Human Sexuality Social and Psychological Issues
Human Sexuality Social and Psychological Issues SOC 160
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Deron Effertz on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 160 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by JOHN DELAMATER in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality: social and psychological issues in Sociology at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Chapter 4 Sexual Anatomy 1 Female Sexual Organs 2 categories external organsintemal organs a External organs i Vulva Clitoris mons pubis inner lips outer lips vaginal opening 1 2 3 4 Clitoris a Tip glansiknob of tissue externally in front of vaginal opening and urethral opening b Shaft made of 2 corpora cavemosaiextends an inch into body c 2 crurailarger spongy bodies lie deep in body Run tip clit to both side vagina under major lips d F clit homologous to M penis bc develop from same embryonic tissue e Clit also erectile since corpora cavemosa lls with blood f Only part sex anat w no reprod Function Mons mons pubisiinner and outer lips a Rounded fatty pad of tissue covered with pubic hair on top ofpubic bones Labiaisupplied w nerve endings a Outer lipsilabia maj ora rounded pads fatty tissue both sides of vaginal opening covered with pubic hair Inner lipsilabia minora 2 hairless folds skin lying btwn outer lips and running along edge of vaginal opening 39 Sometimes folded over covering vaginal opening Extend foreward and come in front making the clitoral hood Bartholin glands small glands in inside no function but can become infected iv Fourchette inner lips come together behind vaginal opening Perineum area of skin btwnvag opening and anus v39 Intoitus vag opening sometimes reffered as this Hymenithin membrane partially covers vag opening a lSt intercourse may break or stretched can cause bleedingpain can be stretched by finger or cut by doctor Fquot i39 ii39 lt b Internal organsivagina vestibular tubes skene s glands uterus ovaries fallopian tubes i Vagina tube shaped also called birth canal bP N V39 0 gt1 Resting state 810 cm long and tilts slightly backwards At bottom ends in vaginal opening introitus At tope connects to cervix At resting its walls like against eachother during arousal expands allowing space for penis Walls have 3 layersielastic and expand less with age a Inner layer vaginal mucosaimucous membrane similar to inner lining of mouth b Middle layer muscular c Outer layer forms a covering Nerve supply mostly to lower 13 sensitive to erotic stim sensitive part g spot Pelvic oor muscles surround vagina urethra anus a Pubococcygeus muscleistretched during childbirth can be strengthened with exercise ii Vestibular bulbsibulbs of clit 2 organs pea sizedshaped l Lie either side vaginal wall near enterence under inner lips iii Skene s gland or female prostate paraurethral gland l Liesbtwn the wall of the vag and urethra 2 Secretes uid that s biochem Similar to M prostate uid iv Uterus wombisizeshape upsidedown peariholdnourish fetus 1 Usually tilted forward and held in place by ligaments 2 Narrow lower thirdicervixiopens into vagina 3 Topifundus main partibody 4 Enterence to uterus thru cervix size of strawios 5 3 layers a inner layerendometrium supplied glandsblood vesselsi sluffed off at mentruationamp creates discharge middle layerimyometrium muscular create contractions of labor orgasm highly elastic to accommodate 9 month fetus c outer layeriperimetrium external cover of v fallopian tubes oviductsiextend out from sides of uppe end of uterus narrow and lined with cilia l pathway which egg travels toward uterus and sperm reach egg 2 fertilization occurs infundibulumisection tube closest to ovary 3 fertilized egg travels thru tube to uterus 4 infundibulum curves toward ovary and end in fmgerlike proj ectionsi mbraue vi ovariesi2 organs sizeshape of unshelled almonds on either side uterus I produce eggs and manufacture sex hormones estrogenprogesterone 2 each contains follicliesicapsule surrounds egg 3 F born with 1 mill Immature eggs 4 Egg matures during menstrual cycleifollicle burstsreleases egg 5 Egg releases to body cavity not tube directly travels toward f1mbriae if fertilized outside tube result ectopic pregnancy c Breasts not sex organs i 1520 mammary glands a nippleismooth muscle bers when contract becomes erect fatty brous tissue II Male Sex Organs a External Organs i Penis l Endtip glans opening end meatusurethral opening main part shaft raised ridge end of glans corona crown 2 Corona and glans most sensitive part 3 Intemally 3 spongy tissue cylinders run parallel to urethra 4 2 on topicorpora cavemosea l on bottomicorpus spongiosum urethra runs thru middle 5 during erection spongiosum raised 6 in accid unaroused little blood erectiontumescencei lled w blood making stiff ii foreskin prepuceiadditional covering over the glans 1 under are small glands tyson s glands produce smegmaicheesy in texture can smell if not cleaned iii circumcisionisurgical cuttingremoval of foreskin Fquot l 2 3 forjews done 8Lh day after birth 59 infants in us 1986 90 in 1970 uncircumcised babiesill times more likely to get UTI larger risk of HIVAIDS iv supercisioniPolynesiaislit length of foreskin on top V subincisionitribes of Australiaislit on lower side and to the depth of urethraiurine excreted at base not tip 1 2 vi average penis sizei610 cm 254 inch when accid average erectilS cm 6 inch smaller grow more erect scrotumiloose pouch of skin lightly covered w hair contains testes b Internal Organs i Testesigonads reprod Glands analogous to