Marriage and Family
Marriage and Family SOC 120
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This 48 page Class Notes was uploaded by Deron Effertz on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 120 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Aimee Dechter in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/205169/soc-120-university-of-wisconsin-madison in Sociology at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Family and Work Soc 120 Marriage and the Family Class THE CHANGING MARRIAGE BARGAIN o Bargain now includes the preference that both spouses will contribute to family income and household chores 0 Reflection of The Revolution 0 Why does Hochschild refer to the current workfamily situation as a Stalled Revolution 7 Revolution for Whom Consequences of the Revolution Strains of Employment in Marriages 0 Role Overload 0 Riole Spillover L L l quot When demandsfrom workor home spillover into the other sphere of life 0 Loss ofintimacy 7 Especially infamilies who cope with the second shift by doing shift work The Stalled Revolution 0 Why does Hochschild referto the current workfamily situation as a 39Stalled Revolution39 How isit stalled Second Shift Interviews conducted in the 1980s Is the study dated Isthe Revolution Still Stalled What has changed since then The Leisure Gap 0 Just as there is a wage gap in the workforce there is a leisure gap at home 0 Statistics have shown a difference of9 hours per week for working women and working men Non Egalitarian Men 0 Are Evan Holt and other husbands who do not share the second shift jerks Is that why they didn t help m What Caused the Stall in the Revolution I Why are women still doing so much of the housework and childcare The conditions in the workplace and culture ofemployers remain the same 0 Few if any accommodations or flexibility for working parents 0 Wage gap between men and women Workplace Remains the Same Still Assumes a Male Breadwinner with lBackstage Support39 at Home 0 Gerson 1994 conducted a study of fat Of those identified as 39involved fathers Primary conflict was not with their wives but between the demands of career and I arenting These fathers faced similar penalties on thejob fortaking parental leave refusing overtime and being familyoriented that their wives faced hers What Else Caused the Stall in the Revolution 0 Why are women still doing so much ofthe housework and childcare Cultural Lag Gender Ideology o What is Gender Ideology A set of beliefs concerning how one should feel or behave in a gendered way Hochschild about what is masculinitymaleness and femininity femaeness 0 Gender ideologies often come into conflict with the structural economic and social realities presented in real life Examples Typology o The Traditionalists o Egalitarian Couples 0 The Transitionals Gender Strategy 0 Definition Actions individuals take and the emotional work one oes to ursue the actions in orderto navigate the cultural notions of gender at p ay Thequotnoions ofgenderat playquot include the individuals own notionslie gender ideologyl and the notions perating in the environment 0 It is an attempt to implement one s gender ideology in daily life given opportunities and constraints 0 They are comprised of one s gender ideology emotional responses and behaviors Example of a Gender Strategy 0 How would we expect the ratio between mother s and father s salaries to correlate with their contribution to the second shift Gender Strategies Over the Life Course 0 Kathleen Gerson39s research on middle class women shows what determines gender strategies 0 Why veertowards home 0 Why veertowards work 0 Although aspirations an expectations are formed early in life these are subject to different constraints and opportunities as women put them into practice 0 What are the primary factors Gender Strategy 0 Based on The Second Shift findings what else should be added to the primary factors Gender Ideologies in Conflict I Nancy and Evan represent the most common conflict among the couples Hoschschild interviewed The Transitional man vs the Egalitarian woman What was Nancy s gender strategy Gender Strategy 0 In the Second Shift gender strategy is what people actually did about the quotsecond shif quot in relation to conflicts between their gender ideologies and others quotnotions of gender that are at playquot 0 Examples Family Myths 0 What is a family myth 0 What is the function of family myths Family Myths 0 Examples of Family Myths From Second Shift Chapters 4 Holt 5 Delacorte Frank and Carmen Delacorte How did they resolve the tension between both wanting Carmen to be able to stay home and needing her income What wasthe Delacorte family myth What were the benefits ofthe Delacortes family myth What were the costs