Biology for the 21st Century (BIO 104) - Chapter 2 Notes
Biology for the 21st Century (BIO 104) - Chapter 2 Notes BIO 104
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia Orlando on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 104 at Grand Valley State University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Biology for the 21st Century in Biology at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Biology 104 Chapter 2 The Search for Martian Life 0 is the study of life Life has an ambiguous definition that scientists cannot come to a common agreement upon 1 Grow 2Reproduce increase in size produce offspring 3 Maintain homeostasis The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment being the correct internal temperature for your living situation not overly cold not overly hot 4 Sense Act to their environment 5 Obtain and use energy Energy is the power to do work 1 Water 2 Organic CarbonBased Molecules 3 Cellular 0 A are chemical reactions occurring in living cells that allow it to use and obtain energy 0 The problem with finding out if life no longer exists on Mars is that dead organisms don t do anything Meaning because there are similarities between Earth and Mars who s to say the same thing won t happen to Earth in a few hundred thousand years 0 An is a chemically pure substance that can t be broken down any further elements are made defined by a single type of atom o is anything that takes up space and has mass 0 The smallest unit of an element is an protons are positive electrons are negative and neutrons are neutral 0 The is the dense core of an atom I think of it as the brain of an atom o A is a strong chemical bond resulting from the sharing of a pair of electrons between two atoms A molecule is two atoms connected by covalent bonds Different atoms can form different numbers of covalent bonds 0 Any living thing residing on Earth are called which means that organic molecules consist of one carbon atom attached to a hydrogen atom For example C6H1206 glucose aka sugar 0 If living things are referred to as organic molecules it only makes sense that nonliving things are referred to as meaning that inorganic molecules have no carboncarbon backbone and carbonhydrogen bond 0 1 Carbohydrates 1 or more sugars the most effective of the 4 organic molecules to produce energy 2 Protein linked amino acids subunits chain endtoend structure the shape is heavily in uenced towards their function the second most effective way to get energy of the 4 organic molecules 3 Lipids repel water usually fats 9 made of fatty acids energy rich storage 4 Nucleic Acids linked nucleotide subunits DNA RNA ATP are examples Larger organic molecules that make up living organisms carbs proteins and nucleic acids are a chemical subunit of a polymer are a molecule that s made up of individuals subunits linked together in a chain A is the building block or monomer of a carbohydrate are the building block of a protein are the basic structural unit of Earth life humans are made of trillions lcell membrane water filled sacs two layers 2 hydrophobic literally water fearing repels water 3 hydrophilic literally water loving attracts water are unequal sharing of oxygen and hydrogen bonds and electrons reactive Example water are weak electrical attraction between a partially positive hydrogen atom and a partially negative atom is what pulls or sticks the water molecules to cling together Cohesion 9 Coworkers 9 coworkers stick together at the water cooler is water molecules sticking to other surfaces through hydrogen bonding Why dos ice a solid oat The increased separation between water molecules decreases the density of water is a substance that s capable of dissolving just about in every substance A is a dissolved substance A is the mixture of the solute and solvent is a strong electrical attraction between oppositely charged ions formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another form by atoms of opposite electrical charges are an electrically charged atom charge comes from the loss gain of electrons is a measure of the concentration of H in a solution 07 Acidic 7 Neutral 814 Basic is a substance that contains more hydrogen ion concentration is a substance that contains less hydrogen ion concentration are infections agent made up of a protein shell that encloses genetic information References Shuster Michele Janet Vigna Matthew Tontonoz and Gunj an SinhaBiology for a Changing World with Physiology New York City WH Freeman 2014 Print
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