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by: Mr. Karli Cummings
Mr. Karli Cummings
GPA 3.57


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Class Notes
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Karli Cummings on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ZOOLOGY 315 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see /class/205125/zoology-315-university-of-wisconsin-madison in Animal Science at University of Wisconsin - Madison.

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Date Created: 09/17/15
Limnology at the microscale freshwater microbial biology Trina McMahon Civil and Environmental Engineering Zoology 315 October 9 2008 Learning Objectives Describe the ways in which bacteria are diverse Identify key ecosystem processes mediated by bacteria Predict what would happen if all the bacteria were removed from a lake Tn Bacteria Test Orwater Firms Dangernus Farm m m 3 am we snurce Why do we care about bacteria Why are we interested in bacteria in lakes Do aquatic bacteria affect your life Aquatic microbial ecology Bacteria 1 Taxonomic Diversity 2 Morphological Diversity 3 Metabolic Diversity 4 Role in lake ecosystems Microbial loop Carbon and nutrient cycling Microbes rule the biosphere Carbon nutrientz W numbers 10mm Wt o gofcam v M WSWWW quot Microbial diversity Vertebrates 3 Mblluscs 6 Bacteria Dicotyledons12 Monocotyledons 3 Insects 76 Smuh etaf 1393 Dicotyledons 2 Monocotyledons 0 Insects 7 Molluscs 1 5 microns n I changes psysne m m Pace 1997 Sczmcz 276 754 Arenaquot Alveola es Dumas Slamenopnlles Dquot 39 quot9 quotBES Red 932 Green Algae Embryoprmes cmyeopnyceaus WWW higherplants f7 Dmlnms M Brown A gae F I W Oomyceles water molds quot9 Mewwmm Opulhnds pmusmn parasuus E S39dmmy Asmmycems when Hnwlamp LIMnmomynt Ies Lay asiw mm Euglenuman Zyaomycems 52 39339 Euglenmus Eukaryuta 3quot WW Kmelupmzmds Mmazoans mm Hapmphyms ammam 4 mumpth snme Molds Cryplnmanads Cluorarachniophyles WWW u I changes pev sue mg Arches maquot Bacteria v Q9 4 g a s a Prokaryme Ancestor Eucarva E39 u g n 2 2 FIGURE 31 m mm we swam m no uM wh39h1Mvamunp hz m x39m 3 395 Pace 1997 Sczmcz 276 754 Metabolic Diversity Sources of ENERGY WW ELECTRON S elm Metabolic Diversity WMR Respiration Energy yield of microbial respiration decreases with depth Aerobic 02 reduction Nitrate reduction Manganese iron reduction Sulfate reduction Fermentation Methanogenesis Metabolic Diversity Production AEROBIC photosynthesis H2O light CO2 02 biomass ANAEROBIC photosynthesis H28 light CO2 804 or S biomass Photoautotrophic sulfur bacteria Role in lake ecosystems Abundance and biomass Planktonic aerobic are typically cellsml Bacteria account for of total planktonic biomass in freshwater systems Bacteria 106 cells ml391 2001 2002 M Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nitrogen cycle mgr in Phosphorus cycle ll unoff 1 p043 Sulfur cycle n deposition Microbial loop y 5 l 11 43 Primary producers algae V M a Viruses Take home points Bacteria and the microbial loop underpin ecosystem function Phylogenetically and metabolically diverse Lakes would die without them Zoology 315 Limnology Water movements Jake Vander Zanden Sept 16 2008 Waves Currents Mixing driven by Wind Cooling and heating at the surface 1a Surface gravity waves Fetch Kinetic energy imparted by wind No directional ow Wave breaks 1b Surface seiches Mechanism Uninodal vs binodal Amplitude 2160 cm Period few minutes to 12 hours 1c Internal seiches Formation Speed DEPTH m N O PERCENT I 100 00 20 40 I 60 so 100 Id 0 U a II N u t l u o v 4 10gt A 392 B 39 6 1392 1395 1398 239 2394 2397 30 o 5 3 6 1392 1395 1398 239I 2394 17 30 TEMPERATURE C A A A A A A a A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A AA