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Introductory Biology

by: Mr. Karli Cummings

Introductory Biology ZOOLOGY 151

Mr. Karli Cummings
GPA 3.57

Seth Blair

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Seth Blair
Class Notes
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This 44 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Karli Cummings on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ZOOLOGY 151 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Seth Blair in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see /class/205119/zoology-151-university-of-wisconsin-madison in Animal Science at University of Wisconsin - Madison.

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Date Created: 09/17/15
Chordates ANCESTRAL DEUTERO STOME Notochord ancestor of chordates HeaL Vertebral column Jaws mineralized skeleton Lungs or lung derivativels Lobed finls Key evolutiona ry innovations shown I Legs Amniotic egg Cauyzlghi mans Pearson ammo in publishing as Pearson Eemamm Summing Echinodermata sister group to chordates Cephalochordata lancelets Urochordata tunicates Myxini hagfishes Petromyzontida Iampreys Chondrichthyes sharks rays chimaeras Actinopterygii rayfinned fishes Actinistia coelacanths Dipnoi lungfishes Amphibia frogs 39 salamanders g 9 Reptilia 398 turtles snakes crocodiles birds Mammalia semiqu Milk mammals suiiaqo39l suzllumoiaxso sawmsoqteua sewiqauaA sawiueaa salepioqo Chordate characteristics Notochord a flexible skeletal rod Dorsal nerve cord brain and spinal cord Gill slits Postanal tail These features may only be expressed during development and not necessarily in adult Dorsal Muscle hollow segments nerve cord Notochord Mouth 739 1 Anus Muscular Pharyngeal slits or clefts postanal tail Vertebrates have a vertebral column Echinodermata sister group to chordates ANCESTRAL Cephalochordata DEUTERO lancelets STOME Urochordata Notochord tunicates Myxini ancestor of hagfishes chordates I Petromyzontida Head Iampreys Chondrichthyes sharks rays chimaeras Vertebral column sewiqauaA Actinopterygii Jaws mineralized skeleton ray nned fishes Actinistia coelacanths sawmsoqteua l Lungs or lung derivatives suzllmuogaxso sunaqo39l I Dipnoi Lobed fins lungfishes Amphibia frogs salamanders spodeual Reptilia Legs turtles snakes I crocodiles birds Ammonc egg I Mammalia Milk mammals sapqu Couyzlghl mom3 Pearson Euucam in publishing as Pearson Eemamm Summing salepmqo sategueaa Vertebrate diversity Rayfinned fishes Amphibians Most are Gnathostomes Snakes have a jaW lizards Many are fish Crocodiles alligators Birds Tetrapods Sharks rays skates Mammals Hagfish lampreys 92ml Pealsnn Educauun Inc Gnathostomes have a jaw Gill slits Cranium W 1 H X y u r quot a 7 Mouth Skeletal rods Jaws can be used to bite Figure shows hypothesis for evolution ofjaw Tetrapods have four limbs ANCESTRAL DEUTERO STOME l Notochord ancestor of chordates I Head Vertebral column Jaws mineralized skeleton l Lungs or lung derivatives l Lobed fins I Legls l Amniotic egg Cauyzlglii moms Pearson Euucalimi lm publishing a5 Pearson Eemamw mmmngs Echinodermata sister group to chordates Cephalochordata lancelets Urochordata tunicates Myxini hagfishes Petromyzontida lampreys Chondrichthyes sharks rays chimaeras Actinopterygii rayfinned fishes sawmsoqteua Actinistia coelacanths suzllmuoiaxso suiiaqo39I Dipnoi lungfishes Amphibia frogs salamanders spodeual Reptilia turtles snakes crocodiles birds I Mammalia Milk mammals semiqu sawiqauaA sawiuma salepioqo Tetrapods evolved from a lineage of lobe fin fish Fla Afinned fishes y 0 Coelacanths is Lungfishes rs Euslhenopteron Panderichthys Q Tiktaalik 6 x Elginerpeton W Metaxygnaihus Acanthostega Ichthyostegaw Hynerpelon quotmy Greerpeton Amphibians i Amniotes V PALEOZOIC Silurian Devonian I 39 I Permian i i i i i 430 415 400 335 370 355 340 325 310 295 280 265 Time millions of years ago Copyrighi 3 am Pearson