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Date Created: 08/20/14
HIST 2055 section 2 Beginning on other notes 31314 Creating the Constitution 1 The convention Philadelphia 1787 May June After the war they decided for the convention Going into the convention there was no mandate that the articles had to be replaced They wanted to decide to keep or get rid of They got rid of it To create a moderate government listening to people and also telling them what to do There were 55 delegates extremely wealthy all white George Washington presided over it The main talking heads that weren t there were Thomas Jefferson and John Adams this is one reason why it became a solid document These two never agreed There were brilliant minds there to come up with document The democratic wing was the wing that supported the articles of confederation They were hardly present at this meeting They didn39t send delegates or they didn39t speak up In June the Constitution was created They couldn39t fix the articles so they got rid of it Goals of the founders They went in trying to fix too much liberty they had to establish an actual national government to have order to represent all the states Also another thing is one universal currency that was made of paper This would represent them as a nation it brought unity They didn39t have different currency they all had the same Through this document they established treaties a government would own all land not owned by the states States could trade with one another quotNecessary and Proper cause Allows the constitution to be a growing document it can t be restricted to itself It established itself as the supreme law of the land It trumped all state law National government State government Local government It established a bicameral legislation two houses Senate and House of representatives It established a strong executivethe president It was the most important change Aspects of the new system A Federal B New system of representation Judiciary Executive Legislative C Strong executive branch the president Veto Elected by people the Electoral College How long would become president They established 4 years a term There were no term limits until after FDR No political parties No campaigns Strong iudiciary branch it all came down to the judiciary branch It creates a lot of the balance The only check that it has is that it is appointed by the president They serve life terms It can t establish law it becomes precedent when they rule on something They interpret law as constitutional or non constitutiona Amendment process two ways 1 two thirds of state legislatures can come together and form a constitutional convention 2 two thirds of congress can vote for the amendment it then goes to the states 3 quarters of the states have to accept it for it to become a state This is the only one that has been used They wanted to create a perpetual union It established the exact opposite of the articles This created a unit out of all the states What did this do for slavery It is not in the constitution If a state passes an anti save law other states don t have to Why wasn39t it in the constitution Because they couldn39t come to an agreement on it What to do with a slave that leaves a slave state into a free state Two slave acts it established that free slaves must be sent back to where they came from The key to the 35 compromise Do slaves count as population are they people etc the compromise stated that they were 35 of a person Ratification needed the 23 majorities The fight was incredibly intense because not all sections of the population were represented in the founding of the constitution Therefore there was opposition This is when the radicals arose Two groups developed because of this the federalist and the anti federaist Federalist they were for the constitution They dominated the cities Alexander Hamilton and John Adams They were better represented in the government The Federalist Papers A series of documents originally published in NY newspapers 17871788 The majority was written by Alexander Hamilton the leader Most of his writings were about the economy James Madison wrote about rights This is why he is important The idea that a strong federal government establishes rights unlike state governments which allow for different rights per state But he began to realize that the constitution was not including these rights He became the father of the Bill of Rights rights granted to all citizens Bill of Rights It came after the Constitution was ratified In March 1789 the Constitution became valid The Bill of Rights was passed in 1791 It comprised of 10 articles the 10 amendments Started off as 12 but cut down to 10 These two that didn t make it was one that was incredibly complicated and congressional compensation James Madison is considered the father of the bill of rights He was the fundamental essence of the Bill of Rights John Jay only wrote 4 AntiFederaist hated the constitution because they believed it was a form of tyranny They dominated the rural areas James Madison and Thomas Jefferson For slavery A problem with them was that it limited there power over there states They thought that the constitution disallowed any rights for the people The presidency very important debate What did they want to call the President The federalist wanted to call him quotHis Majesty To Aristocratic so they decided on the quotthe President This harnessed the fear of tyranny with passiveness something like that Settling the problems of the 1780s 5 Safeguarding republicanism 6 Questions left unanswered Book review fonts times new roman size 12 double spaced two to three pages long If its two pages long it better be incredible Si session 1 Characteristics of a New Nation a What does it look like it was a frontier waste land Roads were not paved really b Stability and the presidency there were 3 categories of people that they government recognized there wasn39t really any universal patriotism unless of the same culture 1 Natives Had to do with assimilation Had to change culture to become citizens 2 African slaves Inhabitants of the land not members of society 1791quot39750000 Represented as 35 compromise 3 Americans All others Not considered different WHITE white males There were very few common bonds amongst states The concept of the constitution didn39t take at first in the states People from different countries for example different states with trade problems etc quot1790 Since they weren39t unified it was a very primitive state No paved roads people rarely bathed epidemics Most everyone worked Alcoholism became a major problem It was a public nuisance It leads to domestic abuse fights and murders The diet was poor grits pork beefa this was poorly nutritious There was massive equality For instance there was only one George Washington one Thomas Jefferson The handshake came about and it was a sign of equality and trust How