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Introduction to Linguistics Descriptive and Theoretical

by: Ceasar Dickinson

Introduction to Linguistics Descriptive and Theoretical LINGUIS 301

Marketplace > University of Wisconsin - Madison > Linguistics > LINGUIS 301 > Introduction to Linguistics Descriptive and Theoretical
Ceasar Dickinson
GPA 3.66

Rebecca Shields

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Rebecca Shields
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ceasar Dickinson on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LINGUIS 301 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Rebecca Shields in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/205118/linguis-301-university-of-wisconsin-madison in Linguistics at University of Wisconsin - Madison.

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Date Created: 09/17/15
Linguistics 301 Phonetics Part 1 Scientific study of the inventory and structure of the sound of human language A Articulatory Phonetics physiological mechanisms of speech production B Acoustic phonetics physical properties of sound waves produced in speech G Auditory phonetics perception of sound including what happens in the ear auditory nerve and brain during speech perception How speech sound are produced A Airstream mechanism something getsthe air moving Usually the lungs pulmonic air is usually moving outwards egressive B Sound source moving air begins to make sound when it passes through the larynx Adam s apple G Filters Articulators in the vocal tract are moved to shape the airflow into distinct sounds Soundproducing system A Nasal Cavity 3rd filter ONLINE DIAGRAM B The Larynx ONLINE DIAGRAM C States of the glottis ONLINE DIAGRAM Voiceless vocal folds pulled apart not vibrating a fall sound mink 2 Voiced vocal folds close together but not closed vibrating as air passes through them a yest goom men D Filters Sagittal sections of the vocal tract 1 ONLINE DIAGRAM E Articulators 1 ONLINE DIAGRAM a Lips b Teeth c Tongue d Aveolar ridge e Palate hard palate f Velum soft palate g Uvula h Pharynx i Glottis lV Consonants vs Vowels ONLINE DIAGRAM A Consonant a high degree of constriction in vocal tract Parameters for describing consonants ONLINE DIAGRAMs a Voicing state of the glottis 1 Voiced vocal folds vibrating 2 Voiceless vocal folds not vibrating E Nasality whether or not air is flowing through the nasal cavity 1 Oral velum raised no airflow through nasal cavity 2 Nasal velum lowered airflows through nasal cavity 3 Place of articulation the point of greatest stricture in the vocal tract the place where the channel is narrowest 1 Bilabial two lips big 2 Labiodental one lip and the teeth find lnterdental tongue through the teeth thick J Alveolar tongue and alveolar ridge den U1 Alveopalatal tongue and front of palate shell Palatal tongue and and palate yes Velar tongue and velum go Uvular tongue and uvula French R sound 9 Pharyngeal constriction of pharynx some Arabic sounds 10Glottal vocal folds house Manner of Articulation the degree of th stricture how 8 narrow the channel is 1 Stop complete closure in the oral cavity or at the glottis completely stops the airflow till 2 Fricative articulators are very close together producing high degree of stricture but airflow is not stopped Turbulent sound still 3 Affricate complete closure like a stop but followed by a slow release to fricative position chill 4 Liquid slightly less stricture than a fricative a Lateral sides of tongue are lowered so that air escapes through the side of the mouth rather than the center b Retroflex tongue is curled back ride 5 Glide extremely low degree of stricture almost like a vowel will B Vowel vocal tract is relatively open ONLINE DIAGRAM Tongue Height how high the ltongue T comment 1 Thurd mm continued from rim a Vowels may be articulated with the tongue high mid or low in the mouth N Tongue Advancement where in the mouth front to back the highest point of the tongue is a The highest part of the tongue may be front central or back i is front u is back 3 Tenseness whether or not the tongue gesture is peripheral extreme a Vowels may be tense or lax Tense vowels are produced at the edges of the vowel space They involve a more extreme tongue gesture 4 Rounding whether or not the lips are rounded a Vowels may be rounded or unrounded V Transcription A An individual speech sound is called a segment We need a 03 0 special alphabet for writing down the segments of speech for transcription The orthography writing system of English does not work well for this purpose The symbols of English orthography often do not match the actual speech segments N 0 5 One to many ltoughgt is pronounced manny different ways bought cough rough through dough pough Many to one there are many ways to spell the same sound two wo too through clue shoe Plato Maydough None to one sone sounds are not represented in the spelling at all due tune cue fume One to none some letters in the orthography have no corresponding sound autumn comb sword International Phonetic Alphabet M4 0 5 Established in 1888 OnetoOne mapping of speech sounds to IPA symbols a 1 segment 1 symbol Universal contains symbols for sounds in all languages and can be used and understood by linguists from anywhere in the world IPA transcription goes in orthography goes in lt gt Linguistics 301 Phonetics Part 2 I Consonants of English ONLINE DIAGRAM A Stops oral and nasalvoiced and voiceless ONLINE DIAGRAM 1 Bilabial 2 Alveolar 3 Velar 4 Glottal B Fricatives and Affricates ONINE DIAGRAM 1 Fricatives voiceless and voiced Labiodental 82 Interdental Alveolar 33 Alveopalatal Glottal 2 Affricates Voiceless and voiced 39D a Alveopalatal C Liquids and Glides all are voiced 1 Labiovelar 2 Alveolar 3 Palatal I Comment1 Nchecture D New symbols to focus on ONLINE DIAGRAM ll Vowels of English ONLINE DIAGRAM A Tense vowels 1 i e U 0 B Lax Vowels ONLINE DIAGRAM G Diphthongs 1 vowels with a change in quality 2 English has three contrastive diphthongs ONLINE DIAGRAM a ail high b aw house 0 Oili J toy 3 the vowels e and o are also pronounced as diphthongs by default a 6i hay b ow toe III A few more details A Syllabic consonants liquids and nasals can make up an syllable by themselves without a vowel 1 ONLINE DIAGRAM a transcribed with a small vertical line underneath consonant 03 the quality of a vowel is often significantly affected before ltrgt 1 ltmoregt 2 ltfargt


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