Introduction to Modern American Literature
Introduction to Modern American Literature ENGLISH 169
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Lecture Notes 39 Tracks by Louise Endrich o Lived OffReservation o Visited Family Living OnReservation Turtle Mountain 0 Her Grandfather was a tribal leader on this reservation o This area is a setting for 5 interwoven novels 0 Tracks Published in 1988 Earliest Published 0 Novel Opens in 1912 25 Years After OxBow Incident 0 German and Native American Author 0 Concerned with how people from mixed cultural backgrounds negotiate the tensions and conflict of that mixtureduality 0 Sometimes that tension of being part of two cultures white and Native American expressed itself in what the AA Leader of the Early 20th Century WEB Dubois calls quotdouble consciousnessquot 0 Only one form that cultural tension can take Tracks can but need not take the form of quotdouble consciousnessquot o WEB Dubois o quotThe AA person in the US occupies a world which yields him not true self consciousness but only lets him see himselfthrough the revelation of the other world In other words that an AA person sees himself through partly through the eyes of a white dominated society It is a peculiar sensation this double consciousness the sense of always looking at oneself through the eyes of others Of measuring ones soul by the tape of a world that looks on in an amused contempt and pityquot o It is not just seeing yourself through others eyes but through others eyes who scorn you think you are inferior 0 quotOne ever feels his twoness an American a Negro Two souls two thoughts two reconciled strivingsquot o The member of a devalued group one finds oneself internalizing how one is seen by a dominant society ending with a split sense of self including internalized devalued sense of oneself and also pride in who one is Pauline experiences double consciousness very strongly o Swayed by attitudes of dominant society that she runs away from Native American inheritance 0 Not all of the characters partially internalize white America39s view of native people as inferior not the only form that cultural tension can take o In other characters we see alternative ways for handling conflict between different cultural codes 0 A conflict can affect a lot of things 0 SelfSelfEsteem 0 Values 0 eg Conflicts between need for money and need for land 0 Ways of BeingThinking in World 0 eg Conflicts between Catholicism and Native American Spiritual Beliefs Two contrasting narratorsone saves one fails to save Fleur Both have to negotiate cultural conflict traditional ways of native culture dominant white culture English 169 Page 1 0 Do so in very different ways represent very different positions 0 Nanpush o Page 1 quotWe started dying before the snowquot 0 The word quotwe quot opened I Immediate signal that concerned with the tribal community the quotwequot 0 Strong Connection to Tribal Past Speaks with Historical Consciousness I Aware of history and carries it with him I Thinks of particular epidemic as a part of a series of events that have brought death to the Anishanabe population I Epidemics Spotted Sickness Small Pox o Illness of 1912 Consumption TB 0 Higher mortality rate among Native Americans than whites 0 Continued vulnerability of Native American people to diseases that were brought to the US by the colonists 0 Also a disease associated with poverty poor nutrition inadequate housing Not until the 188039s realized that caused by bacteria Antibiotics that were developed to treat it were not developed until the 194039s 0 Population 0 15 million to 200 thousand o Nanapush last surviving memory of particular family feel near annihilation very keenly quotwonder so many of us left to diequot Anishanabe The name these woodland people used for themselves Referred to Native American people of the woodland who spoke the same language Not an abstract consciousness to this unity this group but a very immediate tribal identity Tribal Units were Basic Political and Economic Units v The colonists spoke of these people as the Ojibwa or Chippewa I Nanapush is very aware of having seen huge cultural change in lifetime and having seen the ending of many things associated with tribal things 0 Page 2 quotOur tribe unraveled like a coarse ropequot a Very aware of living in a time of transition and a time when tribal ways were extremely threatened quotThe Lastquot 0 Saved the Last Pillagerntroduction to Fleur I Saw the Last Bear Shot on Reservation Knows Old Time Ways 0 Hunting v Attracting Women Observes traditional ritual practices following traditional English 169 Page 2 rites 0 Example Burying Pillagers o Page 5 quot scratched out their clan markersquot 0 The way he thinks about events and their causes clearly