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Lecture 13 - Group Processes Pt. 2

by: Leslie Ogu

Lecture 13 - Group Processes Pt. 2 PSYC 2012

Marketplace > George Washington University > Psychlogy > PSYC 2012 > Lecture 13 Group Processes Pt 2
Leslie Ogu
GPA 3.01

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About this Document

We conclude our discussion on the influence groups in a social situation affect our decisions, agreement with the group, change of viewpoints, and overall what we stand for
Social Psychology
Stock, M
Class Notes
social psychology, group processes, groupthink, social situations, group pressure, Polarization, overestimation, group size, self-censorship, Stereotyping, Conflict, cooperation, Prevention, symptoms, tit for that
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Ogu on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2012 at George Washington University taught by Stock, M in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 03/07/16
Leslie Ogu PSYC 2012  03/07/2016 ­ Group Processes Pt. 2    Making Decisions: Polarization  ➢ Common Belief: A benefit of groups is that everyone hears different opinions and  that this should lead to moderate decisions (compromises)  ○ We already know this to be false  ➢ Group Polarization:​  the tendency for groups to make decisions that are more  extreme than the initial inclinations of its members  ○ Why Does it Happen?  ■ “Persuasive arguments” lead to exposure to additional arguments  in favor of decision  ■ “Social comparison” leads to a want to be liked; others supporting  your position means you will voice your opinion more strongly  ■ This is Normative v. Informational influence  ○ Only works if group members all ​ generally agree at first (risky or cautious)  ○ Cultural Effects  ■ e.g., U.S. tends to socialize us to be risk­takers  ○ Can be positive (+) or negative (­)  ■ It becomes a negative thing if it leads to Groupthink  ➢ Groupthink:​  a kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and  solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner  ○ Ex: ​The Titanic ­ “God himself could not sink this ship.” ­ Captain Edward  Smith  ○ When it Occurs  ■ The group is highly cohesive  ● They like each other, important to identity, valued  ■ The more cohesive a group is, the more its members are likely to:  ● Stay in the group  ● Take part in group activities  ● Try to recruit new, like­minded members  ■ The group is isolated  ■ There is a directive, controlling leader  ■ The group is under stress  ■ No standard procedures for decision making  ○ Symptoms  ■ Overestimation of the group  ● Display an illusion of invulnerability (feeling that one can do  no wrong)  ● Don’t question the group’s morality (ignore actions, believe  they are morally correct)  ■ Self­censorship  ● Withhold opposing views for group harmony  ■ Stereotyping of outgroup  ● Views them in a negative light with simplistic views  ■ Pressures toward uniformity  ● Pressure to conform to group (Asch studies)  ● This results in an illusion of unanimit (believing that all  agree)  ■ Mindguards  ● Protect leader from contrary viewpoints  ○ Prevention  ■ Be impartial; don’t endorse any position to begin with (non­directive  leader)  ■ Seek anonymous opinions  ■ Encourage critical evaluation of different viewpoints  ● Play Devil’s Advocate  ■ Subdivide the group and reunite to air differences  ■ Welcome critiques from outside experts  ■ Call a second­chance meeting to air lingering doubts    Conflict v. Cooperation  ➢ What happens when people having conflicting goals in a group?  ○ Social Dilemma:​  conflict in which the most beneficial action for an  individual will, if chosen by everyone, harm everyone  ➢ Real life example: Building up military  ○ How much do you trust other countries?  ○ If you don’t trust others , you w​ompete  ○ If others are willing to work together, you ​ooperate  ■ This maximizes the benefit of the group  ➢ Best Strategy: “​Tit for tat”  ○ A means of encouraging cooperation by at first acting cooperatively but  then always responding the way your opponent did (cooperatively or  competitively) on the previous trial 


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