Epilimnion Hypolimnion 1 2 3 39 4 Figure 12 16 Schematic representation of internal wave formation and breakage of internal thermocline waves re sulting from shear instability 1 Condition prior to wave formation 2 An internal wave forms 3 breaks and incor porates different water layers at the crest and nally 4 pro duces water of intermediate density in the epilimnion After Thorpe 1971 Movement of water heat nutrients between epi and hypolimnion Effects erode thermocline resuspend sediments generate currents in hypolimnion 1d Kelvin waves internal waves Coriolis effect 23 Horizontal currents wind Surface current speed 14 of wind speed 230 cms Coriolis effect de ected to the right of wind direction Counterclockwise in N Hemisphere 2b Horizontal currents density Differential cooling and warming in shallow vs deep waters 2c Langmuir currents Rotational cells Aggregation of foam weeds drift oils Consequences Rapid mixing of epilimnion Movement of phytoplankton throughout the mixed layer rapidly changing light environment Wind 100 cm s 1 45 4 Surface water 30 cm s 1 3 m Null point gt M4 m l 300 m 8m 200m39 Lake bed or thermocline 4 Row spaoirig typically 5 50 m z Reservoxr Lmnology Zoology 315 Lecture Reservoir Limnology Thurs Nov 6 2008 Guest Speaker Stephm Powers M s Cemer for lenology UW M d on a 5 http hmnology wxsc edupersonnelspowers W39haLpacmL ofglobal nnual runoffxs swred m reservolrs7 Large Dams Small Dams m mam m 315 Reservmr Lxmmlugy dunng the pmvd mm 1900192000 Whmh ZSVyear pmvd sawme mustmpld me uf mcrease m mm resmmr magev Lats A hula 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000 What maths um key fac mrs mgmgmd m class whmhm umce reservmr hmnulugy 7 Exams belnw Cunnderthe beluwhydmgzaph1llusuaung aw Dun31mm pm 9 law I man n axes Then dxaw the gen al p mm mm ms amuauy ubsmed a a the dam ms bum 0 3 I 39 S rreamflow m3 ls l 39 MN W 41th 139 L I Um Zoo 315 Reservoxr Lxmnology Draw a a a a dam whxch ls managed mm the peakmg strategy What 15 peakmg7 ngher Low er Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 On the axes b w P reservoxr Primary Produc l ivi l y Years since consfr39ucfion Zoo 315 Reservotr lenology Label the three hrnnologlcal zones ofa largereservolr danonstmted m the dtagmms below lighf NampP NEP Per L Zoology 315 Limnology Water Light amp Strati cation Abby Popp June 215 2006 Properties of water 1 Molecular shape of water Polarity Hydrogen Bonds 2 Viscosity amp Surface Tension Results from Importance 3 Water as Solvent Why is water a good solvent Examples 4 Density Buoyancy in water Hydrogen Bonds in Liquid Water DENSITV DIFFERENCE X OV39C LOWER NC 30 0 IO 20 30 0 TEMPERATURE 39c 395 lo 5 20 25 Temperature amp density 0 957900 099800 39 099700 DENSITY TEMFERATURE 39C 099600 099500 092 091 IGURE 23 Density lg mlquot as a function of temperature for distilled water at 1 arm The density difference per oC lowering is shown in the rightrhand portion of the gure at vanous temperatures Modi ed from Vallenryne 1957i Salinity amp density 5 Speci c Heat De nition Heat of meltingfusion Heat of vaporization Importance 6 Absorption of solar radiation The importance of light to lakes Light 1 Properties of light 2 Factors determining light penetration 7 3 Fate of light A Re ection B Absorption C Scattering 4 Penetration of light Light Extinction Extinction coef cient amp equation Variability of light penetration Lake zones Photic zone Aphotic zone Compensation depth 5 Differential penetration of light 6 Implications Heat amp Stratification 1 Lake Stratification Epilimnion Metalimnion Hypolimnion Thermocline Pelagic zone g phyt opla hcktonq z 9 all OK Epilimnion Photlc zone net primary production 397 a for notes n 39 Metalimnion P y thesvs LrLeswmmagamn3 lttt