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Psychology of Adolescence week 2

by: Katerina Patrinos

Psychology of Adolescence week 2 Psy 332

Marketplace > University of Wisconsin - Whitewater > Psychlogy > Psy 332 > Psychology of Adolescence week 2
Katerina Patrinos
GPA 3.7
Psychology of Adolescence
Dr. Fruiht

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Psychology of Adolescence
Dr. Fruiht
Class Notes
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katerina Patrinos on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 332 at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater taught by Dr. Fruiht in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Adolescence in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
Psychology of Adolescence Psych 332 91715 927 AM Biology Puberty and Health What is Puberty 0 Process of child body turning to adult body Pibertas adult 0 Latin word for adult 0 From Child body to adult body that can reproduce 0 Sexual maturation Onset occurs when hormone levels change in the body 0 Puberty changing levels of hormones Endocrine System HPG axis hormonal feedback loop is like a thermostat for hormones o Hypothalamuspituitary gland gonads androgens estrogens 0 Think of it as a thermostat If you have your house set at 72 and your roommate comes and changes it to 52 the air kicks in like the HPG Puberty occurs when the thermostat gets adjusted to adult 0 Something clicks in the hypothalamus saying that there is not enough hormones and sends it to the pituitary gland and so fourth No new hormones but new levels of old hormones 0 Body already has hormones just a different level Hormones Androgens main class of male sex hormones o Testosterone Estrogens main class of female sex hormones o Estradiol what happens at adolescence o thermostat gets cranked and levels of hormones rise What causes Puberty Endocrine systemHPG axis 0 But what causes that 0 Who changes the thermostat Three big theories 0 1 Development of adrenal glands biological o 2 Weight Body fat 0 Sociocultural context and early experiences Took far more convincing Ad renal system 0 adrenarche 610 maturation of the adrenal glands Adrenal glands send a hormonal message to the gonads gonadarche Gonadarche 2 years later maturation of primary and secondary sex characteristics Turns up the thermostat o Saying that HPG access cant really keep track of hormones until the adrenal glands need to be fully developed and in place Weightbody fat 0 Higher weight and obesity are linked to early pubertal development in girls 0 106 pounds ends the growth spurt and triggers menarche Studies found that around 106 pounds girls start getting their period 0 17 body fat triggers menarche Younger girls at 15 are less likely to start their period 0 What is it about fat 0 Leptin protein produced by fat cells triggers hypothalamus to turn on puberty Being underweight delays puberty for both sexes Sociocultural Context 0 Us age for menarche M12 Lumi New Guinea age for menarche M18 years 0 Children adopted to a developed country reach puberty before peers in developing country Seems to be linked to environment u If you take someone from a developing country and but them in the US they will begin puberty the same time the US does Can be linked to nutrition and lifestyle 0 Urban youth reach puberty earlier 0 Stressors in early life link with early puberty onset Traumatic early experiences Parents getting divorced 0 Low birth weight can delay puberty Variation in Pubertal timing 0 Trends show progressive decline in age of menarche 0 Due to nutrition health control if disease 0 Obesity changes in diet exposure to chemicals and hormones 18 Norway Finland A 17 Sweden 5 USA c 16 C E U C 1 E 15 5 Q 039 U c 14 2 0 Q E 13 12 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 Year Is puberty really happening earlier 0 Most research is done with girls period is happening earlier Less consistent trends in boys Euling et al 2008 Overweight girls go through puberty earlier more girls are overweight so puberty starts earlier now than in 1940 Obesity also delays puberty in boys walvoord 2010 Ethnic differences in Pubertal timing 0 Not just because of income and or weight difference between ethic groups 0 African American and Latino girls are more likely to start their period before Caucasian Is this due to stress bad living environments culture etc What does puberty look like 0 Growth spurt o Gi S 912 years old 35 inches per year 18 pounds hips 1114 years old 4 inches per year 20 pounds Shoulders 0 Body composition 0 End of puberty muscle to fat ratio m 31 Girls 54 I Has to do with girls bodies preparing to have a baby Maturation differences 0 M More orderlypredictable sequences a Seems that things happen in about the same order for most boys hidden development happens before more obvious changes n testicular development pubic hair etc boys can reproduce before they look like they should 0 gm less orderly sequence more variation hidden development happens m more obvious changes girls cant reproduce until after they look like they should Adolescent Health and Wellness 0 Puberty and Behavior 0 Hormonal changes lead to changes in appearance self image changes in reactions from others and ultimately changes in adolescent s behavior Changes in Hormonal g d 1 Changes r a o escents behavior Changes in Changes in Changes in Hormonal Changes gt adolescents gt adolescents