reflects traditional understanding of the special powers he associates with particular clans role of the spirits and the dead and their role with events and the living and the importance on connection to the land 0 Strong Connection to the Land Land is the only thing that lasts life to life 0 Page 32 quotThe Captain and the lumber presidentquot I We see here that Nanapush is submerged in two cultures but whose allegiance is with the traditional ways quot Feels himself weakening with the fall of each Oak in the forestquot 0 Tie to the land is so profound When he engages in a Christian ritual like baptism he does so not out of Christian belief but out of a sense of personal obligation friendship o Regards Father Damien as a friend 0 Addressing story to his quotgranddaughterquot o Telling story to someone who is much younger survive longer than he will Telling story to someone who will carry on traditions culture of people The granddaughter is not exactly drawn to these traditions I Refuses to call her mother mother I Nanpush is telling the story to tell her about her heritage that defines part of her identity move her to claim it be the quothold outquot that he is She is not biological descendent I But she is of his tribe and tribal kinship is more important to Nanapush then identifying nuclear blood lines I She has his last name LuLu Nanapush but got last name through a trick 0 Page 33 quotMy father said Nanapush that is what you will be calledquot 0 TraditionalCompassionate Trickster FigureNaanaboxho n Anishanabe mythology Nannaboxho is associated with plants animals and trees also a teacher and a healer a figure capable of violence deception cruelty and therefore is someone who embodies the realities of human imperfection According to Chippewa scholar comic in a sense that he doesn t reclaim idealistic ethics he survives as part of the natural world Represents a spiritual balance in a comic drama rather than the romantic elimination of human contradictions and evil n Chippewa legend gambled with great gambler for the destiny of the people in the tribal woodland Had he lost the spirit of the people would have been consigned to the windigo flesh eaters in the land of darkness But he won and saved the people He did so by a trick by making a teasing whistle in the wind at a crucial point in the game and he thereby stopped evil for just a moment long enough to save the four ages of man Nanapush is named after Naanaboxho and is a version of this trickster figure English 169 Page 3 I Comic figure in more conventional ways Joking between Nanapush and Margaret Comic scenes throughout the novel I Characteristics Similar Clever Trickery Flawed Humanity o Associated with Natural WorldLand 0 Associated with Chancey but Significant Rescue 0 Pauline Very Biblical Name 0 O O O OO 0 She devotes herself more and more to Catholicism more accurately her own version of Catholicism which combines elements of native beliefs with psychic distortion so that her beliefs and practice stray from orthodox Christiantiy She is mixedblood and longs to be white 0 Wants to be white double consciousness o Page 14 quotI decided to learn the lace making trade from nunsquot I She is drawn to assimilation I She doesn39t want to do the things that her clan does I For her better is the white society 0 Page 15 quotHe never sat to restquot She also claims to have special insider vision 0 Can see wildness in Fleur that the white men of Argus could not notice Increasing aligned against native culture anad values I As this happens important to see how much of her understanding is shaped by the native traditions in which she was rage I Example Pauline and Nanapush believe that Fleur has special powers 0 Doesn39t believe that Fleur winning at cards is luck or chance 0 Pauline sees instead what Pillagers are capable of Aligns herself with Catholic Church Manipulates the Truth 0 Nanapush alludes that she is a unreliable narrator I When addressing others in community 0 When she tells Nanpush and Maragaret what happened to Fleur in Argus apparently does so in a way that makes Fleur responsible for the death of the men that froze in the meat locker o Page 55 quotFleur had enticed the men to herquot 0 The readers get a more honest version in Chapter 2 although even ours seems to be somewhat defective 0 Page 2728 quotIt was Russell I39m sure who first put his arms on the barquot She and Russell are the people most directly responsible for the death of these men It is possible that we could have a supernatural understanding of the storm that it is caused by Fleur But it is Pauline and Russell that are responsible for the actual act of locking the meat locker and actual act that they committed 0 Not what she told Margaret and Nanapush I Not reliable in what