Enucaiimn inc win as Peavson Esmeum Cum ing Living lobefins Tiktaalik 2004 Neil Shubin Your Inner Fish Living tetrapods The Tetrapod limb Eusthenapteran 385 mya L l a W Lobelike fm 7 1 f Panderichthys 380 mya I7 f n Tiktaalik 375 mya is Acanthostega 365 mya Still mostly aquatic Limb that can support walking on land mun Pearson Educzlmn Inc Amphibians Closely tied to aquatic habitats Eggs lack shell Moist skin for gas exc h a n ge b Order Anura 5420p blourlngorphosis GMatingadults a l l H 1 c order Ap da 1705p Cuaynghl e 2005 Pearson Educahan inc publishing as P Amniotes have a protected egg 0 Egg is protected and has nutrients mechanisms for gas exchange and waste disposal 0 Rib cage supports lungs 0 Skin that resists dessication on aIIOWS g o as 8 cl Albumen provides water and mechanical support Yolk sac contains nutrients Reptiles Dinosaurs Birds 10000 Sp b Australian thorny devil lizard Moloch horridus Lizards and snakes 39 quot 7900 sp i i L c Wagler s pit viper 77 a m Ml c Laysan albatrosses Tropldolaemus waglerl d Eastern box tuleTerrpene carolina carolina e American alligator gt Alligator mississippiensis r 39 Copyrighl a zoos Pearson Education Inc puniishmg as Pearson Bamamin Cummings d Barn swallows lnr Mammals Defining characters mammary glands produce milk for young hair differentiated teeth facial muscles and lips Three groups Monotremes lay eggs Marsupials young are born very early and continue to develop in maternal pouch Eutherians placentals complete embryonic development within mother Primates Lemurs lorises and pottos ANCESTFlAL 739 7 7 7 7 Tarsiers PRIMATE New World monkeys 77 Old World monkeys spgodmuluv 77 Gibbons 7 Orangutans Gorillas 7 r Chimpanzees Homlnlds l and bonobos Humans I Hominins 60 5390 40 3b do 1b 1 Time millions of years ago M i a Noteterms have changed meaning recently Primate characteristics Grasping hands and feet Flattened nails instead of claws Large brains Color vision Forward facing eyes Complex social behavior Well developed parental care Hominins Complex language Symbolic thought African origin Multiple lineages Bipedal Large brains Tool use Ardipithecus A ramidusif Australopithecus A afarensis A africanus Paranthropus F aethiopicus I quot F boisei P robustus Early Homo H habilis H ergaster H erectus Recent Homo H neanderthalensis H oresiensis I H sapiens I I I l 4 3 2 1 Time millions of years ago 920 Pearson Educalion inc l Present And now for something completely different EUKAHYA Land plants Dinoflagellales Green algae F Cellular slime molds Am bas iFiVMlkmu tie Lamina coo momma mm Edmnm m pubishhqas Ram1 Beulamm Cummings Viruses Introduction Steps in viral replication Examples of viruses Prions not viruses Agents ofdisease Birth of Molecular Biology Biotechnology Agents of gene transfer What is a virus Viruses are particles that require a living host for growth Viruses have an extracellular form virion that allows for survival and transmission but cannot grow extracellularly Viruses are replicated by assembly of parts not by division All organisms have viruses Bacterial viruses are usually called bacteriophage a Tobacco mosaic virus b Adenovirus c Rotavirus d Bacteriophage T4 Virus structure a Nonenveloped virus Genome RNA or DNA Capsid protein More hardy Often lyse host cell b Enveloped virus W T T 239 b A Genome quot44 RNA or DNA g 6 Capsid protein Wk Envelope Q J k J 3 quot phospholipid 394 g l 3 lg bilayer I Viral protein 4 Q4 64 More sensitive Often do not lyse host cell mun PPPP an E nnnnnnnnn c Global importance of viruses Top global causes of death by infectious Agents disease Respiratory infections Hinfuenzae IlI pneumonia 5 pneurnoniae Adenovirus RSV Influenza Parainfluenza Diarrheal diseases M cholera Shigela S typhi E coli Campyobacter Listeria Giardia Norwalk Virus Rotavirus Tu be rculosis M tuberculosis AIDS HIV Measles Measles virus Also globally important Hepatitis viruses poliovirus Also