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35.4 Primates and Hominins

by: Monica Cecilia Quilatan

35.4 Primates and Hominins Bio 94

Marketplace > University of California - Irvine > Biology > Bio 94 > 35 4 Primates and Hominins
Monica Cecilia Quilatan

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About this Document

This is the outline on the reading of March 8th. Chapter 35 Section 4..
Bio 94: Organisms to Ecosystems
Dr. Burley
Class Notes
Biology, Ecology, primates, Hominins, Fossil, Evidence
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monica Cecilia Quilatan on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 94 at University of California - Irvine taught by Dr. Burley in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Bio 94: Organisms to Ecosystems in Biology at University of California - Irvine.


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Date Created: 03/07/16
Chapter 35 (704 – end) ▯ Humans occupy a small “twig” within the mammal branch on the tree of life.  Extensive research on the origin of human ▯ Primates  Primates tend to have: o Hands/feet that are fficient in grasping o Flattened nails as opposed to claws o Relatively large brains to body size ratio o Complex social behavior o Extensive parental care of offspring o Eyes located at the front of the face  Provides depth perception Prosimians (“before-monkeys”) o Relatively small in size o Live in trees o Active at night o Ex: lemurs, tarsiers Anthropoedia or Anthropoids (“human-like”) o New World monkeys o Hominidae or great apes – orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans  Long arms, short legs, and no tail  Orangutans – fist walk (backs of hands pressed to ground)  Gorillas & Chimps- knuckle walk or rise on two legs  Humans- only living great ape that is fully bipedal (“two- footed”) – walk upright on two legs  Fossil records in Tanzania provide evidence that this phenomena occurred 3.6 mya  Synapomorphy that defines hominins  Hominins: monophyletic group comprising homo sapiens and ≈ 20 (extinct) bipedal relatives ▯ Fossil Humans  Comparisons of DNA conclude that humans are most closely related to chimpanzees and bonobos o Common ancestor lived ≈ 6-7 mya in Africa  Ardipithecus ramdius – oldest hominin known to date  The shared, derived character that defines hominins is bipedalism  Several species from the lineage were present simultaneously during most of the hominin evolution  Species in the genus Homo have extremely large brains relative to their body size o Hypothesis: Increased language use and toolmaking  natural selection for capacity to reason & communicate  larger brain to store Gracile Australopithecines o Gracile = “slender” o Australopithecus = “southern ape”  South Africa o Shape of knee and hip = bipedal locomotion o Hole in back of skull (where spinal cord connected) is oriented downwards Robust Australopithecines o Paranthropus = “beside-human”  Hypothesis: three known species are a monophyletic group that was a side branch during human evolution  Massive cheek teeth and jaws, large cheekbones, sagittal crest (flang bone at top of skull)  very powerful bite Early Homo o AKA HUMANS. o Flatter, narrower faces; smaller jaws and teeth; larger braincases o Appearance of the Homo genus coincided with the appearance of tools that were made with stone  No evidence that they were made by them, but hypothesis is favored Recent Homo o 1.2 MYA – present o Cro-Magnons – accomplished painters/sculptors who buried their dead in carefully prepared graves o Neanderthals – made art and buried their dead people in a ceremonial fashion o H. Floresienis (discovered in 2003)  Coined the nickename Hobbit because of size  Inhabited Flores 10,000 – 12,000 years ago  Researchers propose that this group stunted by disease ▯ Out-Of-Africa Hypothesis  Hominins originated inAfrica  spread throughout world  where did Homo sapiens originate?  Fossil Evstence o 1 H sapien fossils appear in E. African Rocks (195,000 ya)  in that time H. neanderthalensis in Middle East and Europe  H. Erectus in Asia o 60,000 – 30,00 y.a. H. sapien fossils found throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia ▯ ▯ ▯


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