she tells the reader 0 Some support for this Vicious Aspects English 169 Page 4 She is scolded by Fleur for kicking as well as teasing her young cousin Russell Jealous of Fleur39s sexual attractiveness to men which contrasts with her own plainness I Although in many ways she is drawn to Fleur herselfand her company Pauline39s role in Fleur39s rape really shows her vicious elements I quotThe shadow that could have saved her that could have saved Fleurquot I She admits that she felt what the men were moving towards as they drank together in the heat as they drank together in the heat after Fleur won all that money I She stopped Russell39s mouth so that he couldn39t shout a warning to Fleur before she was attacked by Lily I She held Russell back from fighting on her behalf I She failed to fight off the men as Russell himself tried to 0 Her ambivalence towards Fleur is apparent in her subsequent act of murdering the men so that she is complicit in that murder and complicit in the rap because of sins of omission o Nanapush is associated with life while Pauline is associated with death I Not only is she complicit in the rape of Fleur and the death of the men I But she also comes to work for Bernadette who lays out the dead I She is completely useless at birth I Page 57 quotNot knowing any betterquot 0 quotThe Crowquot quotLived off of scraps and she knew us best because the scraps told our storyquot 0 Even if not always truthful observant knows a lot 0 Nanapush and Pauline tell us the story of Fleur Pillager I Both intimately involved in the events of this story Nanapush Trying to save Fleur 0 Nanapush39s first chapter records the events of how he saved Fleur from dead relations and suffered through period of terrible mourning in which they both narrowly escaped being taken over by dead ancestors suggests narrowly escaped becoming windigo I Windigo Possess human being and turn into cannibals quotHalfWindigoquot Page 6 Gone half mad and had to live on the spirits of the dead until they are rescued by the arrival of Father Damien who calls their obligations as hosts to the living provide with food and Nanapush launches into storytelling quotspring thawquot as speech returns to Nanapush o Page 7 quotMy voice raspedquot o Storytelling is an activity of great power 0 Nanapush and Pauling both very skilled 0 Both characters of great power as is Fleur Pauline Trying to destroy Fleur 0 Pauline39s first chapter records an event in which she failed to save Fleur English 169 Page 5 Lecture Notes 321 Tracks Tracks is not a didactic novel but indirectly it teaches us about history and suggests an argument about Native American History nonetheless 0 Historical context for Tracks US Government policies attempting to convert Native Americans to capitalist individualistic agricultural economy More on Pauline her lies to others and her lies to herself rationalizing self deception To ease her own mind 0 Rationalizes self deception pages 64amp65 Blaming the devil pg 88 Observation Going around clipping hair gambling using magic Analysis Fleur person of fierce loyalty and great loyalty Observation Helping Eli sentimentally and hunting Analysis Nanapush who does everything for his family and loved ones Observation Buying potions from Moses using magic to control others Analysis Person who takes pleasure hurting others rarely concerned about other s well being sodomistic page 73 0 OOOOOO How Christianity functions for Pauline o Pauline uses Christianity to rescue her from difficulties of negotiating dual cultural position Removes from Chippewa identity Chippewa family structures gives her role in relation to Chippewa community replaces other kinds of intimacy Pauline s antagonism toward Fleur cultural clash is more important 0 Fleur embodies the tribal ways and values Ojibwe o Pauline manipulates Christianity in her battle against Fleur Pauline deceives herself and others tribes enabling her to use Christianity as an excuse o Pauline s ambitions for sainthood and martyrdom English 169 Page 6 Lecture Notes 323 Pauline39s antagonism toward Fleur Fleur embodies tribal ways and values Pauline wants to reject Pauline manipulates Christianity in her battle against Fleur o Fleur is associated with traditional ways of living beliefs and thinking Pauline ambitions for sainthood and martyrdom 0 Her tries to eradicate Ojibwe 0 Strengthen her relationship w whites 0 Try to rationalize her desires to maintain relationship with natives Three births shed light on characters Fleur Pauline and Nanapush 157 Pauline39s failure to help reveals her personal desires for revenge to Fleur 178 Fleur doing everything to save her baby Nanapush givingquotbirthquot to Lulu 1667 by taking care of her The power of story telling important for cultural sustenance