History 105: Week 9 Lecture Notes
History 105: Week 9 Lecture Notes HIST 105
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christian Benson on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 105 at University of Oregon taught by Prof. Furtado in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Lecture – (3/2/16) Telescopes and microscopes – European inventiveness Rene Descartes (Mind Body Dualism) o Analytical Geometry o Cartesian coordinates o Mind and body union at pineal gland o Math to explain Math language can be universal language Calculus o Describe the infinitely small o Non physical abstraction o Universal laws of nature newton o Probability o Relation to Taoism in China Trying to anchor knowledge in a concrete way and explain the unknown Geocentrism – Ptolemy 168 CE o Earth is at the center of the universe and everything orbits it o Celestial spheres Helio centrism – Copernicus (1543) o Sun is at the center of the universe, earth is moving too o Used math, proves Ptolemy wrong Columbus proves Ptolemy geography wrong by discovering the north and south America, led Copernicus to question geocentrism Imperfection of ancient texts lead to empirical observation Tycho Brahe (1546-1630) o Compiled observations o Tabulated things in the sky o Opposed to Copernicus religion Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) o Got Brahe’s work by republic of letters o Seeks to refine heliocentric model o Elliptical motion of planets as math solution o Laws of motion Galileo Galile: (1564-1642) o First guy to turn a telescope to the sky o New stars, craters on moon, sunspots challenge orderly universe o Book called Dialogues on the Two chief system of the world everything governed by math regulation o Catholics got mad because they thought God can’t be explained by math o Universe not perfect is what Galileo was suggesting, God makes perfect things according to Catholics o Forced to recant his beliefs by the church All the above theorists built off each other’s discoveries by way of the republic of letters Roman Catholic church didn’t really like the republic of letters Before this, church had been interested in astronomy so they could figure out when Easter was each year o The fact that they put so much money into astronomy led to breakthroughs talked about above Why the west? o Science and mathematics allows vehicle for objectifying, understanding, and controlling nature via: Greek astronomy, Arabic science, Catholic need for astronomical precision o Republic of Letters o The New World If there was a Chinese focus on harmony with nature and a European objectification of it what consequences did it have? Chinese medicine is supposed to bring the body into harmony with everything in the universe Lecture (3/4/16) Chinese medicine o Most sophisticated o Longest lasting o Most widely known and accurate in west o “Holistic” medicine has things to teach biomedicine, address problem not symptom Principle #1: Disease is caused by the Ying Yang imbalance o Prevention is just as important as curing Western view: o Disease is an external invasion o External treatment to fight o Body cannot self heal o “Objectified” Body – a broken machine o Mental, physical disease treated differently and separately Mind body dualism (Descartes) Mind and body work different and separate so treat different Principle #2: Qi and imbalance o Zangu (5-fold system) 5 organ sets o Imbalance of chi, or disruption of chi flow through one of the areas “Fives” o Water and fire = intensive ying and yang o Earth = neutralized center o Metal and wood = less intensive ying and yang o North south : center : east west o Two seas : middle kingdom : two seas Macro-organisms: o Rhythms of biological clock Lung channel = 3-5 AM Stomach channel = dawn o And weather: Infections, fever : heat Rheumatism: cold Holistic medicine o Mental similar to physical treatment and diagnosis, unlike west o Lest stigma o Mind-body part of the same system No mind body dualism The exam with Chinese doctor o Take 12 pulses Chill, fever Perspiration Head, trunk Stool, urine Food intake Chest Deafness Thirst Past history Causes o Did not exam women like men Cures: Acupuncture and herbal medicine Acupuncture: can block chi flow in areas to use beneficially Herbal medicine: mastered by Chinese Gymnastics, martial arts, and dance used as treatments also Acupuncture: 360 points to use to treat acute disease o Acute disease is disease that will go away opposite of chronic disease o Points associated with 12 meridians Moxibution: like acupuncture but for chronic disease o Sometimes used as a prophylaxis which is a preventative So why European scientific revolution? Why not china? Theory #1: emphasis on harmony o Wrong because they built the great wall which breaks nature’s harmony, harmony didn’t hold China back from doing things Theory #2: Classical mandarin education could not develop sophisticated math and astronomy Cosmic and political order They had an observation station on 1300s and studied skies to keep track of heavens to make sure emperor still had the mandate of heaven So they had astronomy, but used it for different reasons Chinese invented abacus, map coordinates, matrix algebra o So no, China had math and science capabilities Theory #3: Confucian emphasis on values suppressed inventiveness and exploration in society at large o No. They invented and explored a little Theory #4: China’s unity precluded a revolutionary reassembly of new and old knowledge o Correct theory o Didn’t really question old knowledge Unity of China inhibited their development because no competition to progress o Innovation is driven by conflict Trade competition led to New World in Europe China: Harmony in politics, religion, cosmos Europe: Radical disjuncture between science and faith The Great divergence o China was innovative o Harmony was important, but willing to alter nature o Chinese exam system produced remarkable scholars o Chinese unity was a blessing and a curse Benefits of disharmony? o Interstate competition for new trade routes o Protestant reformation o Military tech o New information