Family Myths 0 Examples of Family Myths From Second Shift Nancy and Evan Holt UpstairsaDownstairs Myth A Family Myth as quotSolutionquot Other Holt s myths I What were the quotbenefitsquot ofthe Holt39s family myth What were the costs ofthe Holt s family myth e Whatwere case in e ms of Nancy and Evan 5 relationship and Joey s and Evan 5 relationship3 Family Myths I Think about examples of family myths from your own lives The Tanagawas Gender Strategy 0 Nina39s strategy 7 Started with passive attempts to get Peterto see her distress and he 5 r Ultimately gave up herfullrlime job and lost credibility at work 0 Peter39s strategy 7 Refusingto see the family problem as anything otherthan Nina39s problemquot 7 Being a traditional man inside the selfrpresenlalion ofa transitional man Economies of Gratitude 0 Why are economies of gratitude important 0 How are economies of gratitude determined 0 Example from Second Shift Even when wives earn more money than their husbands and do most ofthe housework and childcare they may feel indebted to their husbands f rwhat Tanagawas Holts Consequences of the Stall o What are the costs of sharing the second shift What price are women more likely to pay What price are men more likely to pay Arrangements for second shift affect men just as much aswomen Will the Revolution Remain Stalled I Two countervailing forces are at work influencing gender ideology Sociology 120 American Family in Historical Context Soc 120 Marriage and the Family Historical Context of Families of Immigrants and Underrepresented 39 orities Immigrant and Working Class Families Constraints on ideal family patterns for immigrant and working class families Challenges faced by immigrant families Sociology 120 American Family in Historical Context Urban Immigrant Standard of Living Budget needed to support an average family of five in 1851 1037 per week The average skilled factory worker earned from 300 600 per week Unskilled workers who made up 23rds of the workforce in most urban areas earned one dollar a week Economic Survival Strategies How did immigrant families make up the difference The NonEuropean Immigrants Cheap Labor Living Arrangements mining camps and railroad gangs apart 39om family family labor system Built the agricultural and industrial base on which subsequent industrial development rested How were they treated after built infrastructure Sociology 120 American Family in Histon39cal Context VE FamIlIalIsm WHITE Compadrazgo M Sexrole segregation Patriarchy Families uprooted as economic basis for family life changed 19421964 the bracero program Chinese immigration began with Californi gold rush In 1850s Discrimination prohibited marriage and fa 39 Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 1943 ASIAN AMERICANS Japanese immigration began in 1880s with arrival in Hawaquot World War II and lnternment Camps Authority of parents eroded Sociology 120 American Family in Historical Context AFRICAN AMERICAN FAMILIES What is the African Heritage 1 2 3 Some ofthe Slave Codes A slave could not marry or even meet with a free Black Marriage between slaves was not legally recognized A slave could not possess property including money A slave could not inherit anything one was to teach a slave how to read or write FI FE quotTtl uix mplr 39 1mm AFRICAN AMERICAN FAMILIES Consequences ofSlavery Wherever possible slaves married and lived together for life always under threat of disruption Women worked in fields and later outside the home mainly as domestic servants Sociology 120 American Family in Historical Context Aftermath 13m Amendment abolished slavery except for those convicted of a crime Slave Codes gt Black Codes Court approves separate but equalquot 1896 po taxes literacy tests and residential irements for voting declare constitutional 1898 And in the North Most occupations were closed to blacks Artually all workers unions were white When blacks employed they were o en used as strikebreakers Some states did not permit blacks to own land testify in court or to enter the state AFRICAN AMERICAN FAMILIES Discrimination prevented men from being able to support a family Single motherhood more common Women broke out of domestic work into otherjobs beginning in 1960s Sociology 120 American Family in Histon39cal Context Indian RemovalActoleSO e a I American Apartheid PostWW Discriminated against lrl huusing educatiun employment and puiities Jim Cruvv lS The Gl Bill at Rights at WM 7 Discriminatiun in haste prugrams created and maintained mEWEm gap between WES and Emmi EVE tuna Redlining whiteflight Li 4 Rm n facilities are inherently unequal laws and early 7Ds and many Especially in urban areas are still se negated The Civil Rights Art at lBB4 Spatial mobilitygt Social mobility S increases