Ethnic Movements in the United States
Ethnic Movements in the United States SOC 220
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Discuss What ideas do we start with What have you learned before about race What does race mean How many races are there What are the races How do you know what race somebody 7 Are there differences between races What are they Race amp Ethnicity part 1 definitions Race refers to groupings among people that are understood as note my stress on social construction having a physical basis 7 Genetic Ereeding populations lineages ancestry groups geographic gr ps 7 Peoplewho have common ancestors tend to be genetically more similar have common physical traits Ethnicity refers to groupings among people based in cultural differences 7 Language religion customs Race amp Ethnicity Part 1 Overlaps People COULD adopt any culture ethnicity regardless of ancestry race but they don t 7 People ofcomm n ancestry race tend to have similar culture ethnicity 7 People of com m on culture ethnicity tend to m arry each other and thus produce physically different ancestry lines race Thus race and ethnicity tend to get blurred in practice even though they are logically di erent 7 Historical discussions of race always included cultural differences 7 People commonly attribute physical differences to different cultural groups Race the physical underpinnings 999 of human genetic characteristics are on to all There is a small propo ion that varies and much ofthis vari s heritabl Le people With more recent common ancestors will be more si 39la than those whose common ancestors are more dista t Groups are more physically distinct when geographic or social barriers prevent their intermarriage across generations this is the physical basis of racequot At the physical level these commonancestor groups are nested s overlapping do notform distinct We all have a single common orig39 in Africa 7 More variation WITHIN one region ofAfrica than between races Subgroups within larger groups Migration amp intermarriage is a constant feature of human histo People from different parts of the world differ in appearance but with illde ned boundaries and relatively minor differences between them skin color eye shape are found in Race is a social construction cultural interpretation of underlying ancestry groups Elements of this social construction There are 3 or4 or 5 or even 10 distinct non overlapping quotracesquot with welldefined differences People quotreally arequot one race or the other These groups have physical differences which CAUSE cultural differences These groups can be ranked some are superior to others Europeans rank them as European gt Asian gt African amp American Tied to popular ideas of biological evolution developed in quotscientific racismquot of19 h century higher quotracesquot are more evolved or more fit Racial construction is ongoing and changing Racial categories amp boundaries are not natural but created in response to political boundaries and pressues Constructions of race and politicized nature of language go together There is always political contestation over Group name the US today are fluid shifting categories who is in a group who is out what their boundaries are how many groups there are what their names are s amp definitions amp boundaries in Race was created as a social construct to justify domination Race as the concept we use today created in the wake of European colonial conques s as 39usti ation fo domination In US speci cally as justification for African slavery an displacemen o merican Indians Old contrast was Christian vs infidel Debate was whether baptized quotIndiansquot had the ri personhood Old ideologies accepted hierarchy you could enslave or dominate others without needing to jus i yi quotRacequot drew on Darwin used the new create an ideological justification for h despite Enlightenment ideals of equality some eople are naturally superior to o ers The idea that race is biological IS the social construct Racial boundaries are socially defined n US there is a strong boundary around h rs Black and White versus ot e quotBlackquot any known Black ancestor Many quotBlackquot people have lighter skin than many quotWhitequot people Despite mixed descent correct classification as quot ckquot or quotWhitequot is socially important quotWhitequot people with dark skins upset if classi ed as quotBlackquot often ditto quotBlacksquot with light skin quotPassingquot a lightskinned quotBlackquot person pretends to be White 39 Mixes between other groups are more recognized in the US Other countries have other rules amp systems Race is Social But it is Still Real Things that are believed to be real are real in their consequences In some societies religion or language or culture is the barrier The barriers are still real What race you are in the US has enormous social economic and political consequences that will affect you whether you believe in race or not xample religion is entirely social but it is still real amp in some placeItimes determines your life Go to intergroup conflict graphics then return Naming Is Not Trivial But There Is No Way to Get It Races in US originate in European ideologyjustifying dom ation ther groups became race conscious in esponse r Subordinate groups contest names amp rename themselves as part of political struggle Always disputes within a group about how to name themselves tied to political struggle Census 2000 Hispanic or Latino NOYE Pleaseanswef EOTH Cluesliarls Band 6 Census 2000 Question on Race on marl E gt ll mm Denpln lwu hem minim Wm Powell a RaCIal Composmon of the US Alriczn Americzn Black12713 AsianlAWn American Indizn1 15 Other most are Hispanic 55 HispanicLatina lnlzll racesl 1213 zckr American Indian Asi n African American Black palt1 Black Negro African American Afro American New immigrants have ethnic identities African Nigerian Jamaican Puerto Rican Haitian etc Reality of mixed ancestry amp ethnic differences and ofwhite racism lumping people togeth r Po zed cycles amp ongoing themes in naming 7 Martin Luther KingJr was a Negro e changing meanings ampthe late 1960s shiftfrom Negro to Black 7 African American and AfroAmerican 1970s ties g race to Africa minimizin African American Black part 2 Nigger always an insult linked to oppression and humiliation Many would be offended at even seeing it w h used by genteel racists under segregation is not an insultterm butwill usually be heard as offensive Sometimes used by older Black people as a folksy selfdescription Black is aterm of pride for some most older people do not nd it offensive although younger people often do Negro was both the of cial term ofslavery AND a term of pride in the early 20 century AfricanAmericanBlack part 3 African American is increasingly preferred especially among collegeeducated but growing immigration from Africa is creating confusions amp issues Both African immigrants and Black Americans see social differences amp boundaries between American Indian Native American Native American once preferred politics amp confusion still often used Shift to American Indianquot as officially preferred Indian is the European name but a selfname in much casual use People from India object Also indigenous rst nations Canadian amp some US n 1 real Americansquot or first America s 39 s Lakota Navajo Cherokee at on balance between tribal identity and USAmerican identit Much mixing intermarriage gt blurred identities Legal status being on a tribal roll Asian part 1 Asian amp Pacific Islander created as a political category in US political context includes South Asians lndians Pakistanis amp Polynesians Asian vs Asian American Asians are people from Asia Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent Most in category do not use it have ethnic identity instead Chinese ChineseAmerican Korean KoreanAmerican Hmong etc Asian part 2 Asian American is a selfidentity of 3rd generation persons with no real ties to Asia like Europeans ALSO used as the identity of political coalition US racialized experiences turn ethnic identities into racial identities Vincent Chin case Oriental not meant as an insult but often be taken as such by young activists Jap Chink Gook etc are all insults Hispanic LatinoLatina part 1 Two different names for the same basic group Refers roughly to those descended from Spanishspeaking people of the Americas The different names cut differently in their emphas39s Hispanic emphasizes Spanish language Spanish mame people rorn Spain could be called Hispanic people from Brazil are not Latino emphasizes or ns in the Americas Many people prefer an ethnic identity Mexican Puerto Rican Dominican Guatemalan Colombian etc NonMexicans resent being called Mexican Hispanic Latino 2 People in the category differ often strongly on whether they prefer Hispanic or Latinola and the distinctions made b tween the terms vary across regions and between groups Mexicans identify as Mexican Mestizo mixed lndianlwhite racialized La Raza Mexican a person from Mexico Mexican American an American of Mexican descent Chicano an alternate positive identity for Mexican Americans originally radical amp political now emphases bir ut considered an insult by exicans or nonMexican a inos lnsults Spic greaser beaner etc Minority or Person of Color 1 Lumps together everyone who is not White Often used by Whites to refer to others Used by minorities or people of color as the term for coalition and common political action a secondary identity Minority or Person of Color 2 Political signification isn t the same as dictionary definition Colored Person was the term of genteel racism Person of color is a political term seeking to link everyone with a common enemy links US minorities to 3rd world southern hemisphere struggles Minority is sometimes resented as a label while others use it comfortably in contrast to majority group White 1 White as opposed to Black or colored or Indian Jews southern Europeans Irish seen as different races in 19th century through 1940 popularly and by scientific racists Lawsuits over who was White 19001940 Japanese Arabs Indians because naturalized citizenship was restricted to White persons Those who remember immigrant generation may have ethnic identity German Italian etc White 2 Caucasian originates in scientific racism Caucasoid Negroid Mongoloid but today used widely European American reaction to African American decenters white sense of entitlement American vs North American vs United Statesian in response to Latin American claims to name American American or Just plain American implies assumption that plain Americans are White This assumption is an implicit political claim End of construction lecture Go to immigrant identities lecture Tactics Short Overview amp Application to American Indians There is a longer tactics lecture with more details A continuum of tactics Education persuasion choice of rhetoric Legal politics lobbying lawsuits Demonstrations show numbers or intensity of concern marches rallies petitions Economic pressure Boycotts selective buying Confrontation disruption civil disobedience Sitins occupations illegal gatherings Property damage Violence against persons Interactions What the movement does is always in interaction with the targetopponent Strategy overall plan for how chance will occur Persuade powerholders to act differently Change public opinion Disrupt normal business force change Seize power Always complex fluid evolving Movements always use a mix of tactics generally have multiple leaders groups agendas Outcomes always depends on characteristics of the powerholder as well as of the movement Tactics Use Power amp Resources Sheer numbers of people Military capacity weapons armies Wealth control of land means of production Environmental constraints of your home territory Control of means of communication Symbolic authority religious cultural political Social Organization Matters Social amp political organization within groups affects capacity for action Geographic concentrationdispersion Governmental organization Culturalreligious similarity or difference Langua e Relations to third parties who may favor one side or the other American Indian Dynamics 19 I Century War lndians fighting back labeled bu Europeans as savages justification for further war Legal tactics brought some concessions but dominants easily changed their mind Amlnds has too few resources to win EurAms had too much power no matter what they did American Indian Dynamics Today Disruptive tactics mostly don t work too small amp isolated to cause trouble for the majority but may invigorate the activists Many conflicts are between different factions on reservations Symbolic struggles upset majority gain visibility increase ingroup pride mascots offreservation fishing Most efforts today are on the legal front sovereignty treaty enforcement economic development including casinos Social Movements A Primer on Some Basic Concepts Social movements theory This course uses social movements theory to understand race relations Correct course title would be RacialEthnic Movements and Conflict in the US The idea is that there is conflict because there are different interests Sometimes that conflict involves protest andor social movements Social Movement is a challenge to authorities powerholders 0R cultural beliefs and practices OR actions to promote or resist social change that is collective multiple people organized coordinated at least to some degree sustained lasts a while not just one outburst and at least partly noninstitutional le outside the normal structures or routines of society Ethnic Conflict amp Social Movements There is ethnicracial conflict When one group has more power or resources than another When there is hostility between groups When one group thinks another should be eliminated or change its culture or practices Whenever there is ethnicracial conflict there are implicitly or explicitly ethnic racial movements involved Protest the act of challenging resisting or making demands upon authorities powerholders andor cultural beliefs and practices andor some other opponent group by some individual or group Ethnicracial movements oftenusually involve protest About the goals of social movements Can be extremely vague and illdefined especially for relatively unorganized turmoil expressing discontent without clear proposals make things betterfor acksquot Organizations are more likely to articulate clear goals or proposals Different factions of the same movement may and usually do disagree about specific goals e different branc es o women s movement Black movement workers movements gay movement A complex movement generally encompasses may specific and even competing goals within a broader more diffuse social change orientation Organizations Social movement organization SMO an organization with boundaries members a structure explic oriented toward movement goals American Indian Movement NAACP MEChA Other organizations sometimes called quotpreexistingquot organizations may be part of movements but their quotpurposequot is not the movement e churches unions fraternal organizations government agencies All the organizations in a social movement taken together may be called a social movement sector but the term is NOT popular BUT Movements are more than organizations preferences for social change Individual Actions Organizational Actions Collective Actions not by Organizations Organizations in movements Coherent decisionmaking groups set goals plan strategies accumulate resources Often seek directly to influence those who have power Often plan events designed to draw in other people OR to influence other people s opinions May take many forms moderate lawabiding small informal or small clandestine large bureaucratic radical or disruptive religious or secular Other kinds of collective actions Demonstrations mass protests Typically planned by an organization or coalition of organiza ions bu may draw in many other people Ma a so occur more spontaneously after a major precipitating event or at a gathering formed for another purpose Riots shortterm insurrections Typically not planned although some may e inci ed Generally build upon prior sentiments organized on the spot Consciousness Collective shifts in how people talk about issues what kinds of actions the rewardpunish in others Ideology awareness standing upquot Lawsuits lobbying etc Individual actions are also parts of movements Individual thoughts ideas Isolated contributions usually financial Votes public opinion green consumerism Some individuals take extensive actions to promote their movements oneperson campaigns Individual acts of interpersonal resistance and solidarity Challenge hierarchies and form solidarities in interpersonal relations Individuals and movements Beliefs Adherents support the goals of the movement Beneficiaries stand to benefit personally from the Constituents are adherents who identifywith the movement If you support the goals but hate the movement you are an adherent who is not a constituent Conscience constituents are people who support a movement event oug i won39t bene t them eg White supporters of Black movement wealthy supporters ofworking class movement Individuals and movements actions Participants engage in movement activities Contributors give money to movement organizations Members are be members of particular organizations NOTE a quotmovementquot as a whole is not a single entity with a membership list but it is common for the term quotmovemen mem erquot o e used casually y non specialists to refer to participants contributors 39 or some imes even a We try to be clear about which we mean Sociology 220 quotHispanicquot Notes As of 1999 Hispanics are estimated to be 117 of the population The national origin or ethnicity of the Hispanic population in mainland US 65 Mexico 14 Central and South America Puerto Rico 10 Cuba 4 Other 7 Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico are not included in these gures Names Hispanichispanoemphasis on Spanish language or name older European connotations preferred by Cubans and Puerto Ricans and also Mexicandescent people in New Mexico and other Europeidenti ed Mexicans Latinoaemphasis on Latin America more indigenous or mixed or simple geographic connotations more easily includes indigenous people Mexican mexicano from Mexico a strong positive racial identity La Raza as a mixed European indigenous Aztec Mayan etc people Mexican American identi es with the US Mexican ancestry an ethnic identity that does not require Spanish language Chicanoa politicized racial identity drawing on Mexican racial images but stressing homeland in what is now Southwestern US deemphasis on Spanish as crucial an insult term for