Shaping perceptions transmitting culture constructing reality Nanapush39s power as a storyteller is more important Importance of Nanapush39s power with words 0 Address to Lulu to carry on the Ojibwe ways 0 Movement from control of spoken words to control of written words a shift in his negotiations of cultural conflict 0 A small trickster victory in bringing Lulu home Wants Lulu to know the real motive behind Fleur sending her away and wanting her not to marry the Morrisey Final acts of violence by Pauline and Fleur Both have ultimate causes in white colonialism Pauline is hollow because she rejected the Ojibwe ways where she does not fulfill through Christianity Nanapush acknowledges the fall of the Ojibwe by stating the transformation from being illiterate to being literate Recognizes in order to succeed one must be able to embrace the whites39 ways English 169 Page 7 Lecture Notes 330 quotWhat should have beenquot by Simon Ortiz linked to True West by Sam Shepard in examining ill health mental as well as physical of those who made it to California 0 Focuses on the consequences of the whites o Describes white settlers from suffering physically and psychologically as a result of what they did 0 A play about the violence of failed dreams aspirations True West shows persistence of myths of old west and their inadequacy for the present 0 What are those myths The west presented by various ways 0 Crickets give it a sense of hot western town 0 Forefathers conversation I Ludicrous model for the present Lee trying to live his life as a western English 169 Page 8 Lecture Notes 44 0 Lee corrupted version of myths of old west and the free cowboy hero exemplified in movie westerns o The film represents the dying of the old west I Ambulances I People with their modern clothing etc 0 Jack Burns and Lee are alike in that they39re loners and live in the desert and also have an animal dog and horse both hate the way modernization destroys western Austin they mythic new west and Hollywood middle class prosperity but is not an actual representation because he longs for living in the desert and the way Lee does The play39s plot a seeming role reversal bw the brothers more accurately a revelation of formerly repressed traits and longing page 32 0 Role reversal is the way the play is structured but neither have the means to succeed 0 Not a complete role reversal General movement toward position of Lee and the father toward drunkenness and violence 0 The mother is also a model of what they can become 0 Movement can be understood as consequence of I Dysfunctional family individual psychic wounds I National problems violent myths of national identity that glamorizes hard drinking hard fighting emotionally tough and individualistic masculinity I Universal human propensity toward violence and murder El Human as animal 0 The national emphasized mostbrothers quotcaughtquot in the mythic and imaginative realities we Americans have made for ourselves Does Picasso suggest an alternative quotTrue Westquot 0 A more positive quotmodelquot because it is alive and that the innovative artist is trying to exemplify a valuable way to live life 0 It can also be a model for the way art offers accurate weight of harmful way of living nature violence etc English 169 Page 9 Lecture Notes 411 White Noise 0 Jack strives for power Hitler Studies but his power and control are precarious o In much of his life he does not feel in power or in control and when he does he is precarious for he is scared of mortality I quotWho will die firstquot Situation of the American family the Gladneyswanting security world filled with danger many of them not natural but human induced o It emerges as a dramatized situation I For example smoke alarm going off the family doesn39t know whether it was to keep the apparatus on check or if there was real danger El Nobody goes to check alarm which means that they are scared and denying danger El Danger vary 0 eg carcinogenic chemicals in chewing gum 0 Plane disasters plane landing 0 Choosing to ignore danger 0 Choosing to imagine danger is always elsewhere the TV 0 quotit will not get herequot I The novel makes it clear that danger is not as bad in Blacksmith but more in urbanized communities 0 Television serves an example of mass media and as modern technology 0 Centrality of TVmedia and media language constituting their reality 83 I Knowledge is processed mediated through the media I Technology kind of the quotwhite noisequot of the Gladney39s 0 Radio dominates TV media and family relies on Radio I Media seems entirely detached from their realities I Media is inescapable o 66 Idea of brain death takes a catastrophe to wakes up into reality 0 114 The question of where you live and the TV quotplacequot I Jack says that