families move into better neighborhoods Nonwhites especially blacks face barriers to spatial mobility at all income levels Barriers to spatial mobility are barriers to social mobility Sociology 120 Samesex Unions Prior to national debate many states de ned marriage as between awoman and amen others presumed it and refused to issue licenses to the rare couples who aske e Slnce the debate all states have provlslons prohrbrtrng marrlag ex apt for a fe ates 92007 GOVERNING INTHVIATE RELATIONSHIPS Major Changes Through the Courts Lavmg V VHng 1967 Supreme Court strrkes down u mm persons solely on the basls ofraclal elassr eatrons 7 Court m Hawall 1996 overrule preyrous ban on same sex the Hawall eonstrtutron 1998 Votes amend the state runsotuoun tn restnrtmemege to men and vmmen unly 7 Lawrence v Texas 2003 US Supreme Court smkes down Tam sodomy law GOVERNING INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS Major E ons by Congress to Undo Court Rulings r 19 6 US House and Senate pass the Defense of Marriage Act OMA Abrugatesthe full faith and eredrt eiause ennstatutrnnb ufthe y wnren states have tn recugmze enntaaets rnadern ndner states Denies federal recugnmun ufsame sex mamage 3 r r the Federal Marriage Arnendrnent mange as aunrnn between a rnan and a Wuman unly GOVERNING INTHVIATE RELATIONSHIPS Common Pattern Across States e State courts dee1are that denying rnarn to samesex couples is unconstituti 7 State Legislature attem age licenses ruling onal tireeourt s by proposing amendments to the st te eonsta39tuta39ons speci cally banning sarne s and es quot 39 39 a ex ag I 39 eterosexual cohabiting coup es luasenn u sn y nnrgenetaeennnenrnrndnnewnnrn beandnreengmedrsrnnnrgentnrssra Alegal t 7 M strarsrdanaennsnnsananiysnnnt thntufmamagefm r g umnamedmdwidualsshallmtbewhdarrecagnzedin39hs satequot e In some states local e1eeted and non e1eeted GOVERNING INTHVIATE RELATIONSHIPS Some Exceptions in Legislative and Executive Branch Responses to Court ulings 7 Establishment of Civil Union laws enadedtn the sarne nuhts as n usiteesex e A vws sxmeesex enrniestn abtmn rnamed enupies lawn ngnts resnansiairtaes andbenents available unrnugrrnarnage within stale uf verrnmt beearnrngtne rst state m dd sa Civil union 7 Terms for a Alternatives to Maniage civil status similar to m 39 typieany created for the purposes ofallo same se age wing eoup1es access to the herietits enjoyed by mamed heterosexuals Alternatives to Maniage Domestic partner or domestic partnership 7 Living together and sharing a common domestic ife tog lther but not joined in any type oflegal panhers 39p marriage or civil uriiori e Entered into in order to eoritraetuany agree to certain issues between partners In relauon to joint pro erty ownership support obligations and sirui ar issues to that found in marriage 7 one ofthe reasons for the ereatior ofthe the contribution of one partner to the property fth other GOVERNING INTlMATE RELATIONSHIPS Some Exceptions in Legislative and Executive Branch Responses to Court Rulings e Legalization ofMania e Goade v Dept afPublx Health Nuvernherznnz Massachusetts Supreme Cuurt rules it a vlulatlun ufthe state euristatutauri to ban SameeSex Mamage eMassaehusettsoe gayeouptesiuMayznn lendursmg e 39um the timeharowtoissuemuurgeueersestor a tquot Ht M r on the tirst state legislature ir the Us tn pass ahii 39SameeSex Marriages fulluwing asirruiar muv state Senate rVemedbythepwmntor mm animate cmuMaIA the Pew Research 0 enter m the Penple amp the Press and Pew qum an Relignn amp Public Life Is it Just About Benefits and Rights 39 Key issue in the debate is the extension of bene ts and rights associated with marriage to those in nonmarital unions 39 What are some of those tangible monetaxy b ene m 39 What are some of those tangible legal n39ghm Is it Just About Bene ts and Rights 0 If these benefits and rights are important for well being of individuals and their children is that is a compelling reason to allow same sex marriage or to make benefim available to those in civic unions equivalent to those available to married couples Disparate Views on Gay Families Gay Gay Civil Marriage Adoption Unions Fav or 35 42 5 4 Oppose 56 52 42 Don t know 9 6 4 l 00 l 00 l 00 2006 National survey by the Pew Research Center for the People amp the Forum on Religion amp Public Life SameSex Marriage hat do you see as the differences between allowing SameSex Marriage and allowing civil unions with all the tangible benefits of marriage 7 What are the pros and cons of each 7 How would you legislate change SameSex Marriage Is it Debate About Equality 7 Marriage is a privileged status in American society and should be open to all costlylegal agreements to mimic the rights in marriage when others do now SameSex Marriage