do you make a unified nation out of this George Washington This is why the president existed He was a symbolic leader quotThe Indispensable man he represents everything that a good man should be The main thing that he did that won over the people is that he inverted virtue He used the right balance He resigned from the army after the war and that showed a great balance of virtue He didn39t want to have all the power He first rejected presidency but realized he had to because he was the symbolic leader Most people point to one aspect of his will to fundamentally prove his virtue In his will he established that all his slaves would become free after his death But he wasn39t the only one who did it He was elected in 1789 and 1792 He believed that no president should run for more than two terms One of the ways to see how he was a good president is that he didn39t do much He realized that he would be the example of every president after him He tried to establish a very generic power base for the president in where he didn39t step over anything Hamilton did most of the stuff for Washington He resembled what the first president needed to be Alexander Hamilton quotFinancial Plan 1 The federal government would assume the war debts of the states This unified the nation by equating all of the states 2 Manufacturing tariff the production of goods within the US Exact opposite of mercantilism Tariff an import tax on everything that39s not made in the US 3 National Bank the currency of the nation would come from a national bank and it was have power over state banks The country would have one currency Thomas Jefferson hated it Thomas Jefferson Secretary of State Abhorred the entire financial plan He viewed America as a wonderland He saw true liberty coming from the land not factories He called this Yeomanry This flew in the face of federalist He thought the expansion westward would make US the most virtuous WE have to work the land and till it Tariff became a volatile situation The decided to tax all French goods But the best way to raise money was a tax on whiskey 1794 The response was the whiskey rebellion the farmers mobilized and created a militia Washington raised 12000 militia and marched on Kentucky implying that rebellion would not be tolerated in America Caused absolute panic among the anti federaist If you have a population within the US who mobilizes to let their grievances known but the government marches on them it looks like tyranny at least to the anti federaist The French Revolution it is based on principle fundamental to the American Revolution It was a grass roots rebellion At first the entire US government was promoting this because nations were taking on the US ideology that there would be no Monarchs and everyone would be a republic The terror the executions It was something so political that it became violent Hamilton saw this great reason why a strong federal government must exist to keep order Jefferson wanted to work with French and bring this terror to America and get rid of the government The breaking point is when France created war on Virginia This led to the Jay treaty 1794 Officially made the US ally with the British Us wouldn39t trade with France anymore and all people who owed debt to Britain would be in debtors prison or pay the debt or the government would pay it off Minimized tariffs on British goods This treaty created the first two political parties Federalist and Jeffersonian Jay Treaty thought it would be the next quotAmerican Revolution Within in 10 years the French revolution turned into quotthe Terror a radical usurpation of the movement Jacobins radical republicans they were so radical that barely questioning their movement you would be beheaded The jacobins became monarchs In the American revolution virtue won out Under the Jacobins France declared war on Britain because they were monarchs This was the breaking point The revolution was lost It put the US in an awkward situation and this is how Jay s treaty came about France and Britain were the united States greatest trading so they couldn39t trade with one more than the other and the US didn t want pick sides and so John Jay signed Jay s treaty He basically made it so the US sided with Britain quottrade wise British goods were no longer taxed and French goods would be taxed very much But the British had to do something in return Britain withdrew all troops from North America With them leaving it took away one of those enemies in the US and it established a real border The US promised to respect British debts Many Americans before the revolution were in debt to Britain If they couldn39t pay they would send them to debtor39s prison and if that happened the US government would pay it off The British lifted their tariff on US products Jefferson and that group hated Jays treaty because it took away the Americans liberties Jays Treaty was the breaking point The Democratic Repubicans Jeffersonian They became a party that put up candidates for offices Before it was just a political name The leaders were Thomas Jefferson and James Madison The other party was the Federalist Federalist the main leaders were George Washington Alexander Hamilton and John Adams 0 Strong centralized government Standing army 0 Anxious over rampant liberty and democracy Aristocrat Feared the people They believed in an upper class and that class was the only one to make decisions The upper class is fundamental to society 0 Economy should emulate the British model Tariffs promotes manufacturing BUS bonds Jeffersonians 0 States should be the supreme rule States created government 0 Gov had to exist but not override state power 0 Some democracy was a good thing Social hierarchy was not natural Only those with virtue should lead quotnatural aristocracy Yeoman utopia Jeffersonian idyll very strange The idea that the earth is what holds and breeds liberty the actual soil The US is greatest free land and we have to till it and work it Working land produces liberty virtue He wanted all men should own land and work that andwhat about slaves They worked land for other people The federalist and Jeffersonians didn39t recognize each other in reality They dint have debates If the federalist were speaking they were speaking to the existing federalist and vice versa Election of 1796 probably the most horrendous election in the US Between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson The issue was that they personally attacked each other And they were friends before this outside of politics They realized that they agreed on a lot of stuff so this was the only solution John adams win but only by 3 electoral votes Have a president who is a federalist and a vp who is a Jeffersonian Always disagreed especially on foreign policy France Jefferson promised France that the US would stand by Jays treaty completely went against that
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