nothing happens to him or where he lives because it is a more economically safe neighborhood El He says that all things happen to poor people Airborne toxic event insecurity ofJack39s mediated technology dependent knowledge vs Heinrich39s attempts to look for himself 0 Responses escalating as the language of the media escalates o How much does the terminology create the danger I Everyone has mediated access but Heinrich El Tendency to rely on others 0 Heinrich examines the gap bw the sign and what it points to I Technology and knowledge I 147148 Challenges Jack about his knowledge of survival English 169 Page 10 El What good is knowledge If nobody actually knows anything I Technology poses a question about knowledge El What are we capable of doing ourselves English 169 Page 11 Lecture Notes 413 White Noise 0 Late 20th century the intensity of danger has increased by technology 0 Technology in the novel39 0 The Gladney39s inhabit a thoroughly technologized world ameliorist things can be made better society in which technology equated with improvement Microwave TV Radio Phone Car etc at the Gladney39s Human lives can be made better by technology most reliable means to such improvement 191 Americans like to belief selfimprovement leads the way to a better life I Carstraveling phonescommunication etc Filled with radiation waves 00 O O 0 But technology increases danger as well as security in familiar domestic surroundings as well as more dramatic quoteventsquot 0 It may be depriving us of happiness and safety 0 Developing technology further we are pushing towards a mass destruction event I quotAirborne Toxic Eventquot releases deadly manufacture poison into the air El Death made in laboratory 0 Most dangerous threats might be the less exotic and are the ones closest to home 174175 I Electromagnetic waves from radios TVs etc o Babbet39s desire to take something the reader sees serious she sees it as normal I We take for granted for whatever seems familiar and safe 0 However technology is also used for coping I Custom made organism designed to devour the quotcloudquot 160161 0 Technology tied to consumerism which also generates false sense of security eg Dylar o Technological advances take away human happiness to the extent that technology has become purchasable commodities I Followed by painful disappointment El ie skin cream will get rid of wrinkles 0 People are eager to believe that technology will help to enhance health energey strengthen our immune system I Consumer business 0 Dylartechnological developed pills and drugs I Dylar designed as treatment for the symptom El Postmodern society the sign is more important than what it actually points to I Benign counterpart of chemical used in quotcloudquot 0 Contrast to Winnie Richards39 belief in the value of fear 229 o Intense awareness vs death as white noise I If we live with an awareness of mortality we don39t need any stimuli I We are taking over the white noise that is going on in the novel 0 Death itself is envisioned as a white noise usceptibility to suggestion a powerful force among characters in the novel English 169 Page 12 Lecture Notes 420 Oryx and Crake Atwood quotspeculative fictionquot 0 It39s about an imagined future 0 Distinguishes it from science fiction 0 quotinvents nothing we haven39t already or started to inventquot I An extension of present trends a possible or likely future Atwood makes us experience Snowman39s degraded and impoverished life 0 To make us feel the horror the of the future we might be heading forward 0 Also by talking about the past but quickly resuming to the present 0 World of Jimmy39s childhood 0 His past is better than the present but its not quite an ideal world 0 Hierarchal extremes of privilege and poverty I Divided society There is only lower and upper class I For the privileged a bubble of security though this does not guarantee happiness I Limited resources which are being sent to the quotprivilegedquot people 0 Diminished human connection love I Playing chess with their backs on each other Emotionally they39re crippled because of technology for technology prevents any human connection with each other It may also be due to the dysfunctional families each belonged to El His dad not paying attention to Jimmy because Jimmy is a words person Within the privileged class it seems that there is less human connection such as love 0 Environmental degradation climate change humans exhausting the resource base 0 Novel as an exploration ofJimmy39s guilt possible responsibility 0 An exploration ofJimmy39s guilt is a good way to read this narration 0 His penance is exemplified by quotAbominablequot that39s why he doesn39t use it 0 Very prone to feeling guilt or responsible but is also ambivalent and divided on the things