Equality Why do some gay liberation activism resist the ght to marry Is it About Gender Roles Samesex coup es Violate gender role norms ls SameSex Marriage a threat to the gender roles in marriage Is It About Religious Conviction Marriage as a sacred union between man and Woman etc Is it appropriate to rule or vote based on one s churches position that SameSex Marriage is a sin or is this a violation of the separation of church and state r Is the Debate About the Pmpose ofManiage Private View Public View Much of the research on gay couples has focused on the effects on their children 7 Dif cult to measure effects Is It About Children Public issue 7 Well being ofchildren Mamedheterosexual parenting ls the gold standard 15 this the approprrate legal andpollcy quesudrn Overview OfState GLB Adoption and Fostering Laws Adoption Polic39 7 Only Hunda furbxds humusexuals and bisexuals sum aduptmg 7 Sums states as nut apprave secundparent aduphunbut alluw une gayparent 7 n cuntxast sume states have puhnesthat either explicitly as implicitly state that sexual unentatmn cannut be a basis is prevent gay andlesbxan peapie sum aduptmg Fostering Policies 7 Nebr skahas apuhcy pruhlbltmg gaypeuple sum fasten 7 As with aduptmn Utah furbids fusienng by unmamea uuples How Do Children in Gay Families Fare problems in Assessing the Effe 1 Parental Sexu riemanon on Children 7 De ning and measuring sexual orientation 7 Lack reliable data on the number and location ofLG parents wim children in the general population 7 Small Samples 7 Selection Why might we expect differences Sexual orientation of children of lesbian mothers 0 Why should we expect children s sexual orientation to be in uenced by family type amesex parents and exposure to samesex relationships may socialize children to be more 5 open to samesex relationship 7 This openness may in uence development of sexual orientation How do children in gay families fare compared to other families 0 American Academy of Pediatrics AAP supports protections for lesbian and gay families ie co parent or secondparent adoption by samesex parents Exemplar Alison M V Virginia D 0 At issue Visitation rights for child x 7 age 7 0 Facts ofthe case Cohabiting since 1978 7 Virginia arti cially inseminated and boy born 39 1981 7 The two Womenjointly raised him 7 Relationship terminated and Alison moved out 7 Virginia terminated all contact returning all gi s and letters Exemplar Alison M V Virginia D 0 Domestic Relations Law ofNew York 7 Either parent may apply to the court to have a minor child brought before the court and the c may award the natural guardianship custody or VlSlthlOH to either parent as the case may require abridged Virginia s Case 0 Formal Legal 7 Virginia is biological mother 7 she is a t mother 7 Alison is NOT a parent under the laW39 7 Opening parenthood rights to someone like Alison is a slippery s 7 The court should uphold the sacred foundation of the family as limited to birth marriage and adoption Alison s Case I Functional Legal 7 Best interests ofthe child 7 Alison is a de facto parent to the child 7 e court is denying visitation based on standards Alison could not meet 7 The court should considerwhether or not Alison has Functzmlzd as I e The court has rest in preserving the stability of parent child relationships no matter how they w r d Key terms Implications 0 How would you have voted if 7 ViIginia were suing Alison for child suppo Soc 120 Marriage and the Fainin v Theoretical Perspectives FAMILY THEORIES FUNCTIONALISM a Family is a structure meeting fundamental needs in society a Family life is organized around a way that is useful functional for society a Functions can be manifest or latent FAMILY THEORIES Contd l CONFLICT THEORY u Con ict is natural and inevitable a See society as a system ofinequality in which groups compete for scarce goods and services a Con ict theorists have been criticized for ignoring consensus and stability I FAMILY THEORIES Contd FEMINIST THEORY u Similarto conflict theory but focus is on gender a Gender de nes social roles I The roles are socially constructed not based in biology a These roles shape relations between men and women to give men power over women n Criticism I Ignores diversity of con icts and power struggle FAMILY THEORIES Cami HOUSEHOLD ECONOMlCS THEORY a llt a New Home Econornlcs Theory a When husbands and wives specialize and trade what they produce there is a gain to marriage ifthey specialize in their comparative advantage a Gender u Criticism Employed Women are now more lllltelyto marry Model assumes all farnlly memoers agree about how farnlly resources should be allocated Compare Perspectives on Function of Family I MarxistsConflict a To preserve I Feminists n o 392 m m 9 lt m I Functionalists