Mexican Americans and Mexicans Chicanos Mexican Americans mostly live in the southwest California Arizona New Mexico Texas Colorado but also elsewhere Chicago etc Cubans mostly in Florida Puerto Ricans mostly in New York New Jersey But all are fanning out Immigration from other Latin American counties is growing Cuba Spanish Columbus 1492 largely exterminated the 50000 Indians Sugar plantations population is mixed European and African descent Spanish lost control in SpanishAmerican War 1898 became US dominated US troops left island in 1902 but retained control of Guantanamo Bay as naval base 1959 Cuban revolution Castro overthrows Batista harsh dictator originally supported by US but then opposed when in 1960 Castro declares the country communist US embargo Middle class Cubans ee 1 million immigrate between 1960 and 1980 Current Cuban population is about 10 million Early refugees are educated white create quotlittle Havanaquot in Florida militantly anticommunist 23 vote Republican Despite initial hardships most are doing well economically in US Later refugees are less educated darker having more problems but obscured by statistics Puerto Rico Spanish colony plantations mixed European amp African Spanish colony until 1898 Spanish American War becomes US colony English required in schools 1917 Jones Act PRs are citizens of US 1948 PR made a Commonwealth Associated Free State Part of US but not a state less subordinant than a colony 1990 there are about 62 million Puerto Ricans 27 million live on US mainland 35 million live on PR migration is free so the numbers uctuate The New Progressive Party which advocates statehood won 23 of the legislative seats in 1992 NB Many people counted as PR in the US are from Santo Domingo since they are illegal it is hard to get a reasonable count Other hispaniclatino Central America South America Caribbean Central American migrants especially illegal often counted as Mexican as they enter through Mexico Experiences vary depending on race and class and politics of home country in relation to US foreign policy amp economic interests Mexico Spanish colony 1824 Mexican independence Northern Mexico is sparsely settled covers what is now Texas New Mexico Arizona California and much of Colorado Nevada 1848 Mexican American War Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo cedes northern Mexico to the US guarantees civil rights to Mexicans who choose to stay in US right to use Spanish right to be Catholic right to retain land ownership Catholicism not attacked but land rights and Spanish are varies from place to place but many are driven out by Anglos About 7 of Mexicandescent people in US today are descendants of those in that area in 1848 the rest are migrants or children of those who migrated after 1848 most after 1900 1876 Porto a Diaz reaction coup progressive Mexicans ee into US 19101922 Mexican revolution period of turmoil Mexicans from various sides quothidequot in US Mexican national identity created in the revolution we are a mixed people descended from both the Spanish and the Indians proud of our Aztec and Mayan and other indigenous heritage and our Spanish heritage A racial national self identity which remains important for Mexican migrants to the US and their descendants Obscures the continuing discrimination within Mexico against Indios the fullblood Indians who do not speak Spanish and do not assimilate as Mejicanos Meztiso mestizo l9lOl920 s European immigration shut off Mexican migrants encouraged as a source of cheap labor no immigration quotas no quotpapersquot required no real distinction between legal and illegal 1930s depression quotget rid of foreignersquot Forced deportation of Mexicans majority USbom citizens unable to prove citizenship Social Security provisions enacted in 1930s exempt agricultural and domestic work explicitly meant to exempt Mexicans and African Americans LULAC League of United Latin American Citizens Englishoriented civil rights the quotMexican American Generation quot Not Spanish full rights as US citizens 1940s WWII workers needed joint programs with Mexico to import workers bracero program Mexican supervision means that Mexican workers often treated better than Chicanos US citizens of Mexican descent Temporary workers leave families in Mexico Zoot Suit riots of 1943 in Los Angeles Anglo sailors amp soldiers vs Chicanos 1950s 1960s operation wetback an attack on Mexican workers less than 2 have formal proceedings before expulsion Urban renewal tears up MexAm settlements creates crowding migration increases GI Forum LULAC MAPA Mexican American Political Association emphasis on citizenship full civil rights integration Mexican American generation 7 deemphasis on Spanish Late l960sl970s in wake of black movement increasing militancy and nationalist pride among MexAms quotChicanoquot taken up as proud selfidentity for USbom Mexicandescent people Chicanos become de ned as distinct racial group for purposes of desegregation 1965 change in immigration law effectively lowers legal quotas from Mexico 1970s serious recession in Mexico forces many north to look for work ebbs and ows in Mexican and US economies create economic forces for migration Changes in immigration laws reduce Mexican quotas force more of the migrants into quotillegalquot status Civil wars in Central American create refugees many of whom migrate to US via Mexico are counted as Mexican in US Many quotHispanicsquot are Indians who do not speak Spanish Growth in bilingual education in response to lawsuits laws requiring appropriate education for all children MAYA La Raza Unida 1980s 1990s Growing concemsdebates about immigrants Political movements to require English to suppress bilingualism while nonEnglish population grows Amnesty for existing illegal immigrants coupled with greater restrictions on illegal immigrants Con icts between HispaniclVIexicanAmericans who often favor restrictions on immigration and immigrants from Mexico or Central America Growing Latino Mexican Central American population in US Southwest former northern Mexico Continuing poverty turmoil in Mexico Central American lead to continuing push for immigration north Late l990s2000 low unemployment leads to high need for low wage labor from Mexico businesses dependent upon Mexican labor widespread violation of immigration rules Congressional relief on immigration quotas for technical workers mostly Asian but no action on low wage workers Pamela Oliver September 7 1995 Lecture Notes Overview of ConceptsTheory in Social Movements I A social movement is a complex set of diiTerent types of actions by diiTerent actors all oriented toward some general social change goal e g the peace movement the women s movement the black movement Oliver s de nition Another de nition McCarthy and Zald 1977 that is more commonly used a social movement is a set of preferences for social change Both de nitions de ne the boundaries of an SM in terms of a social change goal but McZ say the movement E the preferences while Oliver says the movement E the actions Other de nitions agree about the goal but say the movement E a set or group of people pursuing the goal For most purposes you don39t need to choose between these de nitions as they generally point you in the same direction Most social movements have diffuse and vague boundaries with movement participants disagreeing about who is in the movement and who is not A Adherents support the goals of the movement Bene ciaries stand to bene t personally from the movement Constituents are adherents who identify with the movement Ifyou support the goals but hate the movement you are an adherent who is not a constituent Conscience constituents are people who support a movement even though it won39t bene t them eg white supporters of black movement wealthy supporters of working class movement B Participants engage in movement activities contributors give money to movement organizations Members would have to be members of particular organizations see below a quotmovementquot as a whole is not a single entity with a membership list but it is common for the term quotmovement memberquot to be used casually by nonspecialists to refer to participants contributors constituents or sometimes even adherents 11 Resource Mobilization A The resource mobilization paradigm originates in the public goods problem especially Mancur Olson s The Logic of Collective Action Old idea was that all common interests would be acted upon But Olson points to the collective dilemma you can hope that someone else will do the work take the risls and you can quotfree ridequot and get the bene t without the effort E g if segregation is overturned if employment inequality is eliminated you can bene t whether you helped produce the change or not Olson argued that all collective action was individually irrational and no one would do it on a rational basis unless there were individual side payments for acting either payolTs for joining or coercion This was important for problematizing mobilization making you realize that you could not just assume that interests were perfectly re ected in action Most work has gotten beyond Olson l quotrationalquot or not empirical research shows that people who work in social movements are motivated by collective purposes 2 nevertheless the quotside paymentsquot ideas use llly points to the importance of quotsocial incentivesquot of solidarity and sociability and the quotpurposive incentivesquot of morality and commitment 3 instrumentalist costbene t ideas remain help ll for understanding strategy and tactics and the ideas of when people will act and how they will act B Key assumptions of resource mobilization from Zald 1992 1 Behavior entails costs requires resources Grievances or deprivation do not automatically or easily translate into movement activity You may care about an issue but either not have the capacity or be unable to bear the costs of action 2 It is not easy or automatic to coordinate the behavior of people who care about an interest You require communication networks and the resources and capacities to plan coordinate and communicate about an action Organizing and mobilizing these resources and actions are central activities 3 Resources can come from within the group of people who care about an issue but also from outside it 4 The costs of participating may be raised or lowered by state and elite support or repression quotRepression worksquot States and elites sometimes foster mobilization of nonelites for purposes of their own usually con icts among elites or to bolster the legitimacy of a regime 5 Movement outcomes are not assured and are the product of strategic interactions between movements and their targets 111 Two older traditions A European political sociology The study of quotthe movementquot the working class movement The development of social democracy and the working class parties of Europe Rudolf Heberle Social Movement B US collective behavior and social movements as a part of social psychology A reaction to fascism and Leninism popular support for totalitarianism Lynchings The violence of the French Revolution Why would people do that Fear loss of control Written generally from standpoint of calm outsider seeing people overreact Or from standpoint of fear 1 quotChicago Schoolquot concerned with the creation of new society at the micro level links to today39s symbolic interactionism framing theory 2 quotHarvard Schoolquot movements develop in response to social strain seen today in concerns about social disintegration 3 Status politics people are concerned with their symbolic position in society not with direct material interests Kriesberg s interpretation of temperance movement as fear ll middle class ghting immigrants Trow on McCarthyism radical right of 1950s small businessmen defense of status in face of decline rise of big business Commonly invoked today in accounts of rightng movements IV Political process A Model structure of political AND ECONOMIC opportunities level of organization within the population collective assessment of prospects for insurgency The idea is that there is an ongoing interplay and struggle between those who have power and those who do not This is sometimes oversimplified as a mechanistic matter of counting political resources but that would be incorrect V Contrary to much previous theory which had used psychological models to explain individual action resource mobilization theory said that much of the action occurred in oganizations The organizational capacity of a constituency is thought to be an important predictor of mobilization and success A Especially in the US the vast majority of movement actions are organized by organizations But this is an empirical statement not a de nition of a social movement You can and sometimes do have a movement without any organization B Social Movement Organizations SMOs or sometimes MO s movement organizations or sometimes PMO s protest movement organizations are organizations whose reason for existence is the social movement NAACP CORE SNCC SCLC National Right to Life Operation Rescue National Abortion Rights Action League Religious Coalition for Abortion Rights National Organization for Women In the US almost all movements have one or more SMO s in them and the big movements have many but you can have a social movement with no SMO s and there are other countries in which this is common C Other organizations which exist for other reasons are o en important players in social movements including especially professional organizations unions political parties interest groups churches and other religious groups both local congregations and national organizations social clubs colleges and universities and sometimes high schools mutual bene t associations and charitable foundations and organizations quotPreexisting organizationsquot in social movements parlance The historical record shows such organizations sometimes starting movements sometimes joining them in process in quotbloc recruitmentquot and sometimes acting as allies or offstage providers of resources D There are also smaller specialpurpose organizations like neighborhood groups or ad hoc committees around some issue Again these may be a peculiarly American phenomenon although they have become increasingly common in some other countries These groups sometimes are parts of or the oring of larger social movements Other times they just stand alone on their own terms E Much of social movement life is interorganizational relations cooperation and competition coalitions alliances con icts and disputes Organizations research and theory has a lot to say about organizations in social movements However this theory must recognize that most SMO s and quotpreexisting organizationsquot for that matter are voluntary associations and volunteers create rather diiTerent organizational dynamics from paid employees All the organizations involved in social movements except the Catholic Church viewed globally are on the small side Although the larger ones have paid stalT they do not approach anything like the scale of big business Those with paid staiT have some of the dynamics of small businesses Paid staiT sometimes have the job of coordinating and managing volunteers F Some social movements are rooted in or create communities in addition to or instead of organizations The constituents of many movements live together in the same regions or urban areas either in relatively homogeneous areas or intermingled with others Even if their areas are physically mixed many movement constituents have a social community that is entirely or overwhelmingly other movement constituents They live eat socialize and worship if they worship at all with people who share their commitments They may also study or work together Movements dilTer in the extent to which their constituents create communities Buechler also much research eg Kriesi Opp Portes Epstein McAdam Morris Johnston J Miller on SDS etc etc etc G Small groups are always important in movements sometimes on their own other times embedded in larger organizations or communities People o en decide what they believe and decide what to do within the context of small groups of friends and family Even big national organizations tend to have small groups within them where people spend their time local chapters study groups task forces committees support groups base communities Gary Alan Fine H quotFree Spacequot Evans and Boyte People who are being oppressed cannot organize action or create new ideologies if they cannot talk to each other without their oppressors watching In repressive or oppressive contexts talking may be virtually impossible Places where people can meet are crucial Churches have often played this role presumably because the religious cloak was at least somewhat protective Any other available place that opens up can play the same role In countries which do not repress civil associations there are many potential places to meet but o en at least in the US it is hard to get people out away from the TV I It is important to remember that the organized parts of a constituency usually not always have the most in uence in a movement You need to look at speci cally who is organized not just the broader constituency whom they represent People can and often do represent the interests of others and people will often feel that someone legitimately represents their interests even if they are wealthier or more educated But this relationship is always problematic and one should never assume either that people do represent whom they claim to represent or that people have to be from a group to be able to speak for the group VI STRUCTURAL CONSTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES A Political opportunities context State repression conventional politics state crises all create the contexts within which movement possibilities increase or decrease l ups and downs in state repression state terrorism armies in the streets criminal prosecutions colleges can be closed admissions processes can screen out radicals 2 close elections swing votes appeals to the lower classes to win elections 3 elite support for their own ends or to quell protest elites can and do seek to mobilize quotthe massesquot in support of wars in attach on ethnic or racial minorities in favor of environmental cleanup and women s rights 4 other movements at the same time create a context of disruption or a model for success 5 regime crises general instability economic collapse state vulnerability can open the possibility of seizing power or at least being le alone but can also make it impossible for the state to do what you want social provision protect minorities B Older ideas were