globally important plant viruses that cause crop loss eg sugar cane citrus cacao stone fruits barley tomato cassava maize banana rice bean sugar beet Virus replication Attachment is specific 0 Entry and VIRUS uncoating DNA 9 Transcription and manufacture of capsid proteins Genome can be RNA or DNA SS or DS Viral DNAW Capsid 3fgooooo segmented OF Replication depends m proteins oggcgocg one piece on hOSt components linear or circular mRNA is called plus strand 8M 0 Selfassembly of I I V new virus particles and their exit from the cell capyugme 2005 Pearson Education lnc publishing as Pearson Eemennn Cummmgs Lysogeny is an option for some viruses Daughter cell with prophage The phage injects its DNA Cell divisions produce population of bacteria infected with the prophage Phage DNA circularizes Bacterial 9 chromosome s Occasionally a prophage exits the bacterial chromosome initiating a lytic cycle a quot39Y39tipw R l a a r The cell lyses releasing phages Lytic cycle or Lysogenic cycle is induced is entered 7 x 5 Phage DNA integrates into are synthesized and the bacterial chromosome assembled into phages becomlng a prophage gamma zone aw in MM 5 gems amquot Lysogenic cycle The bacterium reproduces copying the prophage and transmitting it to daughter cells Prophage 5 A Alternative outcomes Transformation Transformation o Tumor Into tumor cell Cell Virus p I Attachment and penetration cell and release of Virus Persistent Multiplication infedion Slow release of virus without cell death 39 a tent infection 66 Virus present but not causing r quot harm to cell 39 later emerges in lytic infection Figure 924 Brock Biology of Microorganisms 11e 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc l I 1quot 39o DNA viruses ds DNA i Virus 55 DNA Class I virus Class VII Class II Synthesis of other strand ds DNA intermediate Transcription of minus strand mRIIA RNA viruses m 1 ds RNA i 55 RNA 55 RNA 55 RNA virus virus virus retrovirus Class III Class IV Class V Class VI Transcription Used directly Transcription Reverse of minus strand as mRNA of minus strand transcription 1 W Zanf l tioquot d ds DNA intermediate 0 mmusstran mRNA W Brain and CNS dengue Ebola polio rabies West Nile yellow fever Lymphatic and immune systems EpsteinBarr HIV paramyxovirus eg measles Ti achea and lungs adenovirus parainfluenza Rous sarcoma virus eart coxsackie Liver and digestive tract hepatitis A B C D E rotavirus a 2nquot Pearson Edwallnn Inc Blood vessels and blood cells Ebola erythrovirus hantavirus Reproductive organs herpes simplex 2 papillomavirus Skin herpes simplex 1 molluscum contagiosum papillomavirus rubella smallpox virus varicella zoster virus Skeletal muscles coxsackie f Peripheral nerves rabies varicella zoster virus mun Pealsun Edunanan Inc DNA viruses m Class DS Class II SS Class VII DS RT Adenoviridae Adenovirus Papillomaviridae Papillomavirus Poxviridae Variola smallpox Vaccinia Cowpox Herpesviridae Herpes of various types Varicella zoster virus EpsteinBarr virus JK virus BK virus SV4O Parvovirus Hepatitis B Polyomaviridae Parvoviridae Hepadnavirus Class IV SS RNA Class V SS RNA Class III DS RNA Class VI SS RNA RT RNA viruses Coronaviridae Calciviridae Picornaviridae Flaviviridae Togaviridae Paramyxoviridae Arenaviriclae Filoviridae Bunyaviridae Orthomyxoviridae Rotaviridae Retroviridae SARS Norwalk virus Polio Hepatitis A Rhinovirus other enteric viruses Hepatitis C West Nile Yellow Fever Dengue virus Rubella Mumps Resp Syncytial virus Parainfluenza virus Measles Lassa Fever virus Ebola virus Marburg Virus Hantavirus Influenza Rotavirus HIV f dsDNA virus Epithelialcell Genomeis Nuclear w nncoated quot H i V polymer W mRNAsa t Transcription quot Receptor prutein Human papillomavirus pawns 0 Greater than 100 HPV types replitation Transalion D I39IIEYBSE 39 I I p Iv Av v lifetime 1 gm 0 90 of infections clear within MW 2 years 10 become persistent infections a fraction become