Review of test 1
Review of test 1 BIOL 575 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Hathaway on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 575 001 at University of South Carolina taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Marine Ecology in Biology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Marine species 14 known species 98 benthic Why is there such a large difference between benthic and pelagic species Fish can swim under sampled At least onethird of marine species undescribed Marine Habitats Distance from shore 0 Water depth 0 Light zones Slides 4 and 5 Deepest point Mariana Trench 10908 meters Shore zonation upper middle and lower intertidal zones Slide 6 image Driven by physiological tolerance competition for space and predation ln SC zonation along coast is primarily due to competition mid lattitude Water column zonation Turbulence and mixing create microscale gradients Climate and sea level Where was the SC shoreline 25000 years ago 100 miles east of Charleston Productivity patterns have a largely predictable distribution and determine location of marine organisms Biogeography Endemic describes a plant or animal species that is restricted to one or a few localities in its distribution Isolation prevents local evolution and spreading longer this occurs increased tendency toward endemism lsland size and isolation determine species richness balance between immigration and extinction lmage slide 21 Marine Ecoregions of the World MEOW Realm very large region of coastal benthic or pelagic ocean where biotas are coherent at higher trophic levels with high levels of endemism 12 Province large areas de ned by presence of distinct biotas with some level of endemism level of species 62 Ecoregions areas of relatively homogenous species composition distinct from adjacent systems 232 Which of the following is the largest in areal extent Realm Biodiversity Genetic diversity 0 Variation in genetic material 0 exibility for environmental changes 0 may maximize potential for survival and new species 0 Species diversity 0 Number and evenness of species 0 High diversity healthy ecosystem 0 Environmental diversity 0 Varity of communities within an ecosystem Species richness most common measure of biodiversity Species interbreeding group of organisms unable to generate reproductivelyviable offspring Morphospecies and cryptic species By far most of the named species on earth are differentiated based on morphological characteristics ExUncUon Mass extinctions have effected marine organisms better preserved KT mass extinction 65 million years ago 11 marine families were lost Major radiations occur soon after major extinction events barrel lling When did the most recent species radiation begin 65 million years ago Species richness increases from the poles to the tropics Oldest and richest fauna usually occurs at the margin of the continental shelf why permanently underwater more constant habitat in photic zone species can be classi ed into functional groups ex deposit v suspension feeders keystone species major impacts on ecosystem function redundant removal has minimal impact Rivet theory and Redundancy theory Low diversity habitats usually have high abundances of single species lnterdecadal cyclic uctuations in abundance of invertebrates High latitudes maintained by disturbance Lower latitudes maintained by biological interactions Fastest sh sail sh lstiophorus platypterus short bursts at 109kmh Primary productiondissolved C02 in seawater exists as the bicarbonate ion HCO3 major reservoir Total dissolved inorganic carbon DIC is about 22 mg C liter pH temperature and salinity govern ocean ranges 8183 why is the rapidly increasing concentration of atmospheric C02 a problem for calcareous organisms Causes dissolution of calcium carbonate photosynthesis removes C02 and increases pH respiration decreases light energy irradiance PAR photosyntheticallyactive radiation 400700 nm Chlorophyll a is primary photosynthetic pigment for all oxygenic photoautotrophs A scuba diver was at a depth of 25 m and accidently sliced nger color of blood Green Photic zone lighted region Attenuation exponential loss of light CDOM colored dissolved organic matter absorbs light As the attenuation coef cient for PAR decreases the depth of the photic zone Increases In most estuaries Nanoplankton have the highest biomass and primary production In oligotrophic habitats Picoplankton have the highest biomass and primary production Metabolism Phototroph heterotroph chemotroph Photoacclimation altering concentration of chlorophyll a Chloroplast can align themselves to minimize surface area Compensation depth NPP0 Critical depth daily productiondaily respiration Is it possible for the critical depth to be shallower than the compensation depth False Nutrients and biogeochemical cycling Nitrogen most likely limiting factor in marine environment all living organisms require for life Rivers major input source agricultural and urban watersheds Nitrogen pools concentrations relatively uniform in open ocean Dissolved inorganic nitrogen most abundant Nitrogen cycle slide 65 Nitrogen xation by enzyme nitrogenase cleaves triple bonds only prokaryotes only Inhibited by high ammonium and oxygen Cyanobacteria have heterocysts sites of xation Spatiotemporal seperation of nitrogen xation Nitri cation oxidation of ammonium to N03 requires 02 Denitri cation reduction of N03 to N2 New v regenerated nitrogen Phosphorus second most limiting mostly in freshwater Red eld ratio Dissolved inorganic dissolved organic particulate Rivers main input source Sulfer cylcle Silicon is important element for cell wall formation in diatoms and silico agellates radiolarons etc Biogenic silica opaline noncrystalized form lron cycle Sandstorms spread dust particles across atlantic leads to high iron Biomass and surface area Why is surface area important for biogeochemical cycling Rates are indirectly proportional to surface area Nutrient uptake Michaellsmenton kinetics uptake rate v concentration A high Kt for a phytoplankter suggests that it would grow faster when nutrient concentrations are low False Ficks law and molecular diffusion F D dCdz depends on concentration gradient Small cells molecular diffusion usually limits availability and uptake rates of dissolved compounds The concentration gradient dCdz in the diffusive boundary layer increases as ow around a particle increases
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