simple more vs less protest but newer ideas are more the relations between structures and what kind of action or protest C Economic structures What is capital doing Class relations Is economy strong or weak Position in global economy You need to look both at the nation as a whole and at the speci c circumstances of the groups and local communities in question D Global politics and economics Who has military power Who controls the international purse strings Global pressures o en have major effects on the actions and policies of nationstates E Resources can come from outside the constituency There is a continuum from completely outside to completely inside with many gradations along the way The most usual pattern in a protest mobilization is for initial protest and resources for protest to come from inside a group and the initiators pull in outside resources Those inside o en outsiders for financial or political help Once a protest is rolling outside money and help o en comes in larger quantities 1 In the US and Europe in the late 1960s and early 1970s money was o en donated by elites to try to channel or control protest into moderate directions this pattern still is common Especially in the 1980s and 1990s other elite money and other support comes from private charitable foundations and organizations o en apparently as movement supporters not controllers It is nevertheless true that a dependence on money pulls movement groups in the directions people are willing to pay 2 This seems especially true for religious groups Black church in the US of course Fundamentalist and evangelical Christian churches in the US seem to be funding a lot of rightwirrg politics although there is some evidence that it was rightwirrg politicians who initiated this activity Factions of the Catholic Church and the protestant World Council of Churches and National Council of Churches from the 1970s on had fairly radical ideologies and social change agendas with themes of quotliberation theologyquot quotpreferential option for the poorquot and quotpeace and justicequot these church organizations were major players in the prodemocracy movements in Latin America 3 Besides money outside groups can help create organization Highlander Folk School in US Midwest Academy Communist Party Brazilian Catholic Church pioneered creation of base communities which became political force 4 Early theorists sometimes claimed that external resources were causative for the civil rights movement at least the daily clearly indicate that the protests started first and the external resources followed Nevertheless national and increasingly international resource ows are important Labor organizers communistsocialist organizers have been important Foundation and church money is very important for supporting social change organizations in the US and increasingly around the world UN and World Bank money is o en crucial in determining which projects will happen E It is important to remember that there are always dilTerences m any movement especially class dilTerences within other movements DilTerent factions of a movement generally have dilTerent political and economic resources and often dilTer in their ability to attain their speci c goals within the larger movement context VII Ideologies Ideas Constructions of Collective Identities Issues and Frames ATo be able to act in a movement people have to understand the meaning of their actions they have to decide that what they are doing makes sense within the way they understand the world This is ideology B Components of a Movement Ideology Diagnosis What the problem is and what caused it Prognosis What needs to be done Call to Action why you need to do it now C Additionally there is perhaps only sometimes a sense of group identity a quotwequot that the movement represents and that one is part of A quotcollective identityquot is usually understood as a political gm identity as sense of a group39s political stance and meaning Ethnic racial or class identities may have something of a similar corporate character This is related to but not the same as an individual s sense of him or herself There are also quotactivist identitiesquot a sense that one is a change agent D Insurgent consciousness social change is needed and possible sense of injustice Three components 1 There is a problem change is needed 2 It is the fault of the system or of another group not luck or the individual attributions 3 Change is possible E quotConsensus mobilizationquot Klandermans the act of getting people to agree with your ideology or definition of the situation F Frame a way of looking at a situation David Snow Rob Benford and others Uses this instead of older concepts of ideology The frame concept comes from communication amp joumalism where there is an explicit idea about how you frame a story eg as crime or a protest Is the issue equality or rights I don t believe frame is an adequate substitute for ideology but it does capture important aspect and we will be using it a lot in our papers Is af rmative action about giving preferences on the basis of race about compensating for past wrongs or about assuring that minorities are not discriminated against Are American Indians an ethnic group or a separate nation quotFrame Alignmen quot David Snow Rob Benford is the process of getting people in the population to align their frames with the movement Recent work stresses the interplay between frames and resources and opportunities you frame an issue a certain way to attract adherents or resources successful frame alignment attracts resources The key idea is that the same situation can be interpreted di erently Movement activists as agents actively signifying the meaning of their actions To frame as a verb to assign meaning to situations and events Term frame is borrowed from Goffman G quotCollective identityquot Melucci is a term for a group s sense of the meaning of their actions Melucci emphasizes the idea that selfdefmition of one39s group is created in ongoing process of interaction within group and outside group Actors produce meanings and collectively construct their situation This has strong kinship with US symbolic interactionism within social psychology Other theorists of the construction of race for example show how people in a society socially create quotracequot categories and debate about the meaning or content of those categories which then become the groups in collective action Once understood these ideas can be applied to a wide variety of contexts There are two versions of collective identities important in ethnic relations 1 Ethnic collective identities How do you define your own and others ethnicity in relation larger groups and what do you think the boundaries and characterizations of the groups are 2 Political collective identities Do you view yourself as part of a political movement do you view the group as having a political purpose or meaning H McAdam and others stress that consciousness ideology and identity develop in micromobilization contexts the small groups where people know each other and talk This is why organizations groups communities and free space matter I Mass media play a signi cant role The large national media are elitedominated and tend to pursue their own agenda The popular understanding of movement events is ltered through media portrayals There are many studies of the behavior of newspaper and TV joumalists how they do their job and how that impact on movements and the way the are covered However there are also specialized media newspapers magazines radio stations books that circulate within movements and communities including Black publications Spanishlanguage publications feminist publications racist publications etc These have a major in uence on the people who read them G Discourses longrange communication Ideas have local character but they are also global You can trace the transmission of ideologies around the world Most of this is very non mystical particular people travel or live abroad and bring ideas home particular bools or papers from abroad are read and circulated in a new locale people organize and write propaganda VIII Cycles of Protest Protest comes in waves and all movements go up and down Early political process ideas attributed all of this to exogenous changes in the political system eg party competition Tarrow s early cycle ideas are fairly endogenous protest spirals and then dies of its own logic as activists first try to top each others radicalism and then collapse when they cannot get any crazier Later research in this tradition separates types of actions and suggests a scheme early protest is disruptive but nonviolent police react ineffectiver and protest grows effective protest both generates increasingly effective police response so that disruption is reduced and pulls in outside resources supporting the moderates so that nondisruptive protest and organizations grow while those who wish to continue to be radical and disruptive become increasingly marginalized and increasingly violent when everything is calm and orderly resources are gradually withdrawn and the moderate organizations die Even this scheme is probably overgeneralized but it is a starting point for thinking about the dynamics of movements IX Movements and Countermovements Most social movement theory works with the image of one movement which seeks to in uence either the state or the general public But o en there are movementcountermovement pairs eg I 39 39 r 39 quot vs r quotf quot 39 quot feminist vs antifeminist antinuclear vs pronuclear power black movement vs racist white antiwar vs quotsupport our troopsquot In these cases each side is attempting to in uence the state or general population and they each react to and try to hinder the efforts of the other side O en the countermovement has close ties to the entrenched elites and commonly is created by them only when they begin to quotlosequot Over time however it can o en be the case that both sides have elite support o en entrenched in different parts or level of the government American Indians in the 20th Century TIME LINE 187 0s1890s Final defeat Americans segregated onto reservations Demoralized Starving Neglected Punished 1871 Indian Appropriations Act US says it will no longer sign treaties will legislate claims authority over Native Americans 1876 Battle of Little Big Horn Custer Crazy Legs 1887 General Allotment Act Whites can buy reservation land over half is lost to whites Checkerboarded reservations with white landowners a major problem in the 20th amp 21St centuries 1890 massacre at Wounded Knee threat of the Ghost Dance 1907 Oklahoma admitted as a US state Full bloods often refuse to participate withdraw starve 1920s1940s Reformers White anthropologists missionaries and some others become allies Some educated quotIndiansquot have the ability to launch political challenges form alliances with sympathetic whites Studies reveal desperation on the reservations Political battles over white rights to reservation lands Some successes 1924 US Congress quot grantsquot US citizenship to all American Indians This is not generally appreciated 1932 Protestant churches join the reform movement 1934 Indian Reorganization Act Reformist but colonial Self govemment but on US terms Some recognition of religious freedom 19415 WWII Join military sense of potency Gain education educational weaknesses revealed 1944 National Congress of American Indians 1946 Indian Claims Commission Supposed to settle in 5 years at 19th century value deduct BIA service charges 1950s The countermovement Some oppose tolerance of native religion Terminationeliminate legal status as tribes Freedom forced assimilation no special status Encouraged to move to cities Over half become urban 1960s Effects of Civil Rights Movement Since of possibility Heightened awareness of ethnic difference New tactics 1964 Washington Fishin exercising 1854 treaty right 1964 Supreme Court rules in favor of treaties 1969 Occupation of Alcatraz 196974 US government settles land claims prefers to deal with moderates 1972 AIM formed 1973 battle of Wounded Knee II 1975 Council of Energy Resource tribes modeled after OPEC Get large settlements used for economic development 1982 still over 100 million acres of land worth billions of dollars tied up in land claim disputes After 1960s courts generally back native claims 1988 13 of BIA schools still boarding schools Very low college enrollments 51000 for natives vs 801000 for blacks and 8251000 for whites 1990s Casino gambling Congressional law Economic development for a few Debates about value Strategies for economic development Heightened cultural awareness Powwows Sports team symbols Scandal of BIA mismanagement of trust funds US Racial Groups in 2000 White not Hispanic 69 African American Black 1213 Asian 34 Americanl ian 1 15 0therquot most are Hispanic 56 HispanicLatino of all races 1213 Nearly half white Hispanicquot Nearly half otherquot Rest Black American Indian Asian Racial composition of the US 2000 Racial Composition of the US Alrican American Black 12713 quoti Asianuwi American Indian 17 1 5 other most are 5 Race is Constructed Racial categories amp boundaries are not natural but created Constructions of race and politicized nature of language go to et r There is always political contestation over categories 7 who is in a group who is out what their boundaries are how many groups there are what their names are Group names amp de nitions amp boundaries in the US today are uid shifting Race Seems Natural But Isn t Race as used in US is not a biological ical We all have a single common ori in in Africa Reality of migration intermarriage throughout human history c 39 g People from different arts of the world do di er in appearance but with illde ned boundaries and relatively minor differences between them W T biological or natural is the division of people into three or four non overlapping groups Race as a social construct Race as the concept we use today created in the wake of European colonial conquests as justification for domination X m lt m m In a m a m are that racial groups do not overlap AND that some quotracesquot are superior to others a Cultural differences are naturalized as due to biology Reality of mixed race vs ideas of races as distinct amp physical a Different boundaries in different places fordifferent groups Racial boundaries are socially defined In US there is a strong boundary around Black and White versus others quotBlackquot any known Black ancestor Many quotBlackquot people have lighter skin than many quotWhitequot people Despite mixed descent correct classification as quotBlac or quotWhitequot is socially important quotWhitequot people with dark skins upset if classified as quotBlackquot quotPassingquot a lightskinned quotBlackquot person pretends to be White Mixes between other groups are more recognized Race is Social But it is Still Real Things that are believed to be real are real in their consequences In some societies religion or language or culture is the barrier The barriers are still real What race you are in the US has enormous social economic and political consequences that will affect you whether you believe in race or not Naming Is Not Trivial But There Is No Way to Get It Right Races in US originate in European ideology justifying domination Other groups became race conscious in response Subordinate groups contest names amp rename themselves as part of political struggle Always disputes within a group about how to name themselves tied to political struggle African American Black part 1 Black Negro African American Afro American New immigrants have ethnic identities African Nigerian Jamaican Pue o ican Haitian etc Reality of mixed ancestry amp ethnic differences and of white racism lumping people together Politicized cycles amp ongoing themes in Martin Luther King Jr was a Negro changing meanings amp the late 1960s shift from Negro to Black African American and AfroAmerican 1970s ties to Africa minimizing race African American Black part 2 Nigger always an insult linked to oppression and humiliation Many wou d be offended at even seeing it written on this slide quotColoredquot was the term used by genteel racists under segregation is not an insult term but will usually be heard as offensive Sometimes used by older Black quotBlackquot is a term of pride for some most do not nd it offensive although a ew do African American is increasingly preferred especially among collegeeduca ed but growing immigra ion from Africa is creating confusions 39 Both African immigrants and Black Americans see social differences amp boundaries between em American Indian Native American Native American once preferred politics amp confusion still often used Shift to American Indianquot as preferred Indian is the European name but a selfname in much casual use People from India object Also indigenous first nations Canadian amp some US real Americansquot or first Americansquot Tribalnational Identities Lakota Navajo Cherokee Chickasaw 39 39 nce between tribal identity and USAmerican identit Much mixing intermarriage gt blurred identities Legal status being on a tribal roll 2 m o Asian part 1 Asian amp Pacific Islander created as a political category in US political context includes South Asians amp Polynesians Asian vs Asian American Asians are people from Asia Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent Most in category do not use it have ethnic identity instead Chinese ChineseAmerican Korean Korean American Hmong etc Asian part 2 Asian American is a selfidentity of 3rd generation persons with no real ties to Asia like Europeans US racialized experiences turn ethnic identities into racial identities Vincent Chin case Oriental not meant as an insult but often be taken as such by young activists Jap Chink Gook etc are all insults Hispanic LatinoLatina part 1 Two different names for the same basic group Refers roughly to those descended fro Spanishspeaking people of the Americas The different names cut differently in their emphasis Hispanic emphasizes Spanish language Spanish surname people from Spain could be called Hispanic people from Brazil are no Latino emphasizes ori s in the Americas Many people prefer an ethnic identity Mexican Puerto Rican Dominican Guatemalan Colombian etc NonMexicans resent being called Mexican Hispanic Latino 2 People in the category differ often strongly on whether they prefer Hispanic or Latinoa and the distinctions made between the terms vary across regions and between groups Mexicans identify as Mexican Mestizo mixed Indianwhite racialized La Raza Mexican a person from Mexico Mexican American an American of Mexican descent Chicano an alternate