cancers of cervix penis or anus and rectum Nucleus Figure 622 MicrobiologyzAn Evoving Sience 2009 ww Norton amp Company ln Human papillomavirus 2 Keratinocytes differentiate virus replication is activated 1 HPV infects basal cells where it remains dormant E6 and E7 HPVintegration into l are 0nCOprOtElnS host genome transforms cells to cancer Figure 521 Microbiology An Evolving Science 2009 W WNorton ampCompanylnc Influenza A virus HA interacts with sialic acid on surface of respiratory epithelial cells b P W choppin and W Stoeckenius Neuraminidase 0 Hemagglutlnln Viral RNA polymerase RNA endonuclease Influenza virus genome Antigenic drift and antigenic shift strand RNA segments 1 3 5 7 339 v 5 31 V 715 3 r 51 3 39 r 539 2 4 6 8 3 w 1 539 3 Wr539 3quot 39539 mR synthesis strand mRNAs y 5399 AAA0H3 5393 w AAA 0M3 53w AAA0H3 5 waAAAOH3 s a 1AAA0H339 yaw AAA0H3 s g um AAA 0H3 5390 AAA0H339 L Translation 1 o o 0 h Q 0 P81 PA P32 HA NP NA M1 N51 39 I 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 Matrix RNAdependent Splicing RNA polymerase I I 539 AAAAOHZ s39gr AAA OH3 Translation E 0 M2 N52 Ion channel Figure 11211 Microbiology An Evolving Science 2009 wiw Norton amp Company Inc Antiviral agents Nucleoside analogs eg Zidovudine AZT Acyclovir Ganciclovir Protease inhibitors Indinavir Lopinavir Nelfinavir Other functions Amantadine and Rimantadine block Influenza virus uncoating Zanamivir inhibits Influenza neuraminidase Prions Infectious proteins Disease Agent Symptoms Epidemiology Kuru Prion Paralysis dimentia and death Transmitted by cannibalism No treatment several years after infection CreutzfeIdJacob disease Prion As above Results from a mutation of a gene that encodes a human prion Bovine spongiform Prion As above Results when cattle ingest prions of encephalopathy BSE scrapiesinfected sheep Mad cow disease of Prion As above Results from ingestion of beef products humans contaminated by bovine prions from cattle afflicted with BSE Chronic wasting disease of Prion As above Transmitted orally saliva among deer deer elk Not know to be transmissible to humans Scrapies of sheep Prion As above sheep scrape their Transmissible to cattle deer and mice not bodies against fences etc known to infect humans Normal 7quot A protein quot Aggregates Lg x of prions The approximately 30 different animal phyla use very different body plans Does it have a hard skeleton Is it internal or external What kinds of organs does it have What kind of circulatory system does it have How does it get oxygen to tissues How does it get food Digest it Does it have a head and a tail More important questions Can it eat us Can we eat it Where did animals start Closely related to a single celled eukaryote protist 1 called a Choanoflagellate il 39gcRF iW s Flagellum a A Guilar I Prol erospmgia 5p Flagellum Filter feeder Flagellum drives water through collar which traps food l Rquot J Microvilli Cell Body Phylum Porifera porebearing s v Sponges Flagellum Collar Food particles in m cus Choanocyte Choanocytes Ph Vt f 39 39 39 agoc osiso lns39de trappmg food particles Amoebocyte food Single large Choanocyte opening Epidermis With My small pores matrix Water flow Pore cel Amoebocytes replace other cell types 1719 I Epidermis Cnpyriglil c 1008i eavson mummqu publishing astrsm Benjamin Lllmmingx Porifera filterfeeding animal Two cell layers Some reinforce structure with mineral crystals some instead use collagen Choanocytes commercial sponges inside quot 1 quot tr39iquotquoti39 1 a I Ly 439 l n quot What s the coolest sponge Hexactinellid glass sponges have a glass silica crystal skeleton and no cell bounda es Other best candidate for phylum closest to original animal ancestor Placozoa 1mm shapeless flat thingy with flagellar upper and lower epithelia No mouth or organs Lower epithelium engulfs and digests food Butno choanocytes 39739


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