Settlement Houses 0 quotLocated in poor districts these community centers tried to soften the impact of urban life for immigrant and other families Often run by young educated women they provided social service and a political voice for their neighborhoods Chicago s Hull House founded by Jane Addams in 1889 was the most famous of them
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