positive identity for Mexican Americans originally radical amp political now emphases i ut considered an insu t by exicans or nonMexican a inos Insults Spic greaser beaner etc Minority or Person of Color 1 Lumps together everyone who is not White Often used by Whites to refer to others Used by minorities or people of color as the term for coalition and common political action a secondary identity Minority or Person of Color 2 Political signification isn t the same as dictionary definition Colored Person was the term of genteel racism Person of color is a political term seeking to link everyone with a common enemy links US minorities to 3rd world southern hemisphere struggles Minority is sometimes resented as a label while others use it comfortably in contrast to majority group White 1 White as opposed to Black or colored or Indian Jews southern Europeans Irish seen as different races 1900 by scientific racists Lawsuits over who was white 19001940 Japanese Arabs Indians because naturalized citizenship was restricted to white persons Those who remember immigrant generation may have ethnic identity German Italian etc White 2 Caucasian originates in scientific racism Caucasoid Negroid Mongoloid but today used widely European American reaction to African American decenters white sense of entitlement American vs North American vs United Statesian in response to Latin American claims to name American American or Just plain American implies assumption that plain Americans are White This assumption is an implicit political claim End of construction lecture Pamela Oliver Sociology 220 The US as a Racial State Basic definitions beginnings General Theoretical Orientation Groups are in conflict one group wants what belongs to another European colonial expansion in our story Resources and capacities are crucial Inequalities in military economic resources lead to political inequalities Weaker groups can resist domination and still lose Legacies of history Past struggles create today39s structures Today s conflicts are defined amp constrained by the past About Americanism and AntiAmericanism All large countries have invasion conquest of minorities and horror in their history There are class race ethnic religious linguistic conflicts and inequalities in most coun r39es To talk honestly about the unpleasant aspects of our history is not to imply that the US is worse than other countries and certainly not to imply that only the US has prob ems This course is about OUR history about the US This is not about good and bad people it is about what happened USA as a Racial State Early formation of US was a government of for and by White people people from Europe American Indians were foreign nations to be fought negotiated with Not citizens of US African slaves explicitly excluded from citizenship in Constitution of 1789 citizenship rights of free Africans attacked after 17905 1790 Immigration and Naturalization Act Migrants from Europe can become citizens in relatively easy process of quotnaturalizationquot Onl quotWhitesquot can be naturalized Restrictions not removed until 19405 Act of March 26 1790 1 Stat 103104 who shall haye resloeo llrhlls aho uhoerlheluhsolohoh orlhe uhlleo States rorlhe oftva years may be aorhltleo to become a olllzeh lhereor oh law court or record lh ahy urle ufthe States Why Why was the US created legally as a racial state Why wasn t it created as a multiracial government for all the people in a geographic area What do you think Why a White racial state short answer Conquest The land belonged to Native Americans Europeans created their state in opposition to the indigenous American nations Race was the boundary between the White Us and the Indian Them Slavery provided needed labor for European property owners slavery was racialized so Whites were free citizens white Blacks were slaves amp not citizens even if not slave Short history overview 20000 BCE 1491 American history largely uninfluenced by people from AfroEurAsia 1491 1789 European invasion amp African forced migration 1789 1945 USA as racial state Continued invasion amp domination by Europeans Genocide of indigenous Americans Slavery amp legal subordination for Africans General exclusion of Asians and subordination of the few who immigrated Imperial expansion annexation of Northern Mexico colo ation of Pue o Rica Cuba Virgin Islands Guam Samoa Philippines Before 1492 Human migration ly m unu 7 Jnu year1 z5uuurauuuuacz A mm m af nmm hm Smuum asummuumu smuuacz my age Source wwwpbsorg quotRace the Power of an Illusionquot Human migration repictured ma mu mumacE Asia 39 among Arpyaxamaze urigm a modern humans 50000 1auuou2onuon smouuac 3quot a cumuacz Agriculture invented 800010000 BCE Indigenous Americans Before 1492 1 Arrived 12000 30000 years ago before agricultural settlements in Europe Some huntergatherers some settled agriculture some cities some empires Long history of civilizations rising amp falling wars etc before Europeans Thousands of ears Archeological evidence of groups of traders amp immigrants from Africa Europe Asia Either blended in or disappeared America remained in control of the Americans Indigenous North Americans before 1492 2 Estimates 210 m on in what is now Relatively low population density relatively abundant resources for the population Some agricultural communities some nomadic No horses horses introduced by the Spanish Good book summarizing recent research America before Europeans 1491 by Charles C Mann Indigenous North Americans before 1492 3 300 languagesdialects spoken grouped into larger language groups Selfgoverning nations with governments were ormal democracies others monarchies or theocrac39es 7 In uence ofindigenous American democratic forms on European American ideas Intercultural contact 7 Significant trade and trade languagesquot 7 Wars raids kidnapping Not paradise real people living real lives doing both good and bad things Specific indigenous European Political boundaries in mo for comparison mm m mam 1492 1789 The Europeans and Africans Come Together The Europeans amp Africans Come Columbus 1492 Spanish amp Portuguese in Latin America amp Caribbean Co umbus amp slaves Conquistadores of African descent Moors French and British trade in North merica British the major slave traders European settlers amp their slaves in North America In 160 s Importation of slaves 16071808 1 5001776 Colonial Era European incursions European governments quotclaimquot America and divide it among themselves 1600s early colonies in North America were tinyle0ask toeholds on the continent stronger Disease and internal conflict among indigenous Americans permitted the European settlements to survive in Early contacts were relatively e ual sometimes hostile sometimes friendly trade coexistence European Claims 1750 J I 39 a v mum Slavery World slave trade Slaveknuhes Emma slzves mama mm sum pm areas mm Africans and Europeans 90 of the people who crossed the Atlantic to North amp South America between 1500 and 1800 were African NOT European 75 of migrants to North America before 1800 were African NOT European So why is this country predominantly White Africans and Europeans Europeans and Africans arrived together 90 of the people who crossed the Atlantic to America between 1500 and 1800 were African NOT European 75 of migrants to North America before 1800 were African NOT European So why is this country predominantly White Death rates rates of natural increase Atlantic Basin 15001800 Unsettled varied multiracial multi cultural People from many European nations migrating More German and Scots than English after 1700 Africans in many roles sailors traders bondsmen Most slaves but some free The Africans in North America 1607 1776 175 years of slavery in colonial period Some Africans like Europeans 17 year indentures but racial differences rapidly emerge Always 10 free Blacks A few even own slaves themselves Free Blacks support the American revolution Crispus Attucks Whites argue about whether equality should include Blacks Regional patterns for Africans 15001800 Northern Often 1 slave per household isolated Adopted European cul ure amp language decline i Chesapeake VirginiaMaryland Lar er roups families grew from natural increase Cultural mixing with Europeans adopt English with African grammar Carolina amp Georgia Plantations extremely high death rates no natural increase can inued importation of slaves frican communities on large plantations created Gullah language own cus oms Whites Blacks and the Racial State Slavery enshrined in the Constitution of 1789 Invention of cotton gin gives new profitability to slave plantations 1808 importation of slaves ends after a huge wave of importation in the last decade Henceforth slaves are all native born European Americans mobilize to strip free Africans of their citizenship rights ban them from communities kick them out of formerly integrated churches The AfricanAmerican movement begins as a defense against EuropeanAmerican actions What happened to the Native Americans Where are the Americans the indigenous Americans Why is this country predominantly White What happened How long did it take Genocide Americans From 210 million before 1500 to 500000 in 1800 down to 200000 in 1900 Military battles especially Spanish less so English French ear y on Disease killed 90 of many American populations weakened others made European settlements possible Economic disruption Furtrade Horses plains culture Indigenous American responses varied Early contacts ambiguous coexistence amp con ict marriage contact between cultures Some places a multicultural vision d39fferent ethn39 39 ies in separate villages but with pa ve elations en em Some American groups adopt European ways slaves r even own Some try to ght the invaders resist encroachment try to rlvet em out Others retreat west regroup in the face of disruption European ideologies of justification Tiny proportion ofcolonists were Pilgrims s Puritans arriving 16205 butth became icons ofthe national mytn Most Europeans arrived after 1800 Most colonists immigrated for econom d cement Religious selfviews ThePromised Land The New Americans and snaretnelan Some d Development ofideas of biologicallcultural superiority fed into Darwin Wars The European conquest ofAmerica was violent and cost y It took 300 years It was not easy There was substantial indigenous American resistance to the conquest my lm39lll i YEZl39ICll w H mm It39llill FMTTH lF All 1 7 War of 1812 BritishIndian War Started 181011 War between EuroAmerican USA and Native People Delaware Miami Sauk Mesquakie Potawatmi and Kickapoojoin the Shawnee warrior Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa the Prophet to forge a pan lndian movement and drive white Americans off their lands But many tribes divide or refuse tojoin them October 1811 the alliance is attacked and defeated in the Battle of Tippecanoe British side with Tecumseh in an effort to contain the independent EuroAmerican USA Tecumseh is later killed during the War of 1812 This is the decisive battle of the war 1810 Early PanIndian Racial Identity quotWhere today are the Pequot Narraganset Mohican Pokanet and many other such powerful tribes They have vanished before the avarice and oppression of the white manThe only way to stop this evil is for all the red men to unite and claim an equal and common right to the landquot Tecumseh 18151860 The White State Expands European immigrants create population pressures westward expansion Accelerated displacement cleansing of indigenous Americans Louisiana purchase 1803 Buy from the French land that is inhabited by Americans 1824 BIA Bureau of Indian Affairs created under the War Dept Ethnic Cleansing 1830 Indian Removal Act Indians forcibly relocated from eastern states to west of Mississippi Trail of Tears Forced relocation of quotfive civilized tribesquot from Georgia to what is now Oklahoma Thousands die in a thousand mile march Area west of the Mississippi originally Oklahoma Kansas is quotIndian territoryquot to be governed by quotIndiansquot Americans in perpetuity Plains and Southwest Americans become increasingly hostile to the invaders Indian Nations SE 1820 k Tennessee N orth Carolina ls gs Soum Carolina Georgia Trail of Tears Chief Black Hawk Chief Black Hawk Three Views The Black Hawk Warquot Sauk Sac and Fox Background in wars and treaties over land in Illinois Previously displaced from lllinois by unfairtreaty of 1304 1332 a band of1000 lenlowa to return to ancestral r nd onnern lllinois us army cn ed them through Wisconsin eventually attacking and killing most of them including wom en 8 children on rne banks of rne Mississippi at aad Axe Black Hawk was trying to surrender language dimculries arrny hostility prevented this m Black um Wan ma 1 e of Black Hawk war amp massacre 1832 Massacre at Bad Axe H Lewis 1846 Chief Black Hawk httpIllincolnibniuedulbackhawkl Expansion and Displacement Repeatedly European settlers move onto land speci cally reserved for quotIndiansquot battles ensue US troops enter the battle take land from Indians previously reserved to them m a a L treaty from as many groups as possible Groups paci ed are dumped into quotIndian territoryquot where the groups there make room for newcomers 1837 1842 Chippewa treaties cede what is now northern Msconsin Mic amp Minnesota to the US treaties speci cally reserve the right to hunt sh and gather on the ceded territory Chippewa Cession Treaty Ceded Territory 6 39 linm sulu Alaska V 1 39 lnupllq 39 7 a immunth mm a Dup39 t strait for some groups today Native People Several different culturallinguistic Relative inhospitable climate not attractive to Natives still more th populatirnn in 1930 Inuit woman c1907 Alaska history quick sketch Native people thousands of ar Some enealogically related to people who a Others are I Inc groups especially the Inuit aka Eskimos amp the Aleutians 17251865 Russia egalores claims Alaska establishes a few 5 ements 1867 the US buys Alaska from Russia 1870519405 Gold sheries etc draw more Euro eanAmericans Territorlal organization 1912 1959 Statehood The Annexation of Northern Mexico Mexico mm New Spain Spanish colony 15211821 300 years Creation of Mexicansquot mixed in genous amp Spanish ancestry Spanish culture quotIndiesquot resist remain separate in some areas Most of northern New Spain never heavily Spanish strong resistance from In 39 enous Am ricans Mexican independence 1821 Mexican Republic 1824 Pol al turmoil Texas 30000 AngloAmericans had moved into Texas greatly outnum bering the SpanishMexicans generally slaveholders 1324 Mexican republic abolishes slavery enforce laws against slavery 1836 new Mexican constitution restricts states rightsquot overslavery among others AngloTexans a y some Tejanos SpanishTexans secede 39c nd create Texas as an independent 1345 rearing Texas expansion west the us annexes Texas as a slave state Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1343 us provokes awarwith Mexico easilywins Northern Mexico ceded to the us Guarantees to Mexican citizens living in the area 7 us citizenship 7 Recognition of property titles from SpainlMexico e Rightto be Catholic 7 Rightto speak Spanish About 7 of Mexican Americans today are direct descendants ofthose covered by thetreaty enen lose land forced out by Anglo mobs o consistent protection orcitizenship language property rights California Gold Rush 1848 First entry of significant numbers of Chinese initially into gold fields then as laborers to support growing western economy more later AngloAmerican immigrants rapidly overwhelm Mexicans in northern California drive them out Fewer Anglos in desert southern California Mexican landowners retain much of their land in large rancheros Black and White 18161860 Blacks 20 of the population Slavery in the US as a extreme institution Growing international opposition to slavery Abolition movement in US grows Idea of race as biological developed to defend enslavement of Africans Restrictions on free Africans in both north and south The 10 free Africans mobilize against these restrictions amp against slavery Slavery divides the nation Slavery There had been slavery for thousands of years but US slavery was a peculiarly capitalist and particularly inhumane institution people as property no rights as human beings Physical geography social organization made slave rebellions amp escape more difficult than in other locales Slave labor was a fundamental element of 18th and 19th century economy Black slaves built much of the economic power of the nation US BlackNlIhite racial defin ons a product of slavery child of a slave motherwas a slave one drop rulequot Idea of race as the basis for slavery was generated to defend it Abolitionism Movement to Abolish Slavery Militant movement rooted principally in t the northeast but gained adheren s Violent battles between pro and anti slavery forces Black participants amp leaders also racial tensions within movem n 20th century tendency to ignore the history of White abolitionIsts John Brown John Brown militant radical abolitionist fought a guerilla war against slavery 1859 Harper s Ferry raid his capture trial and execution Bells tolled throughout the North for him song John Brown s body sung to an old camp meeting him tune used for Battle Hymn of the Republic poem by Julia Ward Howe John Brown s Body John Brown39s body lies armold39ring in the grave 3x His mar ing on Glory Glory Hallelujah 3x soul goes His soul is marching on He captured Harper39s Ferry with his nineteen men so true He lrightened old Virginia till she trembled through and through They hung him tor a traitor themselves the traitor crew His soul is marching on John Brown died that the slave might be lree 3x But his soul is marching on The stars above in Heaven are looking kindly down 3x 0n the grave or old John Brown Civil War 18601865 North vs South slave vs free Bloody war occupies White military forces Black soldiers slaves gradually being liberated 10 of Union army by 1865 American Indians choose sides or try to avoid the war diversion from Indian wars in the west Ends with the victory of the North abolition of slavery South occupied by northern army White southerners disenfranchised US History Overview 18601820 18601865 US civil war war between the states 1865 1920 Consolidation of the racial state Even more European immigration Jim Crow segregation worsens conditions for Blacks Final conquest of the indigenous Americans Imperialism amp colonialism Asian immigration amp racist antiAsian movements amp n laws lead to bans on Asian immlgratio 1920 Massive immigration ends for 50 years Overview 18651920 Europeans South devastated US consolidates military control of the continent massive mlgration from Africans