Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes FSCN 1112
U of M
Popular in Principles of Nutrition
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Cummins on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FSCN 1112 at University of Minnesota taught by Mashek, Douglas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Principles of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Week 2 Ch 2 Factors affecting nutrient composition 0 O O Freshness foods loose nutrients over time Processing can remove nutrients or make them more available through cooking Soil compositionweather grapes for wine making depend on rain sunlight Genetic background generic tomatoes vs heirloom Storage freezer vs fridge vs hot sun Energy density calories per unit major factors include water content and fat content Dietary guidelines 0 O 0 US gov says people need more fruits vegetables whole grains low fat dairy varied protein seafood and fiber US gov says people need less salt saturated fat and alcohol Food categories dairy meatbeans fruits vegetables grains oil Serving size suggestions not always the size of the package have increased over the past few decades Studies show an increase in portion size has led to a rise in obesity Ch 3 The Food Supply Food availability 0 O O 0 Food insecurity uncertain access to healthy safe food 1 in 6 people worldwide are food insecure especially in developing countries 13 of the world population has a micronutrient deficiency In the US 15 of population is food insecure closely linked to poverty Highest in children minorities and single parents Food security programs 0 O SNAP supplemental nutrition assistance program I Food stamps I 11 of US population participates WIC support for women infants and children I 9 million participants Second Harvest Heartland distributes 70 million lbs of food to MN every year Under nutrition lack of energy supply carbs protein fat Micronutrient deficiency missing vitamin A vitamin D iron or any other vitamin mineral Subsistence farming growing only what you need to survive popular in developing countries difficult to be fully nourished Organic foods 0 0 US is a leader in organic farming consumption Australia is 1 Pros I Lower antibiotic resistance Lower environmental impact reduce dead zones around river deltas by decreasing harmful chemicals in water systems Reduce negative health effects related to harsh chemicals consumer and farmer Expensive Not efficient lower yield Shorter shelf life NO NUTRITIONAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ORGANIC AND NONORGANIC GMOs Genetically Modified Organisms Recombinant DNA technology inserts desired gene into organism s O 0 DNA Ex A gene in a certain type of bacteria makes a toxin that repels the European corn borer When the gene is added crop success rises because of the decrease in pest activity Pros Adds nutrients vitamin A inserted into rice Increases yield Makes crops disease resistant Big business has total control over all of their seeds because they are considered intellectual property GMOs mutate and can spread into neighboring fields US leads world in GMO production corn soybean cotton GMOs are banned in Europe based on consumer demand Safety concerns Addition of new allergies to certain types of food no documented proof to support conclusion Unintended gene ow GMO crops reseed and drift to neighboring farms Crop gene pool is getting smaller and smaller species are becoming more homogenous ie development of Bt resistant insects can wipe out entire farms Insufficient regulation and oversight could lead to problems slipping through the system 0 Regulation FDA regulates safety for human and animal consumption USDA regulates if crops are safe to grow EPA pesticides introduced to foods are safe for consumption round up resistant crops introduce methods of farming that could be hazardous to the environment More Biotechnology 0 Recombinant bovine growth hormone rBGH Injected into cows to increase milk production O O O I Milk is chemically identical to that of untreated cows I Concerns cow health unknown safety risks I Banned in other countries based on consumer demand Food irradiation I Radiant energy microwaves emitted to kill pathogens on food and extend shelf life Cloning I Currently not approved for consumption I No effect of cloning on meatmilk composition I Could be used to propagate selected animals History of biotechnology I Animal breeding selecting started around 20000 BC I Selection of bacteria for fermentation started around 10000BC Food additives 0 00000 Improve freshness and safety Can add to nutritional value Used to enhance color avortexture Incidental addition BPA leaching into food from packaging Can be synthetic or natural Food additive regulation FDA I GRAS generally recognized as safe Ex sugar salt To find out if an additive is safe it is fed to a mouserat in extremely high doses for a short period of time Not a very accurate way to measure humans differ greatly from lab mice and should be worried about a lifetime of exposure in low doses Concerns I Individual sensitivity to an additive I Informationresearch on additives is not detailed enough Foodborne Illness O O 0 3000 deaths year in the US 20 million deaths year worldwide I Individuals at risk People with weakened immune systems HIVAIDS I Pregnantlactating women I Infants and small children I The elderly Common points of contamination I Contaminated by feces spinach crops grown near fields fertilized by manure can pick up E coli I Contamination by affected individual open wounds can transfer pathogens I Cross contamination in the kitchen a cutting board used for raw chicken is used for raw veggies biggest concern for home cooks 0 Types of pathogens I Bacteria Need nutrients water and proper temperature 41 F 1350 F in order to survive Salmonella eggs poultry 1 million cases year Campylobacter meat poultry 850000 cases year E Coli beef produce 175000 casesyear most lethal bacteria I Viruses norovirus Reproduce inside of body cells Seafood I Parasites Live in hosts Tapeworm I Prions Bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE mad cow disease Comes from eating infected brains I Toxins Mycotoxins form molds that are harmful Water safety 0 Public water monitored by EPA but bottled water monitored by FDA 0 Threats to safety I Runoff from farms I Pollution from boats factories I Unlawful disposal of chemicals fecal waste I Can affect fish 0 Environmental concerns I Mercury and heavy metals in fish salmon I Other PCBs antibiotics
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