To I Household Economics a To maximize Consequences of Gendered Division of Labor for Women s Wages I If women and theirjobs suffer from spillover more often than men or more often make choices to minimize role overload by choosing more flexible jobs or jobs that do not require travel or are less demanding jobs is it fair that they are paid less than men I The Care Penalty I Would you say that work in the home is as highly valued a work outside the home I Jobs involving some nurturing component werepaid ess than simi arly skilled jobs Why might this be I As women do more men s workquot and men fail to compensate in terms of women s workquot do ou think the work of raising a famil will become even less valued over t39me7 I Sociology 120 Family Change in the 20th and 21st Centuries The Second Demographic Transition Overview of trends and explanations I Demographic Transitions Late 1819th Centuries The First Demographic Transition l The First Demographic Transition 17003718003 l Mortality Decline a One in ten children died in the first year and just over half lived to adulthood u m lications of high adult mortalit Average length ofmarriage was less than 12years Onethird to onehalfofall children lost at least one parent before age 21 h39he First Demographic Transition 17003713003 I Fertility Declined a Total fertility rate TFR in 1800 7 I was eople married younger in colonies than in Europe and marriage universal u TFR declinedto 5 in 1850 I Secular vs Period Change I Secular changes in the family for centuries make an underlying tren I Particular events account for shocks to the system l UNIQUE FAMILY ERAS DEPRESSION GENERATION The Great Depressio Delays in marriage amp cnilolessness are strategies ror coping Witn economics ress Divorce rate ralls because people can t arroro it WWII People marry and reproduce as soon as economic cir mstances permit implications forPatriarchal institution Tne Great Depression VWVll Unique Family Eras Post War Baby Boom Early Marriage Fertility Increase TFR reached a high of 36 due to El El D Divorce Secular increase diminsed AGE AT FIRST MARRIAGE Figure 1 Median Age at Marriage 1390 2002 Mu mm 23 Mmequot Mm um 152 mu mu mu znnz mm 0 5 Swan m me mm 15m inn51 rm mm Sex 1390 r0 man 2001 WWW govimam Trends in Fertility Rates Total Fertility Rates amwpmmxim 1000 1020 1040 1060 1000 1900 1920 1940 1960 1900 1997 I Demographic Transitions Late 1819th Centuries The First Demographic Transition Late 2021st Centuries The Second Demographic Transition The Second Demographic Transition Phase Beginning in the 1960 s a Upward Divorce Trend Accelerated u Fertility Decline a Delay ofMarriage Foregone l Phase II 19701985 a Premarital Cohabitation a Non marital Childbearing 196039s and 197039s I Similarities with typical twentieth century pattern Distinctive Patterns u avg age at marriage at 20th century high a cohabitation a divorce Umbmpsmmgms The Second Demograpth Tmsmon 52 aegmmngmmewaau s Phase H mamas Phase m m 198D and beyunw u Dwuycemamam u Pus1 3n Femmv Recupevatmn m same cuunmes7 SES Dwemence Divome RatePeI1 Manied Women15 The Second Demograpth Tmsmon Changes in family in us generally not unique us distinct among industrialixed societies u nghe divulce iales Willi cnlluien drossrnatlonal Compansons ofDlvorce Ferment m Nem gas Ending in Elme Pzrum e a s g 1965 mu ms 193 1985 lean 1995 us m am wmv Causes ofThe Second Demographic Transition I Continuation of Long Term Secular Trends I Anchored in lndividuating and Atomizing Forces u Changesin culture a Industrialization and market economy I Other Structural Forces I Potential Feedback Loops u Changes in one family domain I Contribute to changes in others I Impacts on normative expectations Changes in Culture Behind the Second Demographic Transition I Rising Individualism I Increasing material aspirations I Less rigid norms around family life I Secularization of culture and family life I Less moral stigma I Women s Movement I The second Sexual Revolution l PERCENT DISAGREEING WITH MEASURES OF FAMILY ATTITUDES ke Parents iay All cmlples decisinns tngether parents Saurce Thnmtnn shawlquotgimme 2mm Other Structural Changes Behind the Second Demographic Transition Education Trends Technological innovation in birth control Political Legalization of Abortion Divorce Laws Racial Integration Economic Changes Behind the Second Demographic Transition Decline in Family Functions with Industrialization Women s Economic Independence Men s Deteriorating Economic Prospects Loss of Specialization and Erosion of Gains to Trade Female Labor Force Participation By Race 1 88071990 11100 1910 1940 1970 1930 1990 Same Ruggle 1997 Tab 2 WOMEN ECONOMIC INDEPEDENCE WELFARE 5m gamma n Teen Sex and childbearing Soc 120 Marriage and the Family