Freed slaves start to make some advances White state reconsolidates around segregation amp White dominance Americans US military forces conquerthe remaining free Americans drive population down to 200000 Asians Signi cant immigration ex ic39t racist attacks segregation passage of restrlctions against immigration colonialism Philippines Hawaii colon 39sm Puerto Rico displacement Mexicans coexistence E l 3 5 o In HispanicLatino History in the US New Spain Spanish colony 15211821 300 years Creation of Mexicansquot mixed indigenous amp Spanish ancestry Spanish culture lndigenes indigenous resist remain separate in some areas lndiosquot more negative popular term Upper class primarily SpanishEuropean Most of northern New S ain never heavily s e panish strong resistance from indigenous American Mexican independence 1821 Mexican I turmoil Republic1824 Poll ca Hx A 739 The Annexltlon nl Nomeln Mexico 4543 Texas 30000 AngloAmericans had moved into T outnum berlng th exas greatly e SpanishMexicans slaveholders 1324 Mexican republic abolishes slavery 1330 Mexico attempts to stop Anglo immigration slavery 1836 new Mexican constitution restricts states rightsquot over slavery among others AngloTe T xans backed by 1345 fearing Texas expansion west the us annexes Texas as a slave state Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1343 us provokes awarwith Mexico easilywins Northern Mexico ceded to theus Guarantees to Mexican citizens living in the area 7 us citizenship 7 Recognition of property titles from SpainlMexico e Rightto be Catholic 7 Rightto speak Spanis About 7 of Mexican Americans today are direct lose land forced out by Anglo mobs No consistent protection orcitizenship language property rights California Gold Rush 1848 First entry of significant numbers of Chinese initially into gold fields then as laborers to support growing western economy more later AngloAmerican immigrants rapidly overwhelm Mexicans in northern California drive them out Fewer Anglos in desert southern California Mexican landowners retain much of their land in large rancheros SpanishAmerican War 1898 Cubans fighting independence war against Spain T Mai up under mysterious circumstances in Havana harbor US declares war wins easily in 10 weeks more US ians die from malaria than warfare Puerto Rico Philippines Guam Wake become US possessions Cuba quotpermittedquot to be independent under US oversight 1901 still controlled by US after Independence wars raging against Spain become wars against US take time to subdue especially in Philippines Addressing Inequality Affirmative Action Meanings of Affirmative Action Aggressive Equality seek underrepresented groups as applicants document that you are not discriminating against them statistical patterns part of the documentation Preference at the Margin among equally qualified applicants prefer the underrepresented Different Standards Quotas setasides different qualifications Affirmative Action in the 19605 Was promoted to address the problems of overt discrimination Longterm defense of employment discrimination by overt racists amp by employers who did not want any interference in their practices Can t legislate equality the motto of resistance Where did the opponents of equality go after 1966 Employment Discrimination by Name Source Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination Marianne Bertrand amp Sendhil Mullainathan Working Paper 9873 httpIlwwwnberorglpaperslw9873 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH Method 1 Controlled experiment Chicago and Boston July 2001 January 2002 Generated a bank of realistic but fictitious resumes of college graduates Resumes were of high and low quality as assessed by experience career profile employment gaps skills liste Names randomly assigned to resumes were either White eg Emily Kristen Carrie or Black eg Latoya Ebony Tamika Many names used Method 2 Responded to 1300 newspaper ads forjobs in four occupational categories sales administrative support clerical services and customer services For each advertised job sent four resumes by fax or mail White high quality White low quality Black high quality Black low quality Nearly 5000 resumes sent Dependent variable is whether the employer called or emailed and left a message Result 1 A of applicants called by race and subjective quality measure Black Law Black High White Law White Higi Result 2 A of applicants called by race and expected response predicted by other variables Black Law Black High White Law White High Prediction equation from 13 of sample used for the other 23 Result 3 Racial mix of calls to applicants by 1300 employers N0 Calls WhitFBlack Whitvmack BlackgtWhite Result 3 Racial mix of calls to applicants by 232 employers who called at least one nn or employers WhitFBlack WhitegtBlack BlackgtWhite Devah Pager The Price of a Criminal Record Controlled experiment entrylevel job seekers responding to newspaper ads in Milwaukee job market Figure 1 The Effect ofa Criminal Record on Employment Opportunities for Whites Percent alled Back Criminal Record No Record Figure 2 The Effect of a Criminal Record for Black and White Job Applicants Mama mama ElCriminal Record I No Record oi Percent Called Back 5 3 Black White Myths about Affirmative Action It caused racial hostility It caused perceptions of Black inferiority It turned a situation of racial equality into a situation of reverse discrimination Employers would practice racial equality if left to their own devices Unfortunately discrimination in favor of Whites is still common How Does Discrimination Happen Conscious overt prejudice Statistical discrimination Reflection of customers wider society Unconscious discrimination Sliding standards Comfort with people like yourself Irrelevant hiring criteria that discriminate Customs amp practices that make people feel unwelcome discourage applications Employment Aggressive equality is the most common Some use of preference at the margin especially where workforce diversity is im ortant Different standards are rare Quotas are illegal Quotalike practices have been imposed by courts when companies were found guilty of discrimination Some companies voluntarily have quotalike practices Aggressive Equality Employers are required to use objective hiring criteria and to keep data to demonstrate Serious effort to advertise positions broadly Objective qualifications of those hired amp not Assumption that equality in hiring will in the long run lead to a work force that mirrors the pool of qualified applicants Statistical monitoring Goals and timetables Debates about nature of the pool of quali ed applicants Resistance to Aggressive Equality Burden of documenting Concerns that goals and timetables become quotas in practice People skills and attitude are hard to measure are important in many jobs and are deeply affected by cultural similarities among people A desire to discriminate and get away with it Preference at the Margin lf roughly equal prefer those underrepresented NOT solely because of race Not legally required unless the employer has been found guilty of discrimination Sometimes seen in public employment where there is a substantial minority clientele Police teachers etc Businesses voluntarily favor diversity to satisfy a diverse customer base Military practices strong preference at the margin in promotions Resistance to Preference at the Margin Argument that roughly equal isn t good enough should finely rank all applicants Seems unfair to those not underrepresented Would random selection be fairer Desires of nonWhite customers or clients seem irrelevant Different Standards Quotas are illegal in employment Strict goals and timetables generally a response to court cases in which employer was found guilty of overt past discrimination May be required to give preference to the group discriminated against to remedy past illegal discrimination These remedies are rarely used and have declined Employers do sometimes voluntarily favor underrepresented groups but more often in fact favor Whites SetAsides There are minority and also small business setaside programs in public contracting Theory is that large established firms can always underbid Setasides are designed to give a small share of public business to firms trying to ge establis e Arguments for in terms of minority taxpayers want to see their businesses get a proportional share of public expenditures Set asides never give a majority of business to small or minority firms Summary Affirmative Action denotes a wide variety of actual practices important to distinguish Statistical data and testing research indicate a great deal of proWhite and promale in some occupations employment discrimination In employment most affirmative action is oriented toward countering discrimination against racial minorities women Summary continued There are occupationsfirms in which there are diversity preferencesquot 7 Teaching policing other public employment 7 Firms see 39 deal with a diverse customer base or build their public image in minority communities Big debates about quali cations All hiring contains a huge element of subjective chara t quot and personality issues in which there is a strong tendency to prefer people like oneself Some incomeeducation trends Median Household Income by Race sunnn 19982000 three year average 5 Median Household Income by Race 20002002 three year average mun C snnnn d 2mquot mun 3 man l 2nnnn I WhiteNlI Flack Au Himm Anizdnd sunnn snnnn d l 2nnnn I WhiteNlI Flack Au Hi1th mum Median Household Income by Race and Hispanic Origin 1967 to 1999 lnromc increased for all groups highs sci or equaled for all groups Poverty Rates by Race and Hispanic Origin 1959 m 2000 l m39tl39ly mics lctllllud ForFllacks and Hispanics Ions Sal or lnalcllerl tol all glullps ELepl Wlnies mm by Racelfamiw Type Income FullTime Workers 1999 Mamed Cunp e Fema e Head 942 HS gvad same en 1232 Median Income as Percent ofWhite Males19701996 Wealth Is More Unequal Than Income Home Ownership Median Famlly Net Worth 1983 1989 1992 1995 1998 1933 may 1992 1995 Whit IAfricanAmen39can Hispanic Wh39t fricanAmerican Hispanic 1998 Financial Wealth Median Fanin Financial Wealth 1983 WEB 1992 1995 WEE o Race and Income Affect Net Worth Mm Net vnnmssa sume tnan EmlEy BeingElack Lwirgmthe m mm xsmm mm mm xasnm xmnummn mum nsnm msm m vmy mum Median Home Equity by Race Income mm an Emmy Sauce Daltm may am Back Lwlrgmthe m mm nsnnuasm mm xmm mmmm msm mm mm mm Financial Wealth by Race Income mm mm mm m Wm Mirna Hm mums Sales W muey BeirgEhw megmthe m mm mm mm In The Red Debts Greater than Assets mm mm deluwe Mmmnmmms 1934 sume Mm muey am am mmmm m mm nsmuasm xmumn mm nsm msm m mm mm Hispanics Latinos in the 20 391 Century Pamela Oliver Sociology 220 Hispanic Latino Population Race selfreported of Hispanics Latino Locations in US n the southwest Callfornla 39co Texas Colorado but also elsewhere Chicago etc Cubans mostly in Florida Puerto Ricans mostly in New York New erse But all are fanning out Immigration from other Latin American g ounties is grown Elmsorwmcmmnunpmczmnrlouunwmm mu r Names part 1 In the US Latino or Hispanic refers to a person in the US who is of Latin American origin Nuances in meanings of words but referring to same groups Brazilians are in this group although they do not speak Spanish Spaniards are Hispanic but not understood to be part of the group called Hispanic or Latino in the US In Latin America Latino often refers to a erson who is culturally Hispanic rather than culturally Indigenous Names part 2 Mexican a Mexican citizen in Mexico or US as identity a person from Mexico Mexican American a US citizen of Mexican descent as identity a US ethnic group Chicano a selfidentify of SOME Mexican Americans not all Origins as radical racialized identity indigenous American Now many Mexican Americans use it because they don t identifywith Mexico Mexicans from Mexico NEVER identify as Chicano Class Origins and WellBeing A major predictor of an immigrant group s success in US is CLASS CLASS education businessprofessional skills financial resources PreWWII White Catholics less successful than Protestants Used to be a lot of talk about how Catholic culturequot held people back Took 3 generations for immigrant class differences to dissipate but they are gone now Today White Catholics amp Protestants are educationally amp economically comparable Class Immigrant Status WellBeing Economic amp educational Success of immigrants amp their children depends largely not exclusively on what they bring with them education business amp professional skills money English Economic amp political factors in sending country immigration factors affect class mix of immigrants to US Politics amp Immigrant Flow Class of refugees motivated by political violence depends on the regime they are leaving Are lower class or upper class people being threatened Refugees from rightist regimes tend to be poor amp uneducated political leftists Refugees from leftist regimes tend to be from business amp professional classes US politics influences how refugees from different regimes are treated Race in the Americas Substantial indigenous population remains in Mexico Central America Andes interior of Amazon Alaska amp Canada southwestern US Substantial African population in northeastern Brazil southeastern US amp urban areas Caribbean area history of slavery Substantial postcolonial European migrations to US Canada Brazil Argentina Chile amp northeast South America Significant Asian migration to many South American countries as well as US Canada Mexico but still a minority Skin Color and Class in the Americas Colonialism conquest by Europeans white ski left their descendents in higher class posI on economic political throughout the Americas The indigenous people the native i s were conquered and subordinated Their descendents are mostly still poor subjugate The African people were mostly slaves their descendents are still poorer than the former mas ers Consequences of Colonialism amp Pol Ics Latin American migrants who are poorer amp less educated are more likely to be of indigenous or African descent Refugees from leftist regimes are more likely to be lightskinned of European descent welloff amp e ucated and receive favorable treatment in US immigration policies Cuba Nicaragua Refugees from rightist regimes are more likely to be poor indigenous or Black and treated unfavorably In US immigration policies Haiti Guatemala El Salvador Cuba and Puerto Rico Caribbean Islands Central America Cuba Historical After 1492 Spanish Columbus largely exterminated the 50000 Indians Sugar plantations population is mixed European and African descent SpanishAmerican War 1898 independent but US dominate S troops leave 1902 but retain control of Guantanamo ay as naval base dominate economy U B overthrows Batista harsh dictator orI Inally supported by US but then opposed when in 1960 Castro declares the country communist US embargo still in effect 9 I4 391 Cubans in US Upper amp middle class Cubans flee Castro 1 million immigrate between 1960 and 1980 Current Cuban population is about 10 million Early refugees are educated White create quotlittle Havanaquot in ori a m antly an co ubl an Despite I tia hardships most are doing well economically in US Later refugees are less educated darker having more problems but obscured by statistics Cuban connections I Puerto Rico Spanish colony plantations mixed European amp African Indians mostly killed but today many Puerto Ricans ave some Indian ances ry Becomes US colony 1898 SpanishAmerican War English required in schools US underdevelops as a colony 1917 Jones Act Puerto Ricans are citizens of US 1948 PR made a Commonwealth Associated Free State Part of US but not a state less subordinate than a colony Status a continuing issue stay commonwealth become US state become independent Puerto Ricans All Puerto Ricans are US citizens In 2000 34 million Puerto Ricans in US mainland 38 million in PR 99 of those in PR consider themselves Hispan c 80 in PR say they are White 8 Black 7 other 4 2 races On the mainland many who are White in PR are considered Black Easy migration between Puerto Rico amp mainland all part of US New Yoricans amp other identity issues Other Caribbean Islanders Dominicans Dominican Republic Spanish Haitians French Jamaicans English Smaller islands varies Population mostly AfricanEuropean descent some Asian Indian especially colonial mix To Whites those not White blend in to the Black population but culturalethnic differences are significant Cznhhmn Mm Central Americans Nicaraguans fled Sandanistas Communists Largely white largely well educated Guatemalans Salvadorans Hondurans Indian peasants violently forced off the land To USians blend in to Mexican population but may not speak Spanish are culturally amp ethnically distinct Typically very poor Refugees travel through Mexico enter US as part of Mexican illegal immigration Mexican Americans amp Mexicans Mexican Americans born in US identify as Americans of Mexican descent Many speak only English Others are partly orfully bilingual Others especially migrant workers 39n southern exas grow up speaking mostly Spanish or Spanglish Chicano a political selfidentity of a subgroup of Mexican Americans more oriented to US Mexicans migrants from Mexico Some are settlers bring families plan to stay Many are so39ourners working here sending money home no interest in stayin Many are indigenous people for whom Spanish is a second language Mexico Little migration into US until 20th century Population depletion from colonialism Political instability 1876 Portofio Diaz reactionary coup 19101922 Mexican Revolution Some political refugees Population less than 10 European about 60 mestizo 30 indio Mayans etc who do not speak Spanish not culturally Mexican Creation of mestizo identity in the Mexican revolution La Raza 19105 19205 European immigration shut off Mexican migrants encouraged as a source of cheap I bor No immigration quotas no quotpapersquot required no real distinction between legal and illegal Class amp Race New Mexico southern California parts of Texas some Spanish White Mexicans are landowners parts of the upper class Indian Mexicans no White Other parts of Texas Arizona central valley of California Mexicans are lower class Ian less treated as a separate race segregated 19305 Depression economic collapse high unemployment quotget rid of foreignersquot Forced deportation of Mexicans Majority are USborn citizens unable to prove citizenship Social Security provisions enacted in 1930s exempt agricultural and domestic work explicitly meant to exempt Mexicans and African Americans LULAC League of United Latin American Citizens Englishoriented civil