that cause guilt o Feels guilty about him starting his hair on fire because he caused the argument between his parents I Whenever his mom is crying he consoles her in an attempt to redeem himself for what his done English 169 Page 13 Lecture Notes 425 Oryx and Crake Comparison and contrast of narrative structure and technique with those of Beloved o The present time narration starts in the middle of things and gradually fills in the remembered past so we can understand the present time 0 Present time narration evolves around present time while still learning the preceding information o Narrative moves back and forth 0 Central female characters are somewhat mysterious I Oryx and Beloved 0 Inside the perspective ofJimmywhere the narrative comes from I Reveals how little he understood at the time III Limitations 0 The ending to Oryx and Crake does not have a hopeful ending I Remembrance acts of mourning o Snowman39s narration is assessing what he missed in his past I Guilt and responsibility Jimmy39s limitations as a narrator o Seemingly willful blindness regarding Crake39s father his own mother U I 182 amp 183 Jimmy seems really deaf as to what Crake is saying he does not understand the real truth III Recognizing that he was in deliberately blinded U I 211 Jimmy finally gets the truth behind corporations 0 Inability to see Oryx39s story and the sex it contains as fully quotrealquot I Gives further insight into Jimmy39s limitations andor blindness NJ I Jimmy39s obsessed with Oryx because she is the only woman who he loves 114 LIJI III 141 Oryx doesn39t have clear sense of her own desire and doesn39t have no connection to Jimmy39s rage III Intense desire to know all the details of Oryx39s past 0 Analogous to Wendolyn Brooks39 poem III He wants to imagine Oryx39s history as something that is not happening in the real world 0 His notion of the real world has been limited by his existence of his presence of the compound ltgt Class limitations 0 Willful unwillingness to face how things are working ltgt Does not want to believe Oryx39s sex work days were not real quotsexquot 0 Nostalgic adherence to outmoded ways of thinking I Jimmy using old knowledge 0 Desire for clear divisions b between real and quotbogusquot or artificial I Crake challenges these divisions 39 you never knowquot quotthe process is no longer importantquot NJ I 200 Butterfly scene questioning whether they are authentic or quotman madequot 0 Word people and numbers people the humanities and the sciences their value in the society of the novelMartha Graham vs Watson Crick 0 Jimmy loved reading books which suggests that he is a words person I Uses list of quotold wordsquot as a way to bring old knowledge back 0 Their educations represents the humanities and the sciences English 169 Page 14 I Poses a question What is valuable in the humanities and what are the possible short comings What is valuable in the science 0 Their value and potential shortcomings in civilization more generally I Society values more quotnumbersquot people sciences El Uses of language have been allowed to decline and is evident in word impoverishment El Have been corrupted to serve consumer culture 0 Advertise products invented by number peoples 0 Name of products and corporations etc ltgt Organlnc Rakunks English 169 Page 15 Lecture Notes 427 Oryx and Crake 39 Decline in as well as desire to preserve the arts and language manifest in Jimmy Jimmy himself embodies some of the blind in arts and language because he doesn39t take a stand against the corruption of language in his consumerist society He is continually using language in ways that art and language are not properly represented Using language as he did in his childhood I Childish language Other people in Martha Graham school are not living up to the standards of language and art 0 O O O 0 Students at Watson Crick are at far most advanced schools because they are quotnumbers peoplequot and are given more importance 0 Strengths and limitations of the sciences manifest in Crake Great power evident in Children of Crake I Features to adapt to contemporary conditions physical D Purring for self healing capacities D Ultraviolet resistant skin D Vegetarians 9 Avoid the generations of methane 9 Solved lots of environmental problems D Ability to extract as much nutrients from food as possible D Highly aesthetic 9 Increase human comfort I Features intellectual emotional social to eliminate what has gone wrong with humans war racism sexual competition social hierarchy etc D Creating people with full range of skin tones has eliminated race and all problem racial prejudice D Tried to get rid of hierarchy quotegalitarian societyquot 9 No threat of Hitler in the world D No need to produce goods or food or personal property D Designed