gt adolescents appearance selfimage behavior Changes in Changes in Changes in Hormonal gt adolescents gt reactrons of gt adolescents changes appearance others behavror 0 Changes in hormones effect behavior Cant keep move stable If you ask a teen in school how their days going they might say terrible but when you ask them later that day when they are with friends they re going to say great 0 Changes in adolescent appearance Start looking older so other people react differently to you a Society expects different things for you a Start becoming more independent 0 Changes in mental health 0 Mainly decrease in esteem and well being Decreases in selfcare and changing physical needs 0 Parents don t regulate so much 0 Increased risk taking behavior 0 Result from hormones cognitive development social expectations Puberty and Mental Health 0 Boys 0 O O O O 0 Generally boys are more satisfied with their adolescent bodies Increases in muscle mass perceived positively Early maturing boys see themselves more positively and have better peer relationships than late maturing boys Makes them more of a leader Worse mood and prevalence of mood disorders in early developers Generally girls are less happy with their bodies Increases in body fat correlates with dissatisfaction Bodies maturing and getting ready to have a baby Early maturing girls are at higher risk for an array of social and behavioral problems internalizing and externalizing Internalizing internal depression self harm etc Externalizing acting out being more sexual etc Body image in Adolescence 100 90 80 7o 60 50 40 Percent of adolescents 3O 20 10 Underweight Underweight Average weight Average weight Overweight Overweight boys girls boys girls boys I Want to be bigger I Body satisfied I Want to be smaller girls Obesity in Adolescence Continues to rise Already have girls that are dissatisfied with their bodies and obesity is increasing so more and more adolescence are going to be dissatisfied Adolescence and Health Most people are as healthy as they ll ever bequot in adolescence Health behaviors in adolescence and emerging adulthood set the stagequot for adult behaviors 0 Researchers have been seeing some changes in adolescence 0 Seeing decreases in health behaviors in adolescence Adolescents think they re invulnerable and special and will never suffer from poor health 0 Adolescents think they re invincible Puberty and Sleep Later melatonin secretion changes phase preference sleep and wake later 0 Adolescents don t sleep much tend to sleep less then they should part of this is biological hormonal changes effects sleep clock 0 environmental factors effect sleep patterns 0 I can get into more trouble when mom and dad are sleepingquot 0 technology 0 school start time effects sleep patterns 0 have to get up early for school 0 adolescents should sleep 995 hours per night 0 less than half of adolescents get 8 hours of sleep a night insufficient sleep is related to 0 poor mental health esteem depression anxiety at a higher risk when we don t sleep enough 0 Delinquency More likely to get in trouble with police get detention and referrals at school 0 Poor physical health and unhealthy BMI If kids get more sleep their physical health seems to improve 0 Poor school performance Exercise in Adolescence Exercise can improve physical and mental health improve sleep patterns improve cognitive skills and concentration decrease drug use 0 Things that effect exercise patterns 0 Parents Whether or not your parents encourage their kids 0 Schools 0 Communitiesneighborhood 0 Sports Kids who play sports get more exercise Availability of sports has to do with school and community 0 Screens More time adolescent spends in front of a screen it decreases exercise Adolescence and Health 0 Most risk in adolescence has environmental not genetic causes 0 Poor lifestyle choices Increase in adolescence that are obese o Risky behavior Put themselves in more dangerous situations 0 Violence 0 Substance use Adolescent Mortality 75 of unintentional injuries of adolescents are motor vehicle deaths 0 most are accidental and many teens are just starting to drive 0 50 of motor vehicle deaths involve drunk drivers Other Homicide J Suicide I Unintentional injury 160 140 1370 0 120 8 o 100 0 Z 80 Q 3 60 C 5 40 471 0 Q 20 0 Males Females Males Females Age512 17 Age518 24 Adolescent Risk Taking Emerging adults engage in more unhealthy behaviors than earlymiddle adolescents twice the mortality rate 0 Higher rates of o Obesity 0 Chronic health issues 0 Mental health disorders Personality disorders mood disorders etc 0 Why do adolescence risk take 0 Seek high arousal experiences Partly from dopamine regulations changes in the brain Ex rollercoasters 0 Don39t foresee the longer term consequences of unhealthy behavior which may show up in later life Tend to live in the here and now Pubertal timing and health behaviors 0 can see how starting period and hormonal changes effect behaviors and are most likely to smoke 70 I Weekly I Never 60 50 4O 3O 20 Percent of girls reporting smoking Age at menarche Overall view of Adolescent Health 0 Puberty starts at around 911 years old 0 Hormonal set pointsquot adjust to adult levels 0 Puberty causes physical behavioral and emotional changes 0 US adolescents need 0 More sleep 0 More vegetables o More exercise 0 Less alcohol 91715 927 AM 91715 927 AM


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