rights the quotMexican American Generationquot Not Spanish full rights as US citizens 19405 WWII workers needed joint programs with Mexico to import workers bracero program Mexican supervision means that Mexican workers often treated better than US citizens of Mexican descent Temporary workers leave families in Mexico Zoot Suit riots of 1943 in Los Angeles Anglo sailors vs Mexican Americans 10 days of attacks riots climate of os i I amp fear Zoot suit was a style worn by Mexican youth httplwwwpbsorgwgbhamexzootindexhtml 1 9505 19605 Operation Wetback attack on Mexican workers less than 2 have formal proceedings before expulsion Urban renewal tears up MexAm settlements creates crowding migration increases GI Forum LULAC MAPA Mexican American Political Association emphasis on citizenship full civil rights integration Mexican American generation deemphasis on Spanish Education in Texas 1 Segregation of Mexican children language as justification but really racial Effectively children are learning no language MexAms support English instruction struggle for equality and real education Other White strategy through 1960s Education in Texas 2 Lawsuits for bilingual instruction a consequence of past failures with Englishonly Shift to racial selfdesignation in wake of integration whites want to integrate by mixing Mexicans and Blacks Source Guadalupe San Miguel Jr quotLet All ofthem Take Heedquot Mexican Americans and the Campaign rorEducationai Equality in Texas 1910 1931 Late 1960s1970s Chicanos become defined as distinct racial group for purposes of desegregation a response to White actions Texas integrates by mixing Blacks amp Mexicans 1965 change in immigration law effectively lowers legal quotas from Mexico Reies Lopez Tijerina Alianza de Pueblos Libres to win back land grants in New Mexico occupies areas in national forests violent confrontations with authorities eventually imprisoned Farm Workers Movements Mexicans and Mexican Americans are major pool of migrant farm workers Long history of labor struggle especially in California and Texas California struggles involved Mexicans amp Asians racial divisions as well as alliances Cesar Chavez United Farm Workers 1960s1970s Ethnic images Outside allies Grape lettuce boycotts Chicano Movements Increasing militancy and nationalist pride among MexAms inspired by Black movement Brown Power MAYO Mexican American Youth Organization La Raza Unida party Brown Berets quotChicanoquot identity created myth of Atzlan Radical connotations El Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlan M EChA La Raza Unida Part of Chicano movement Reject prior assimiliationist civil rights approaches Identify with Mexican culture Chicano myth of Aztlan Radical militant Crystal City Cristal garden area of Texas Home of migrant workers MAYO School walkouts Prom education La Raza Unida a Mexican American party Political strategy Third party politics Source ignacio M Garcia United We Vl n The Rise and Fan of La aza Unida Pa y Raza Unida Jose Angel Guti rrez La Raza Unida Party son of Mexican nationalist separatist political strategies Kill the gringo speech Raza Unida wins in some predominantly Mexican American areas Governor election in Texas substantial loss Lessons of ethnic parties third parties Nationalist militancy Chicano Movements Rodolfo Gonzales charismatic urban politico from Denver epic poem I am Joaquin Represented the barrio youth punished for speaking Spanish confusion of idenitity See I am Joaquin I Am Joaquin Rodolfo Corky Gonzales Epic poem published 1967 in English and Spanish Speaks to the urban Chicano Mexican American who does not know his history faces the challenges of discrimination and assimilation lntenlveaves a retelling of Mexican history and identity with current conditions amp issues Fragments from the much longer epic give a flavor of it Yo soy Joaquin perdido en un mundo de con Jsion lam Joaquin lost in a world ofconfusion caught up in the whirl of a gringo society confused by the rules scorned by attitudes suppressed by manipulation and destro ed by modem society My fathers have lost the economic battle orto exist in the grasp ofAmerican social neurosis sterilization ofthe soul and a full stomach lam Cuauht moc proud and noble leader of men king ofan empire civilized beyond the dreams ofthe gachupin Cortes who also is the blood the image of myself lam the Ma a prince lam Nezahualcoyotl great leader ofthe Chichimecas lam the sword and ame ofCortes the despot And I am the eagle and serpent ofthe Aztec civilization lfought and died for Don Benito Juarez guardian ofthe Constitution lwas he on dusty roads on barren land as he protected his archives as Moses did his sacraments He held his Mexico in his hand on the most desolate and remote ground which was his country And this giant little Zapotec gave not one palm39s breadth of his country39s land to kings or monarchs or presidents of foreign powers lam Joaquin I rode with Pancho Villa crude and warm a tornado at full strength nourished and inspired by the passion and the re ofall his earthy people My knees are caked with mud My hands calloused from the hoe l have made the Anglo rich et Equality is but a word The Treaty of Hidalgo has been broken And is but anothertreacherous promise My land is lost I lengthen the line at the welfare door And ll the jails with crime These then are the rewards This society has For sons of chiefs And kings And bloody revolutionists ho gave a foreign people All their skills and ingenuity To pave the way with brains and blood For those hordes ofgoldstarved strangers Who Changed our language And plagiarized our deeds As feats of valor Oftheir own They frovmed upon our way of life and took what they could use And in all the fertile farmlands the barren plains the mountain villages smokesmeared cities we startto MOVE La raza Mejicano Espa ol Latino Chicano Or whatever I call myself I look the same lfeel the same I cry And Sing the same lam the masses of my people and I refuse to be abso ed I am Joaquin The odds are great But my spirit is strong My faith unbreakable My blood is pure lam Aztec prince and Christian Christ SHALL ENDURE IWILL ENDURE 19705 Economic crisis in Mexico forces many north to look for work New immigration laws reduce Mexican quotas force more migrants into quotillegalquot atus Civil wars in Central American create refugees often seen as Mexican in US but don t speak Spanish poor Bilingual education in response to past discrimination neglect lawsuits laws require appropriate education for all children 19805 19905 Continuing poverty turmoil in Mexico Central American lead to continuing quotpushquot for immigration rth no Late 1990s2000 low unemployment in US gt high need for low wage labor from Mexico widespread employer violation of immigration rules Growing Latino Mexican Central American population in US Southwest former northern Mexico Congressional relief on immigration quotas for technical workers mostly Asian but no action on low wage wor ers Late 1990s 2000s P 39cal movements to require English to suppress ngualism Po cal movements to barwelfare to legal immigrants Amnesty for existing illegal immigrants coupled with greater enforcement against new illegal immigrants Conflicts between HispanicMexicanAmericans and immigrants from Mexico or Central America NAFTA moving industry from US into Mexico Vicente Fox elected ends PRI rule Proposes open migration of workers GW Bush has positive response prior to 911 which shuts down discussions Language Issues Most Mexican immigrants with children want them to learn English Many who want English also want to retain Spanish bilingual Past record of high dropout rates poor education in Englis immersion led to bilingual movement English Only kid s responsibility to show up speaking English Not the schools problem English immersion does not work well where only the teacher speaks English Immigration Issues Sojourners a major part of the Mexican migrant flow Families in Mexico no desire to immigrate permanently Wage differentials Need for Mexican labor in the US economy Surplus labor force Illegal immigration largely a product of laws reducing legal immigration Pamela Oliver Sociology 220 Lecture Notes CHRONOLOGY OF UNITED STATES ETHNIC HISTORY THROUGH 1900 Before 1500 Only Americans The Americans Indigenous inhabitants of what are now called North and South America quot Already herequot Arrived 12000 40000 years ago Maj or migration via land bridge from Siberia spread south Some evidence of other migrations Urban horticultural empires in Mexico Central America Peru Higher population densities settled agriculture Spanish colonialists added layer on top native population still there in many places Will return to this for quotLatinosquot What is now US and Canada was more sparsely settled over 300 languages Highest estimates of NA pop in 1500 are 12 15 million lowest commonly accepted is 5 million current pop of entire state of WI Some extremists say as low as 2 million No large empires no kings Settled agricultural communities in some areas especially what is now southeastern US Small decentralized bands sometimes organized into loose confederations but with little centralization of power led to varied and shifting response to Europeans not just impose European king at the top of a hierarchy unlike Aztecs Incas Europeans did enslave North Americans Columbus got rich as a slave owner Nevertheless early encounters were shifting and problematic The Americans were settled had possession of the land For the rst two hundred years in North America 16001800 relations between Europeans and Americans were mixed Some trading Some live and let live A lot of ghting on both sides As the European settlements grew and got more hostile the Americans were more and more resistant l 500 1776 Colonial Era European incursions European governments quotclaimquot America and divide it among themselves Enslavement pestilence and plagues economic disruptions warfare for the Americans South America Spanish conquerors put a new layer on American indio populations In North America European settlers intrude on the land ultimately displace African slavery some free Africans Initial Confrontations Colonial Period 15001800 Horses from Mexico lead to Plains culture buffalo hunting on horseback Fur trading leads to reorganization of economies Some adoption of new agricultural methods especially in the southeast European settlement dense only along northeast coast French and English competing to settle each forms alliances with different American groups who are drawn into their ongoing wars Some groups move west out of the way others ght others try to live in peace Many die in warfare dislocation or disease In rst census ofthe new US govt in 1800 NA pop counted at 600000 Quite a few European males married into American tribes their mixedancestry descendants probably increase in relative numbers due to high death rates among Americans by 1800 NA pop counted by US govt at 600000 by 1850 it was 250000 Today 12 million including mixedancestry who chose NA identity on census form What happened 1 climactic changes had been disrupting and moving populations anyway decline of large mammals drying of SW but this preColumbus 2 horses from Mexico Spanish and fur trading by French initial contacts from 1500 on started changing development of Plains culture shift in warfare patterns reorganization of economies around fur trapping intermarriage with European trappers who usually joined the tribes mixed EuroNat Am children often show up as leaders in resistance to European settlers Populations declined as a result of warfare shifting subsistence patterns 3 diseases 90 death rates in some areas Colonists took over abandoned villages dug up graves for tools 4 extermination by Europeans When you are thinking about what happened it is important to realize that most Nat Ams in the New England upper midwest area lived in relatively small bands independent no overarching governments some history of disunity breaking up democracy no government Even the great empires of south were defeated so the end result would probably have been the same but the details were different in the north because there were lots of small groups defeated one at a time rather in the south conquering a hierarchy In some areas particularly what is now Southeastern US what came to be called the quotcivilized tribesquot Creek Choctaw Chickasaw Cherokee Seminole adapted and shaped their societies in response to newcomers The Cherokee in particular adopted European dress converted to Christianity settled as farmers developed a written version of their language modified their governmental forms so that they were very similar to those of the English colonies To the west in New Spain to become Mexico the population is 90 Indio with European Spanish dominant upper class The Spaniards are trying to colonize northern New Spain with mixed success as the native indigenous Americans resist Europeans Religious selfviews The Promised Land The New Israel Only a tiny proportion of colonists were PilgrimsPuritans but they became the icons of the national myth Many different views of how to mix with the native Americans Some thought they should live together But others saw their situation in Biblical terms as entering Canaan and killing all the inhabitants Many saw the deaths of the native inhabitants as a sign from God that they were meant to be in the land National myth is image that the Europeans arrived in 1620 and have been here since But MOST Europeans arrived later in oods of immigration from Europe Africans quotBefore the May owerquot Most European Americans think of themselves of whites as belonging in America more than African Americans But this is not true Europeans and Africans arrived together Persons of African descent were part of the Mediterranean mix and some of the conquistadores were Spanish of partial African descent people who de nitely would be considered quotblackquot in the US today Similarly there were some Europeans of African descent and some Africans who traveled freely to the Americas in the colonial period Nevertheless most of the Africans in the Americas arrived as slaves having been captured in Africa African slavery throughout North and South America African slaves first landed in North America in Jamestown in 1607 thirteen years before the May ower In many ways African American labor built this country 1607 1776 Colonial period Slaves imported Plantation economy develops in the South Free Blacks 510 of all AfAms About 175 years of slavery before the European American Revolution In the early years some Africans were treated like European indentured servants That is they were bound to work for a certain number of years e g 17 and then were free Throughout the Colonial period 510 of the Africans in North America were free Some free persons of African descent owned African slaves 17761815 The formation of the racial state Europeans calling themselves Americans create a new government of by and for quotwhite peoplequot American Indians are excluded treated as separate nations generally as they wish to be European Americans strip free Africans of their citizenship rights The African American movement begins as a defense against EuropeanAmerican actions 1790 Immigration and Naturalization Act Migrants from Europe can become citizens in relatively easy process of quotnaturalizationquot Only quotwhitesquot can be naturalized Slavery enshrined in the Constitution of 1791 Louisiana purchase 1803 Buy from the French land that is inhabited by Americans 1808 importation of slaves ends Henceforth slaves are all native born War of 1812 Defeat of Tecumseh British cannot block expansion 17761795 Revolutionary period The European Americans separate from the British government but the Canadians refuse to go along They no longer see themselves as European they see themselves as quotAmericanquot They come to see themselves as the rightful owners of the continent This is the crucial period They form their own government American Indians are other nations to be fought or treated with 1803 Louisiana Purchase quotbuysquot land from the French that does not belong to the French in the first place after Napoleon had gotten it back from Spain Blacks support revolution Atticus Crispus Whites argue about whether quotequalityquot includes blacks Slavery written into constitution 1791 59000 free blacks vs 750000 slaves 7 1793 Cotton gin invented Large cotton plantations slave labor central to southern economy and northern textile mills 17951815 PostRevolutionary Period slave importation to US ends 1808 Whites pass laws restricting citizenship of free blacks in north Petitions protests small migration to Africa Richard Allen AME church Absalom Jones Free African Society War of 1812 What about Key issue was that the British were supporting the indigenous Americans Wanted to keep a buffer between the US and Canada Encouraged them as separate nations The key consequence of the war was the defeat of Tecumsah in the west and the concession of the British NB Migration of Africans to US basically stops after 1808 There is essentially zero migration from African and only very little migration of Africandescent persons from Caribbean islands African American families have been in North America for at least 200 years 300 years on average Some EuropeanAmerican families have been on the continent as long as African Americans but MOST are much more recent migrants There was huge immigration throughout the 193911 century peaking in 1900 Most European Americans have ancestors who migrated to North America after 1890 or so Almost no African Americans do quotBack to Europequot 18151860 Race and Expansion European migration accelerates especially after 1830 Immigrant hordes create population pressures westward expansion 1824 BIA Bureau of Indian Affairs created under the War Dept Moved to Department of the Interior in the 20th century after the wars are over 1830 Trail of Tears Forced relocation of quotfive civilized tribesquot from Georgia to Oklahoma Thousands die in a thousand mile march Area west of the Mississippi originally Oklahoma Kansas is quotIndian territoryquot to be governed by quotIndiansquot Americans in perpetuity Plains and Southwest Americans become increasingly hostile to the invaders Divisions over slavery grow Free blacks become involved in abolition movement Repeatedly European settlers move onto land specifically reserved for quotIndiansquot battles ensue US troops enter the battle take land from Indians previously reserved to them US government seeking to obtain land peacefully by treaty from as many groups as possible Groups pacified are dumped into