ovaries 2 3 4 UI 0 509 O N 4 UI ON Manufacture germ cells sex hormones testosterone Left usually hangs lower 39 39 tubules a 1000 threadlike tubules interstitial cells production of testosterone a found in connective tissue btwnseminiferous tubules b cells lies close to blood vessels amp pour hormones they make into blood so testes endocrine gland L a e stole sperm spermatogenesis testes move up in cold down in heat to maintain tempi cremasteric re ex Spermatogoniumiearliest stage to spermatocyte primary then secondary then a spermatid then mature called spermatozoan sperm Spermatogenesisimanufacture of sperm Avg ejaculation 200 mill Sperm Mature spermi60 micrometers long 23 chromosomes egg has 23 too Sperm manufactured in seminferous tubules go to rete testes network tubes on surface of testes Then goes into epididymisilong tube coiled into crescent shape region on topside testis a Perm stored here and mature here 6 weeks Upon ejacualtion sperm passes epidiymis into vas deferens which passes out scrotum then over pubic bone passed bladder toward prostate a Tube passes thru prostate narrowsicalled ejaculatory duct opens into urethra and sperm ejaculated out Sperm cant move on own until miX with secretions of prostateib4 this moved by cilia and contractions ofepididymis and vas Seminal vesiclesi2 saclike structures above prostate behind bladder in front rectumiproduce 60 seminal uid empty uid to ejaculatory duct Resti40 produced by prostateibelow bladder size chestnut a Muscle and glandular tissue b Secretes alkaline uidifavorable env For sperm and help protect from acidity of vagina c Small birth larger puberty shrinks with age Cowpers glands bulbourethralgandsibelow prostateiempty into urethra a During ejaculation secrete alkaline uididroplets at tip penis b4 ejaculationineutralize acidic urethra i Could have stray sperm in itican get pregnant b4 ejaculation III Cancer of the Sex Organs a Breast Cancer72quotd most common cancer in woman i 1 out of9 woman has it in life ii 40000 women die every year in Us iii Causes 1 510 due to genetic factors 2 long term use menopausal hormone replacement therapy obesity 3 Breast cancer genesiBRCAl on chromosome 17 and BRCA2 on chromosome l3 mutations cause breast cancer susceptibility to ovarian cancer a Among menil6 w mutation develop prostate cancer iv Diagnosis 1 Self exam mammograms 3 types of breast lumps cysts uid lled sacsi brocystic cystic mastits broadenomasampmalignant tumors a 80 cysts or broadenomas and are benign 3 Mammographyixray of breastiaccurate can detect tiny tumors not even feelableicancer in early stages a Radiation can cause cancer tooibut bene ts outweigh risks b Mammogram once a yr from 40 on N 4 Needle aspirationi ne needle inserted if lump is a cyst the uid will drain out if not gone then not cyst 5 Biopsyismall slit made and lump removed pathologists examines to see if cancerous v Mastectomy l radical mastectomyimost serious surgeryientire breastunderlying pectoral muscle lymph nodes removed 2 modi ed radical mastectomyibreast lymph nodes NOT muscles are removed 3 simple mastectomyionly breast and maybe few nodes 4 Lumpectomyilump and small bits surrounding tissue removed good if beginning stages and followed by radiation therapy vi If cancer localized survival rate 98 5 yrs after treatment b Psychological aspects i Depression ii Masectomyidifferent positions for sleepingsex doesn t feel womanly IV Cancer of the Cervix Endometrium and Ovaries a Most common cancer after breast b 27000 die each yr from these cancers in US c 95 cases of cervical cancer cause by human papillomavirus HPV early sex and sex with many partnersihigh risk tumor suppressor genes active in normal cells if HPViinterferes w activity of tumor suppressor genes ii39 Pap testiperformed during pelvic exam women 18 have one yearly iv Vaccine prevents HPV for 926 yr olds Endometrial and ovarian cancersidiagnosis dif cult i39 e Endometrial cancer suspectedivaginal bleeding f Ovarian cancer symptomsiabdominal bloatingdiarrhea i Pelvic sonogramMRlidiagnose these cancers g Cervical cancer diagnosed earlyicurable w cryotherapy extreme cold to destroy just abnormal cells F WWP Con biopsyisegment of cervix surgically removed Hysterectomyicervical cancer that s spreadisurgical removal of uterus Endometrial cancerihysterectomy Ovarian cancerioophorectomyiremoval of ovaries often accompanied by J then by radiati w 39 u a 17 V Cancer of the Prostate VI a c d quot79 9 Pquot 2quot leading cause of cancer death in men most common lung 27000 deaths a yr in US Prostate cancer gene HPClionly 3 of cases Early symptomsifrequent urination difficulty urinating difficulty emptying bladder i Result from pressure the tumor on urethra Early stages increase in sex drive then in later stage sex disfunct Diagnosis thru rectal examiall men 50 should have once yr blood test also available Treatmentiremoval of some or all prostate plus hormone therapy radiation therapy or anticancer drugs Multiple sex partners increases risk Cancer of penisimore common with uncircumcised menidue to smegma VII qorhrDPocs Pquot Cancer of the Testesinot common78000 diagnosed each yr Most common cancer in men 2935 lsL sign painless lump or enlargment pain in lower groin when lump reported early 5 yr survival rate 96 if cancer progresses to stage 3 survival rate 70 not all lumps in testes are cancerous some are varicoceles varicose veins diagnosis made by exam and ultrasound final diagnosis surgical removal of entire testes other teste remains so hormone production sexual functioning is normal undescendedteste greater risk