Review of test 1
Review of test 1 MSCI 311
Popular in Biology of Marine Organisms
Popular in Marine Science
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Hathaway on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MSCI 311 at University of South Carolina taught by Griffen in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Biology of Marine Organisms in Marine Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Review Sponges sponge passed through screen cells reaggregated to reform Cnidarians nematocyst contain toxins Platymenthes Acoelomate no body cavity Organs packed between gut and body wall Psuedocoelomate unlined body cavity round worms complete digestive track Coelomate most advanced all vertabrates higher inverts organs develop independent of body wall Gastrulation allows for cephalization protostomes and deurterostomes Mollusks Cephalopod camou age chromatophores Annelids segmented worms Arthropods most successful perfected adaptations Echinoderms water vascular system pentaradial symmetry Tunicates closest invertebrate all characteristics of chordates o Pharyngeal gill slits Notochord Post anal tail Dorsal hollow nerve cord Fish backbones swim bladder movement Ray nned v lobe nned Lung sh likely ancestor of tetrapods Reptiles Sea turtle temperature dependent sex determination Birds warm blooded ight Mammals warmblooded live birth Atavism is the tendency to revert to ancestral type In biology an atavism is an evolutionary throwback such as traits reappearing which had disappeared generations before 2014 nature paper shows new fossil that is beginning of echolocation in toothed whales ecological effects of intensive shing 0 shing effort increases over time 0 large predatory sh become depleted marine ecosystem becomes progressively more damaged and biodiversity is reduced In this unnaturally predatorfree environment the ecosystem can become dominated by 0 highly valuable shell sh o harmful algal blooms highly invasive gelatinous plankton and jeHy sh Evolution Individuals do not evolve Gene region on a chromosome used to code for a protein Alleles alternative forms a gene can have on homologous chromosomes Locus precise location of gene Evolution change in frequency of genes For population gene pool to change must be mechanism that promotes differential reproduction Hypothetical case a population of sea otters in which 0 80 of all the gametes in the population carry a dominant allele for brown coat B and o 20 carry the recessive allele for gray coat b Random union of these gametes will produce a generation 0 64 homozygous for BB 0 08 x 08 064 o 32 Bb heterozygotes o 08 x 02 x 2 032 o 4 homozygous bb for gray coat 0 02 x 02 004 So 96 of this generation will have brown coats only 4 gray coats Hardy Weinberg equilibrium 0 No mutations 0 only heritable changes lead to evolution acquired not 0 No gene ow 0 no migration mixing of gene pool 0 No random drift 0 chance event have greater effect on smaller populations 0 reduces variation within population increases between o bottleneck effect founder events 0 Random mating 0 equal chance of mating 0 sexual selection occurs in nature 0 No selection 0 those that survive reproduce and pass on genes 0 three types stabilizing directional disruptive evolution heritable change in organisms over time changing genetics change in frequency of genes appearance allopatric speciation formation of new species due to physical separation sympatric speciation formation of new species due to behavior differences microevolution change in allele frequency over time variation form meiosis and mutation macroevolution origination diversi cation and extinction of species over long periods of evolutionary time reduced speciation rates increased extinction marine invertebrates Cambrian fauna high turnover Paleozoic fauna diverse but mass extinction at endpermian Modern fauna slow turnover rate Sixth mass extinction due to current events Invasive species ex lion sh Feeding mechanisms Filter feeding active vs passive Increased amount or high ow rate Rorqual whale pleated throat active due to muscle contraction Deposit feeders Most likely get energy from dead matter and microbes breaking it down Resuspend sediments helps lter feeders Predation Symbiosis Digestion splitting up ingested food into molecules for energy Extracellular digestion digestion in an extracellular body cavity such as the lumen of the stomach or intestines vertebrates arthropods some mollusks Digestive enzymes released 0 Food particles broken down 0 Food particles engulfed and digested Intracellular digestion food particles are taken into specialized cells prior to digestion and digestion occurs within the cell sponges cnidarians atworms some mollusks Stomachs Batch reactor least efficient Continuous ow stirredtank receptor food ingested con nuougy Plug ow reactor Diet speci c enzyme activity ex Protease and trypsin are enzymes for digesting proteins Cellulase used to digest plant cell walls Hydrolysis used to break down food the splitting of a polymer by adding water to a covalent bond catalyzed by a hydrolyase enzyme Microvilli increase surface area for intestine to maximize absorption Energy budgets Food consumed and assimilated energy available for maintenance growth and reproduction Thermodynamics 0 First law energy is constant 0 Second law amount of useful energy decreases when energy transformations occur Slide 38
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