quotIndian territoryquot where the groups there make room for newcomers 1837 1842 Chippewa treaties cede what is now northern Wisconsin Michigan amp Minnesota to the US treaties specifically reserve the right to hunt fish and gather on the ceded territory 1848 California Gold Rush Chinese migrate in substantial numbers along with many others Texas and the Annexation of Northern Mexico New Spain Spanish colony 15211821 300 years Creation of Mexicans mixed indigenous amp Spanish ancestry Spanish culture Indios resist remain separate in some areas Most of northern New Spain never heavily settled by Spanish strong resistance from indigenous Americans Mexican independence 1821 Mexican Republic 1824 Political turmoil 30000 AngloAmericans had moved into Texas greatly outnumbering the SpanishMexicans generally slaveholders 1824 Mexican republic abolishes slavery 1830 Mexico attempts to stop Anglo immigration enforce laws against slavery 1836 new Mexican constitution restricts states rights over slavery among others Anglo Texans backed by some Tejanos SpanishTexans secede from Mexico and create Texas as an independent white slaveholding state 1845 fearing Texas expansion west the US annexes Texas as a slave state 1845 US annexes Texas 1848 US provokes a war with Mexico wins Mexico cedes the northern half of its country to Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo guarantees citizenship rights land rights and right to speak Spanish and to be Catholic to all Mexican citizens in the ceded territory About 7 of Mexican Americans today are direct descendants of those covered by the treaty Mixed experiences some Mexicans retained land amp economic status some intermarried with Anglos Many others defrauded of land chased across the border by Anglo mobs No consistent protection of citizenship language rights California gold rush 1848 First entry of significant numbers of Chinese 7 initially into gold fields then as laborers to support growing western economy AngloAmerican immigrants rapidly overwhelm Mexicans in northern California drive them out Fewer Anglos in desert southern California Mexican landowners retain much of their land in large rancheros 18601865 War North wins Slavery Ends Tremendous devastation in the south 18651876 Reconstruction Constitutional amendments 13 11 abolish slavery 143911 all persons born or naturalized in the US have rights of citizenship regardless of race religion national origin or previous condition of servitude 153911 right of men to vote regardless of race etc NOTE The 143911 and 153911 amendments do not apply to nonwhite immigrants because they are not allowed to become naturalized but do apply to nonwhites born in the US Union army occupies the south Blacks vote Whites who have been in Rebel army cannot Black elected officials Some reforms Much turmoil resistence Con icts around 153911 amendment disrupt the previous coalition between feminists and supporters of AfricanAmerican rights 1868 Significant Japanese migration begins with the Meiji restoration Most to Hawaii but some to mainland 1871 Indian Appropriations Act US decides it will no longer sign treaties will just legislate This land belongs to EurAms who will decide what to do with AmerInds 1877 1920 Solidifying the Racial State Note Capitalism is rising in this period Europeans This is a period of extremely high immigration from Europe Those European descendents already here violently resist newcomers There is much antiimmigrant feeling there are ethnic riots in the streets Africans Compromise of 1876 Union army leaves the south agreement to let southemers do what they will about race White southemers can vote again 18771891 Republicans debate whether to continue to support blacks after 1891 abandon them entirely 1880s 1890s Southern states pass Jim Crow segregation laws amend their state Constitutions to disenfranchise blacks 1893 Plessey vs Furgeson quotSeparate but Equa quot US Supreme Court effectively guts the 143911 amendment 18951920 Virulant racism Presidents Taft and Wilson are explicit racists Hundreds of African Americans are lynched murdered in the south quotScientific racismquot is taught in college science classrooms This ideology distinguishes northern Aryan from southern Europeans as well as what we now understand as quotracesquot Explicit opposition to any form of mixing of quotracesquot Asians Explicit racism also applied to Chinese Japanese In California laws passed requiring school segregation making it illegal for quotpersons ineligible for citizenshipquot to own land 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act No immigration from China 1907 Gentlemen s Agreement No more immigration from Japan Japan agrees to restrict Asiandescent people born in US are citizens American Indians The final quotIndian Warsquot 18701890 US Army battles native people on the plains forcing them all onto reservations Goal of US policy is to eliminate Indians as Indians Either kill them or force them to adopt EuropeanAmerican ways Boarding schools Dispirited broken people starving on reservations or battling to the death 1876 Battle of Little Big Horn Crazy Horse vs Custer The last major Sioux victory 1887 General Allotment Act Break up the AmerInd reservations give land to individuals quotsurplusquot land to whites Much land passes to white hands reservations shrink by 50 Indians not permitted to manage their own land instead Bureau of Indian Affairs manages it as a trust If land is leased or sold money collected by BIA and supposed to be paid to the Indian owner Recent lawsuit 2040 billion dollars are missing unaccounted for by BIA No information to owners about who land was leased to or what was owed money never paid to them Money transferred from BIA into general budget of US government with no accounting Checks to individuals never cashed Judge recently held BIA officials in personal contempt for permitting the destruction of huge volumes of documents amp uncashed checks after the lawsuit was filed 1889 Despite treaty the eastern part of quotIndian Territoryquot Oklahoma is opened to whites in a quotland runquot 1893 Congress passes law calling for negotiation for the land tribes hold out 18957 gradual erosion of their position 1898 Congress passes Curtis Act forcing allotment and division of their other property terminating their government Dept of Interior takes over their schools turns them into a public school system 1901 Tribal citizens declared citizens of US and Territory of Oklahoma 1907 Oklahoma admitted to the Union as a state 1890 The BattleMassacre at Wounded Knee 300 Sioux including women and children and 25 soldiers are killed after the army breaks up a Ghost Dance 1890 census American population down to 200000 Its low point US Imperialism Hawaii A kingdom of Polynesian people In the mid to late19th century Anglo American planters take over much of the land import many Asian workers AngloAmericans want to become part of US so overthrow the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1893 and ask for and obtain annexation of the US in direct violation of the international law of the time Native Hawaiians along with Asians are not permitted to vote or given citizenship rights in this US territory SpanishAmerican war of 1898 US gains possession of Philippine Islands and Puerto Rico gains effective domination over Cuba Immigration Soujourners here temporarily to work Settlers here to make new life Fluid boundaries some expect to go home and do not others expect to stay and go home High proportion of all immigrant groups European Asian Mexican Latino go home We are the descendents of those who stayed Counting Immigrant Generations 1 First the immigrants 2 Second children of immigrants Some call those who migrate as small children the 15 generation 3 Third grandchildren of immigrants NOTE Asian immigrant groups count 0 as the immigrants 1 as the children of the immigrants the first generation born here Just a different custom for talking about the same thing First Generation The Immigrants Usually feel pulls between home and here Usually a drop in class amp status position vs ome Experience US culture amp life as alien difficult Selfidentities rooted in home country Know they are foreign here doesn t bother them much to be treated as different Interested in life back home think about maybe going home have to decide where home is Can decide whether to become citizens Pre WWII Asians amp Africandescent could not become citizens Second Generation USborn children of immigrants child migrants Grow up speaking English going to US schools Some bilingual others cannot speak parents language Parents often conservative expect tighter control over children view larger society as alien Awareness of being quotdifferentquot concerns about fitting in Torn between parents ideas and the larger society Parentchild conflicts are common Power reversals may occur if the child translates for the parents Third Generation Grandchildren of immigrants children of the torn generation Little real contact with grandparents culture full cultural assimilation to mainstream Often romantic nostalgia for grandparents culture Whites blend in nonwhites experience racial discrimination become more race conscious Intermarriage rates generally high Politics of Immigrant Generations Immigrants Usually little interest in US politics more in politics back homequot Form selfprotective fraternal groups to help each other Ethnic churches organizations common Children grandchildren of immigrants Identify as quotAmericanquot Europeandescent people generally blend inquot once they lose accents Ethnic politics optional Religious minorities especially Jews a partial exception Racial minorities adopt politics of inclusion resist discrimination Pamela Oliver Sociology 220 REVISED MEX AM LECTURE SOURCES San Miguel Guadalupe Jr 39 Let All of them Take Heedquot Mexican Americans and the Campaign for E 39 quot 39 Equalitv in Texas 19101981 David Montejano Anglos and Mexicans inthe Making of Texas 18361986 Rodolfo Acu a Occupied America A Histog of Chicanos Third Edition Garcia Ignacio M United We Win The Rise and Fall of La Raza Unida Partv Richard Schaefer Racial and Ethnic Groups 4th ed chapter on Chicanos History review 1 Occupation Texas Treaty with US 1819 said US would not annex Texas Distant from Mexico city Tejanos not opposed to Anglos wanted area better settled Mexico welcomed Anglos but said they had to become Mexican citizens live under Mexican law 18001830 migration of Anglos into area outnumbered tejenos 101 1829 Mexico abolishes slavery creates federal structure with quite a bit of state autonomy Anglos try to become separate state within Mexico part of Chihuahua not populated enough to meet federal criteria Some tejanos side with Anglos although worried because Anglos don t mix with them 183034 Mexican government bans migration of Anglos into area 1834 Santa Ana in Mexico tries to impose stronger central government 18356 battles between Texas Anglos and Mexican authorities 1836 Texas declares itself independent Although tejanos were not necessarily proMexico in this battle after independence Texas Anglos began discriminating against them harassing them to leave US recognizes Texas independence 1837 Texas claims lands to the west in disputes with Mexico US also fears a strong independent Texas with all those western lands 1845 US annexes Texas as slave state Offers money to Mexico for New Mexico California Mexico insulted refuses Border skirmishes War 18467 Anglos revolt against Mexico in California 1846 US army conquers Mexico City 1847 raises US ag above Halls of Montezuma the national palace Treaty reestablishes borders between US and Mexico at Rio Grande Nearly half of Mexico s territory is ceded to US All of Calfornia New Mexico Arizona Nevada Utah part of Colorado Wyoming 1853 Gadsen purcchase bits of land in Southern Arizona New Mexico 1848 Mexican American War Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Acknowledged annexation of Texas to US and ceded California Arizona New Mexico for 15 million part of treaty granted US citizenship and guaranteed that Mexicans would be able to keep language culture Catholic religion not kept poor Mexicans educated in Englishonly schools where they couldn t understand speak wealthier Mexicans sent children to Mexico for education Hispanos descendants of those Mexican nationals perhaps 850000 Many repudiate label Chicano or MexicanAmerican In New Mexico and often elsewhere call selves quotSpanishquot if they are speaking to you in English In general Mexicans sparsely settled northern Mexico so in most places they were quickly outnumbered by Anglos in the 19th century Texas became overwhelmingly Anglo who also imported slaves Mexicans were driven south near the Mexican border Here Mexicans retained land in several counties and were a significant part of the labor force in all of south Texas San Antonio was only Texas city with large Mexican population Different politics social life depending on who owned the land Landowners often thought of selves as quotCastillianquot and married Anglos In farm areas where Mexicans were unskilled agricultural labor a rigid system of segregation was created using thesame principlesand laws as applied to blacks all over the south explicit racist ideas of pollution and uncleanliness In New Mexico Mexicans retained land in the north and the northern part of the state was majority Mexican and could swing political clout Arizona was left largely unsettled by Euro Americans until late 19th century Large populations of Native Americans were left relatively alone in Arizona and New Mexico especially the Navajo basically because the land in this area was useless for farming Also because the Native Americans in this area especially Apaches conducted unremitting violent resistance to either Spanish or English speaking settlers e g 1864 census Arizona had 4187 quotresidentsquot mostly Mexican and 30000 quotindigenous peoplesquot New Mexico and Arizona opened to quothomesteadingquot in 1880s and 1890s Mexican communities had held open land in common could not be sold Anglos treated any land that didn39t have a fence around it as available for squatting and would fence it Lengthy lawsuits in Anglo courts drained Mexicans courts often demanded proofs of title that didn39t exist or dragged feet on settlements California gold rush of 1848 had already had significant Anglo settlement and Anglos harassment intimidation of Mexicans with gold rush massive in ux of Anglos into northern California immediate dominance by Anglos Southern California remained arid unproductive and Los Angeles remained majority Mexican through the 19th century In 1860 Califomios ie Chicanos in California owned all parcels of land valued at more than 10000 by 1870s owned only a quarter of the land Same practices as New Mexico Arizona Justi ed as Mexicans stole the land from Indians so it wasn39t really theirs despite title that s why the Anglos should take it Mexicans retained some land holdings and Mexican landowners often supported revolt against Mexico in belief they would do better among Americans mostly they didn39t In all these areas in late 19th century some Mexicans turned to social banditry as last resort Bandidos Vigilante groups to protect rights Response was retaliation mobs lynchings Chicanos became quotoutsiders in their own homelandquot II Migration Total official immigration has been 2 million but there have been many illegal immigrants 1 Fairly continuos throughout 20th century 2 no quotas on Mexican immigration until 1965 3 Mexico is close Mexican migrants can and do go home often to visit 4 Fact of illegal immigration has led Anglos to attach an image of illegality to all Chicanos Throughout the late 19th century from the point of view of capital there was a labor shortage Too few people willing to work as cheap agricultural and industrial labor This is why there was strong official encouragement of European immigration throughout the 19th century and why western employers often actively recruited Mexican and Asian workers Two kinds of migrants sojoumers temporary workers who plan to go home and settlers who plan to stay forever Sojourners are most often men often married who leave their families behind Settlers more often come as whole families although often the man came first and planned to send for the family when he had enough money In popular mythology Europeans were viewed as settlers although in fact many worked a while and went back to Europe Mexicans and Asians were viewed by whites solely as sojoumers as people who would come work when they were needed never receive citizenship rights and then go back home when they were no longer needed Spanish colonialism had depopulated Mexico and there was little population pressure until late 19th century when population began to approach precolonial level Thus there was little quotpushquot from Mexico Mexican migration was small until 1880s after Chinese exclusion act began to create a quotpullquot for cheap labor It was easy for Mexicans to migrate to the US to work easy for them to go home to visit families and to move back and forth 1876 Portofro Diaz coup reactionary 191022 Mexican Revolution Period of industrialization Political turmoil in Mexico in late 19th century and generally weak economy meant jobs in US could pay better be a major supplement to family income Also a haven for political dissidents who used US as staging area Collapse of peso in late 1970s was another period of economic devestation in Mexico driving workers north US agribusiness wanted to be able to import seasonal agricultural labor and send them home when not needed always strong pressures to bring Mexicans into US combined with hostile reactions send them home 1910s WWI labor needed esp after 1917 literacy requreiment slows European immigartion Mexicans encouraged to migrate 1921 labor surplus develops quotbrown perilquot scapegoating violence Labor struggles but hard to form enduring unions Mutualistas mutual benefit associations Mexican orientation supported by Mexican consul Many remain Mexican nationalists in orientation do not want to become US citizens even to get welfare Mexicans never put on immigration quotas so the only remaining available source of migrant labor after 1924 restrictions Migrant agricultural labor Also mining camps unskilled wage labor in cities San Antonio Los Angeles Last housed usually in temporary shelters built where no one else was living barrio In San Antonio segregation was strictly maintained as part of Jim Crow In Los Angeles Mexicans were largely ignored by whites didn39t face same racial hostility educated middle class Mexicans moved out of