to live in harmony 9 Calmed 9 Gentle 9 Optimistic D Has eliminated any aspects that leads to violence and war 9 No more competition over sex and love 9 No more prostitution child abuse trafficking 9 No more religion in order to prevent religious issues I Features that are slippingnot staying true to Crake39s vision D Crakers are supposed to be simple as it is evident with their limited language D Have developed a taste for stories 0 Science is powerful but not allpowerful 0 Practical problemseg wolvogs escape o Crake sees the world he was born into as a controlled experiment Lu 0 Huge ethical questions How far is too far 206 I Human experimentation with the purring experiment I How to weigh interests of individuals vs interest of species I How good is the judgment of damaged or flawed people playing god English 169 Page 16 Lecture Notes 52 Oryx and Crake Jimmy39s ethical responsibilities what has his price 0 Jimmy has a sort of idea of what is wrong and what is wrong 0 Jimmy is Crake39s only real friend 0 Jimmy allows Crake to buy him off I Seduced by glamour and sexual fun without knowing what he agreed to do Working on advertisement and does know what his work involves Crake also buys his life with Oryx o Oryx is his price because Crake is in love with her I Even though she seducesJimmy he respects her 0 Jimmy doesn39t know what real love is o Seems adopting the past he imagines her 0 Warns us on focusing too much on our fantasies and our pleasures that we do not focus on real issues that need to be seen or discussed Crake39s ethical responsibilities 0 He intends benevolent rationalism 0 But his eugenics violates our sense of ethics Forced sterilizationBlyssPluss Mass extermination extinction of human species the epidemic And our sense of what is desirable valuable El Creation of a being lacking much that is most precious in human kind Crakers intended to be beings without imagination or passion vs Jimmy39s quotrapturequot English 169 Page 17 Lecture Notes 54 Problems with Crake39s rationalism o and is his thinking entirely rational Can anyone39s be 0 So much lost in his design for Crakerseliminating not just the worst but also the best traits of human kind art imagination religion supple language symbolic thought passion romantic love etc o Ignoring key ethical questions Stories matternarratives from the past underly Jimmy39s possible responses to other human survivors o Atwood on the importance of the imagination quotincreasingly if we can imagine something we39ll be able to do itquot for good or ill 0 It39s our quotzero hourquot Some concluding thought on the course of theme of violence and its effects on human individuals and communities o Is not involved with violence such as killing of Matthew Shepard o This course has been concerned that violence consists of various forms such as character I Character causes violence 0 Violence is not always physical and not always noticed I An idea can be violence I Such as manifest destiny which says that some people can go wherever they can and others can39t 0 White Noise is perhaps the book that most involves the theme of violence I Novel39s notion of brain fade makes us desensitize of violence so that we need more and more I Violence we have done to the biosphere English 169 Page 18 Final Exam Guidelines English 169 Part I Identification amp Brief Analysis Alexie Ortiz Erdrich Essays Tracks White Noise Oryx amp Crake True West Author Name Title of Work Write a sentence or two describing the context of the passage a Identify the speaker or characters involved b Where in the plot the passage appears c Its relation to what is happening Write a paragraph explaining the significance of the passage a Specific details of the passage such its language or imagery its tone its use of repetition figurative language allusion Poetry a Identify publishing name of author and title of poem i Or first lines that act as titles for specific poems b Identify a major theme of the passage c Write a few sentences explaining how the passage develops that theme i Details as imagery figurative language connotations of specific words ii Lineation use of rhyme repetition etc 00000 Part 2 Essays For the essays be able to pick two books of different authors by identifying similarities and differences in their handling of particular issues structures themes etc o 1 work of the before midterm books Comparative thesis that relates the two texts but remains important to present a focused argument concerning each text you discuss For essay make sure it has a thesis and the argument defends the thesis Read the books and be thoroughly acquainted with characters plots situations themes structural and stylistic characteristics Relation to course theme Themes based off English 169 Page 19