gtrampitir lw v nll ti ti ci i lh lll 1132 a we in ig h lg gin 19 R a i39 Profunda Aphotic zone net respiration Hypolimnion Figure 1 5 Diagrammatic cross section ofa freshwater lake and its drainage basin showing the zones that become established in summer as a result of thermal strati cation and a light gradi ent IlIodi ed a er Frey I966 c I I EPILlMNtON 5 0 V METALIMNION DEPTH m U l HYPOLIMNION 25 I l l W a 5 IO 15 20 TEMPERATURE C FIGURE 6 3 Typical thermal strati cation of a lake into the epilim netic metalimnetic and hypolimnetic water strata Dashed lines indi cate planes for determining the approximate boundaries of the metal imnion see text 25 30 2 Density and resistance to mixing Warm vs cool lakes Relative Thermal Resistance RTR Summer June Aug Autumn late Sept early Oct 3 Wind 3 Lake classi cation f4 f A Dimictic Lakes a WinterDec March Ice Thermocline o Overturn Figure 215 The four seasons on Lake Mendota B Cold monomictic Lakes C Warm monomictic Lakes Temperature C U Ill 13932390 2 2 2V 8 12 16 D Meromictic Lakes 18 E Cold amp Warm Polymictic Lakes F Amictic Lakes 4 Case study Lake Nyos Cameroon Zoology 315 Lxmnology Nmogm amp phosphorus Abby Popp July 339 2005 1mm 1 Nutrients de ned Macronuh lents M monuments hohrhmhg abxouc components of an ecosystem 2 Studymg human dynamics Approach 1 Budgets nu w mhh Hammad mum zmamu x V mm a 1 mum mama u Approach 2 Cycles Pools Fluxes 3 Types of nutrient cycles atmospheric geologic combination 4 Nutrient limitation Liebig s Law of the Minimum The limiting nutrient is the nutrient Whose ratio of supply to demand is Red eld Ratio lfNP gt 20 lfNPlt 10 Thought Question 0 I A given part of a lake has concentrations of nutrients as follows I 42400 mgm3 Carbon I 2400 mgm3 Nitrogen I 300 mgm3 Phosphorus I Given the Red eld ratio of 106 C 16 N l P Which ofthese nutrients is the limiting one NITROGEN 1 Forms of nitrogen in aquatic systems organic N Aquatic Nitrogen Cyclc mm mth 2 39E Uigmm Wm Inorganic N Gaseous forms N comes mainly from air but sometimes WWW quot 2 Transformations of nitrogen Bjo c uptake Aquatic Nitrogen Cyclc minim mm quotmum w l hylopimmon Q A a mm aa 393 g 07 y summer m E Wquot MWquot Hnu M1nera11zation 39 m w V M e in Nu gas 7 mm Ulgnmu nmgmu Fixation Nitri cation needs 02 Denitri cation needs anoxia Pretend you re an NZ molecule Aqualic Nitrogen Cycle L I l hi lxxl xgltvnn mmxuc A 39 Dmulxul quotM54 mm mm N inputs to lakes N losses from lakes Nitrogen amp oxygen 02 presenceabsence has major effect on N cycle 02 present 02 absent Thnught Qnemnn 1 V711th process m the Nrcycle needs oxygen7 What does ths process 0107 V711th process happens when there 15 no oxygen7 What form ofmtrogen 15 most easny consumed by plants7 Impacts of nitrate m the Water supply Nitrate as N In mgL 1955 1565 1975 1555 1995 2005 Thought Question 2 I What are options for reducing the amount of nitrate in surface waters 0 What two processes decrease the amount of nitrate o How could you facilitate those processes don t be afraid to be creative PHOSPHORUS la Sources of Phosphorus Geologic cycle Anthropogenic lb Forms of Phosphorus Total P all P in the sample Inorganic P Organic P 2 Phosphorus transformations Biotic uptake assimilation Mineralization Precipitation dissolution Sorption desorption PhosphatePO43 3 charge means it s very reactive Example Fe3 PO43 gtFePO4 If no 02 is present in the hypolimnion P eyehhg m the eplhmmon assumed P PM Zane pvanmn plankton P eyehhg m the hypohmmon Particulate Dissolved P P uptake P eyehhg m the whole lake Pa qali F Dtszn mt F Typmal P pro les 3 Phosphorus m lakes ampnvers Excess P m lakes What to do about lt7 Reduce P wuhm the lake Reduce P ehtehhg the lake


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