Historical Trends Teen childbearing Ulla 1 m ms lur mlmlrs In 14 mm m Why Alarm About Teen childbearing Number of babies to UNMARRIED teenagers increased Birth rate for unmarried teens increased Population at risk of unmarried birth increased Why Recent Trends in Teenage Pregnancy The teenage pregnancy rate has dropped 27 between 1990 and 2000 Two factors likely account for the falling pregnancy rates Recent Trends in Teen Fertility The teenage childbearing rate has plummeted by 333 since 1991 Due in large part to sharp decline in the rate of second births to teenagers who have had one birth Rate of Second Births gt599 1993 We u lgul 4 Ram m mm lmlhs in teenagers mm hzve hzd 2 lim mun mamas Teen Birth Rates Selected Developed Countries quotlulled suits mm ed 10 20 30 40 Rate per 1000 females aged 1519 years Smite unm Nancns DEHDQYEDHE Veallzuck 2m New Yak unm Nancns 2mm Why Do They Do It 1 Cultural Discomfort with Sexuality 1 Education and Discussion 2 Paradox for females and contraception 2 Nature ofAdolescence 1 Empowerment to say no or insist on birth control 2 Difficulty planning ahead for contraception 3 Knowledge and experience with contraception 4 Peer pressure Why Do They Do It cont 3 SelfEsteem and Recreation in Residentially Socially and Economically Isolated Areas 1 No alternative ways of gaining status identity and rites of passage Ethnographic Studies Oppositional Culture 1 BabyClubs 2 Male Culture 3 Why does oppositional culture occur N 1 cultural values emerge from specific circumstances and life chances and reflect an individual s position in the class structurequot Wilson 1987 p 261 4 Costs are not great enough What is there to lose How To Reduce Teenage Childbearing Making illegitimacy more inconvenient what economists would call raising its opportunity cost is the key to reducing outofwedlock births Douglas Besharov American Enterprise institute 0 How to increase the opportunity cost a Punitive approach a Incentive approach There is nothing more dangerousthan to build a society with a large segment of people in that society who feel thatthey have no stake in it whofeel that they have nothingto lose Martin Luther King Where Should We Direct Resources and Policy Efforts 0 Education 0 Financial Support 0 Marriage 0 Birth Control and Sex Ed Abstinence Movement 0 Advocates of abstinence as public policy recommend it as a way for teens to avoid pregnancy and STD s o Celibacy pledge is a public vow to abstain from sex until marriage Often made in schools and churches Abstinence Movement 0 PRO premarital abstinence and postmarital sex are necessary and sufficient for avoiding negative consequences of sexual activity such as STDs o CON programs are not an effective way to decrease the occurrence ofdiseases and unwanted pregnancies Add Health Study of Celibacy Pledges o Examined the relationship between virginig pledges and first sexual intercourse and STD s 0 Compared teens who made a public pledge to abstain from sex until they39re married with teens who do not Discussion of Study 0 Can abstinence work for teens who have already had sex 0 Correlation Causation o What does abstinence mean Is it an abstinence from sexual intercourse or from sexual behavior Child Health Pregnant teenszre much less likelytu receive adequate prenatal care and te be huspitzlized than arethuse burn te alder muthers The infant murtzlity er adulescent muthers is higher Possible Causal Relationship between Teenage childbearing and Negative Outcomes I Lack of maturity and preparedness I Interference with other life course events I Biological issues with early childbirth I Unprepared for the financial responsibilities Fathers are young and have little to provide Teenage Childbearing Outcomes Tu What extent is relatmnship due te unubsewed facturs that might influence bum teen childbearing and uthernegauve euteernes7 Teen Birth S 1 Poverty 35llalllun InfantHealth Teen Birth 2 Poverty Selechun Infant Health Does Teen childbearing Harm Wellbeing Spurious Correlation Between Teen childbearing and Wellbeing utcome Grade Failure HS Dropout Poverty etc Causal Teen Birth Does Teen childbearing Harm Wellbeing Spurious Correlation Between Teen childbearing and Wellbeing Confounding childhood Poverty etc Non Causal Teen Birth Does Teen Ch dbeanng Harm Wellebelnggt NoneSpunous Correlation Between Teen Chlldbeanng and Wellebeing Selection B125 Does Teen Clnldbeanng Harm Wellebeln P Nonespunous Correlatton Between Teen Cluldbeanng and Wellebelng Selectman B125 E m rof Teen Cluldbeanng Randomlzed EXPEUIDEI AE All Confoundjng Vanables Are Ruled Out E m rof Teen Cluldbeanng Randomlzed EXPEUIDEI AE All Confoundjng Vanables Are Ruled Out Manipulate Treatment amp Randomize
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