barrio and were accepted as white In places where Mexicans hold land and are a large population relative to Anglos they hold their own better there is less racial prejudice more intermarriage more romantic view of Spanish culture quotMexican countiesquot in Texas Southern California New Mexico 1930s and depression there was an explicit federal campaign to quotencouragequot Mexicans to go back to Mexico Rather like the quotundocumented workersquot or quotillegal aliensquot scare of today Officially constitutional only illegal aliens deported Legal migrants and migrants whose children were US citizens were not deportable But legal migrants39 papers were often messy because the US had not cared about careful border control prior to 1930 and many agents just focused on getting people to leave Many deportations including deportations of children born in US who were legally US citizens and some deportations of adult citizens No interest in how long people had been in the US or what they were doing Idea was Mexicans were taking quotAmericansquot jobs and needing help from America39s strained social welfare system Many went voluntarily after harrassment others were put on buses and shipped out About 500000 deported majority were Americans who were unable to prove their citizenship Two largest deporters were Texas and California but third was Illinois and Indiana People pulled in for jobs when needed sent back when not One industrialist actually said Mexican laborer would be back whenever we need him Everywhere all MexicanAmericans face the problem that they are assumed by Anglos and border patrol to be Mexicans not Americans unless they can prove otherwise How many people sitting here are carrying documents to prove they are US citizens Constant harrassment 1930s depression FDR Labor law Social Security Both exempt agricultrual and private household labor ie don t cover blacks and Mexicans Many lose land move to cities barrios This is the same period as the Mexican American generation among educated People born in US are US citizens People grow up deciding that to be Americans they have to speak English identify only with US and turn back on Mexico Do not teach their children Spanish so a generation of Mexican American kids grows up speaking English only Becky Dominguez Demand full citizenship rights as Americans League of United Latin American Citizens LULAC In southwest significant populations of Mexicanculture people live side by side with Anglo culture people who make no attempt to learn their language or culture WWIIBraceros 1942 war workers needed farm workers 80000 in first year continued until 1964 designed to recruit labaor from Mexican poverty aareas to US farms jointly supervised by US and Mexico minimum standards often made braceros better off than Chicanos Temporary workers go back off season leave families behind World War II Mexico refuses to cooperate with US in war unless it treats MexAms better Public opinion Job opportunities in war industries shifts occupational patterns of Mexicans Zoot Suit riots in 1943 sailors amp soldiers vs chicanos IV Overview of recent history B 1950s 1950s quotoperation wetbackquot is a Euroamerican labor attack on foreign workers especially Mexican Americans off and on since then rights ignored even the legal rights of illegal aliens less than 2 have formal proceedings before expulsion Returning GIs G1 Forum Several MexAM congressmen elected Formation of MAPA Mexican American Political Association in California Community Service Organization General rejection of street politics emphasis on assimilation But also citizenship equalityl C 1950s 1960s urban renewal bulldozes MexAm neighborhoods especially in LA to build freeways displaces Mexicans from Chavez Ravine to build Dodger Stadium this is also happening to blacks whole program of dealing with urban poverty and quotslumsquot by knocking down poor people s houses and replacing them with commercial centers or luxury apartments with the occasional congested public housing project creates additional crowding forces people to move elsewhere blockbusting MexAm pop grows in San Antonio Los Angeles Chicago Houston D late 1960s wake of civil rights movement militant Chicano movement Use of term Chicano as political Nationalist rhetoric sentiment La Raza Unida Chicano Studies E 1970s80s quotNew Hispanicsquot return to moderate or rightwing leaders middle class progress Continued support for undocumented workers by all segments otherwise declien of nationalism focus on individual advancement Among poor development of community organizations 1970 Supreme court rules that legal segregation of Chicanos is unconstittuional not until 1975 was de jure plan in Corpus Christi overturned F 1970S another recessionary period Mexican economy collapses in late 1970s attack on Mexican hordes INS propaganda deportations harassment parents of children who are citizens not protected kids can go to Mexico and come back when adults or be wards of the state some say quotwelfare reservationquot while others say undocumented workers pay taxes and social security but get few benefits because not citizens Struggle for Educational Equality in Texas quotHeedquot SM Ch 2 on 1920s30s Much on movement toward Englishonly instruction also on explicit segregation of schools Laws against teaching Spanish Not just teaching in Spanish but against Spanish as Second language SM Ch 3 opens with bad situation a case of two of boycotts to protest LULAC US citizen middle class prointegration exlusive membership citizen over 18 male proEnglish demand citizenship rights educational integration battles over segregation improvements SM Ch4 WWII Need for Latin American cooperation in war esp Mexican workers Mexico refuses to send workers to states that discriminate against them esp Texas Lots of scurrying to try to make Mexico believe in nondiscrim which they don39t then trying to x problems For rst time using Spanish to teach English becomes acceptable among dominant educators directly resulting from pressures of war Next pressure to teach Spanish to Anglos Concerns that hispanic children taught in English don t speak Spanish well either In general Texas idea of dealing with the language problem is to keep kids two years each in 1st and 2nd grades and then send them to 3rd grade two years too old Most don t nish school SM Ch5 Returning soldiers decorated used to equality conscious of self as Americans face renewed discrim at home cf blacks and Asians American GI FOrum concern for families of veterans antidiscrim 1946 story of boycott of segregated school ght against segregation California lawsuit aagainst seg won in 1946 p 119 lots of details about conditions and issues and debates about implementation enforcement SM Ch6 LULAC Mex Ams promote teaching English to preschoolers school district measures to encourage English even to prohibit Spanish on schoolgrounds Supported by Mex Ams in this period Most Mex Am kids speak Spanish only Big program teaching incoming rst graders has measureable success But con icts over duplication with Head Start arguments about philosophy participation dwindles critique is if 8 weeks can make kids succeed at 1st grade where they were failing there must be something wrong with 1st grade SM Ch 7 1960s war on poverty ignores MA restlessness anger late 60s shift to more militant tactics borrowed from black movement deseg focuses on blacldwhite and ignores MA MALDEF lawsuits etc ISSUE old suits used quotother whitequot strategy didn t challenge BW seg but said they were white To use antiseg law in their favor had to get themselves de ned as a racial group 1973 Supreme Court rules MexAms are a racial group Shift in strategy to bilingual bicultural education problem of mainstreaming spanishspeaking kids into english speaking schools courts rule bied is seg By late 1970s deseg slows down by 1980 more seg than in 1970 Ch8 push for bied victories then losses discussion of battles reactions renewed debates about bied as promoting division in society LA RAZA UNIDA Garcia De nitely lecture material Tends to be too rambling to make a punchy reading although might be possible to string together excerpts Late 1960s early 1970s Compean s intro has several critiques 1 ignores women and grassroots 2 No good analytic treatment of dispute about whether party should have been regional instead of state State path was chosen 3 Ruralurban split is stressed by Garcia little prior discussionresearch on this so controversial Also will be disagreement about his claim that some urban chapters were socialist I39d be shocked if none were in this period But says the important lesson is the story of how RUP permanently changed AngloChicano relations Preface El Partido de la Raza Unida the party of the united people But raza can also mean race and connotes the Chicano people A visionary rising up led by the young Changed participation in electoral process also cultural renaissance re newed courage Factors causing 1 heightened activism much growing from Chavez39s farmworker movement land con icts in New Mexico militant nationalism in Colorado shortlived electoral victories in Texas within context of social rebellion arising from black power antiwar war on poverty 2 people stopped viewing American political system existing MexAm leaders as legitimate 3 new group of core activists Data collection is interviews archives etc Prelude Through mid1960s strict segregation between Anglos and Mexican Americans Anglo economic and political power Tried to stay out of the way of Anglos but in con icts usually lost Police brutality History of legal struggle over schools predating civil rights movement see San Miguel Mostly lost When not segregated second class in schools not choose homecoming queen issue of Crystal City walkout or valedictorian cheerleaders or class officers As schools integrated and Anglos became minorities shifted from elections to school committees as selection method Two approaches by Anglos to Mexicans in schools 1 sensitive approach Americanize punish Spanish punish cultural difference Blame parents for manana oriented attitdues unwilingness to defer gratitif1cation lack of interest in education unwillingness to teach children English 2 neglect uncertified unmotivated teachers channel into vocational education lots of emphasis on lectures against smoking sex and violence By 1960 only 13 of Mex Ams graduated from high school 6 to college note 50 of high school grads went to college Low jobs lower pay even than other nonwhites 16 were migrant workers follow crop hard to educate children In cities despite poverty and despite federal poverty programs many cities chose not to apply for federal money because they didn39t want the bother or the tax burden Politics Many of Mexican ancestry not citizens MexAm majorities in some areas in 19th century were lost around 1900 esp Tucson with only a few elite families participating in coalitions with Anglos New Mexico 40 and had political power but government was blend of Anglo conservatism and Mexican American elitism poorer Mexicans had no voice California had extensive gerrymandering of legislative and county districts to dilute voting strength plus lack of citizenship adding Texas very repressive Two kinds of Anglo politicians l Anglo ranchers who had just taken over loand from Mexican patrons and left the system in place acted as patron over peones quotThe submissive workers could not quit their jobs or own property and they needed their master s permission to marry to leave the ranch or to summon a doctor or some other outsider The patron also served as the local judge On election day he herded them to the voting booth citizens or noncitizens and had them vote for him or for those in association with him Since Mexican Americans were the overwhelming majority in areas sucha s South Texas these politicians wereguaranteeed their stay in office Occasionally the political bosses would include a Mexican American or two ontheir slates particularly if the rest of the Anglo ranchers were not happy over the power sharing The tradeoff was a number of votes for a benevolent feudalismquot 67 Progressive reform politics was even worse Goal was transferring power from old bosses quotto new capitalist elites who claimed an interest in cleaning up the political spoils ssytem and reducing govemmetn costs and waste More often than not thought they sought to curb the voting power of the lower immigrantethnic classes who had formed the base of the political machiens they were seeking to replacequot In this process MexAms lost almost all their electoral strength Eliminated bosses but did nothing to help economic or social conditions for Mex Ams voter eligibility requirements no spanish in voting places intimidation of voters enacted segregation laws this is exactly the same time and doubtless the same process as depriving blacks of votes By 1960s a few mex am officeholders left most dependent on Anglos and others themselves elite bosses who ran things the old way After 1930s development of mexican american ideology of assimilationism and equality as opposed to referring to Mexico then in 1950s strong integrationist movements getting directly involved in politics participated in JFK s campaign Viva Kennedy clubs Mexican American Political Association MAPA in California and Political Association of SpanishSpeaking Organizations PASSO in Texas endorsed candidates Militants Initiated movement but lost momentum and in uence as movement acclerated l professionals supporting liberal remedies but moved away from barrios own kids couldn39t speak Spanish 2 coalesced with Anglo liberals and reduced nationalism at public level despite personal pride in culture 3 sensitive to red baiting and refrained from rioting and protest preoccupation with dignifity and legitimacy Crystal City 1963 PASSO Teamsters sponsored all mex am slate that swept city council elections liberals supported but others in PASSO worried about assoc with teamsters and quotreverse discrimquot of excluding Anglos The Crystal people said they had tried to get Anglos and educated Latins on the slate but none would run After quotdisastrous and divisive two yearsquot defeated in 1965 Late 1960s Chicano Movement avowedly nationist no interest in Anglo legitimacy spoke Spanish as well as English young educated confrontation politics of civil rights In uenced by black militants like H Rap Brown Stokely Carmichael Malcolm X Referred to UFW Heroes were Cesar Chavez United Farm Workers Movement Reies Lopez Tij erina leader of movement to win back land grants in New Mexico Alianza de Pueblos Libres had violent confrontations with authorities and was target of largest federal manhunt in country Rodolfo Gonzales charismatic urban politco from Denver who tried to organized streetgang members into revolutionary vanguard rey nationalistic speeches 1 Mexican American Youth Organization MAYO starts militant strategy of school boycotts over educational issues Great material on issues ban on Spanish on school grounds college prep classes San Antonio 1967 College students St Mary s a Catholic liberal arts college Jose Angel Gutierrez law school drop out while in college had been registering voters and writing propoganda in Crystal City in 1963 Juan Patlan G39s high school and college friend Williw Velasquez student and community activist Ignacio quotNachoquot Perez nonstudent raising money for UFW Three weeks later met Mario Compean quotformer migrant farm worker in his late twenties who had grown up in the tough barrios of San Antonio s west sdie and was then a freshman political science studentquot Had attended predominantly mex am high school learned to distrust AAnglos and have nationalistic ideas met G at a poli sci picnic joined group All meet regularly at local bar rst to talk politics then political study black power and news accounts of Chicano militants Lopez Tijerina and Gonzales Very critical of traditional Mex Am politicians which they saw as accomodationist Saw SDS and SNCC as models Visited Carmichael King Tijerina Formed an organization of organizers recruited a second tier many high school dropouts Political education emphasis on confrontational language and cultural pride Linked up with UFW organizing in Texas some militant media events such as picketing a July 4 Alamo commemoration Got some money from other mex am orgs like LULAC and GI FOrum other fundraising by Velasquez Some members got involved in founding a VISTA Volunteers in Service to America Minority Mobilization Project in Austin recruit train 200 volunteers to work in depressed areas of S Texas through networks Compean was hired as recruiter and trainr many VISTA volunteers became MAYO volunteers a year later 30 chapters each small had 200 activistgs money for salaries and expenses Others wrote a grant and got an economic development corporation MAUC Mex Am Unity Council fund neighborhood assocs job training drug problems etc Within four years multimillion budget very successful programs Another org was TIED Texas Institute for Educational Development got grant money for health care to farm workers then health education These various orgs often employed MAYO members MAYO and VISTA vols worked to polarize communities to have Chicanos view gringos as enemy militant talk appealed to younger people but not to adults sought confrontations with Anglo authority cf Black Panthers each confrontation got publicity attracted new members Gutierrez talks about quoteliminate the gringoquot Publically blasted by Henry B Gonzalez liberal Congressman mexam from west side of San Antonio who had once almost gotten gubernatorial nomination his opposition kept many Mexican American liberals opposed to MAYO Another consequence was loss of most funding and VISTA volunteers Next MAYO took on the schools quotFew Anglo educators could seriously defend the education system in the barrio In San Antonio 98 of the teachers without degrees were concentrated in schools that served teh barrio And these poor schools like many others in the Southwest which served Mexican Americans received much less money three hudnred dollars less in San Antonioper pupil than the predominantly Anglo schoolsquot 29 MAYO chooose boycotts as strategy confrontational and school funds based on attendance so absenteeism cost the school money MAYO organized high school students helped them and let the students stand in the spotlight First school boycott was in a stable WC mexam area 97 mexam many mexam teachers thought to be best school in mexam area with low crime few problems But high dropout rate no college prep courses punished for speaking Spanish and students generally respected by community because stable WC Boycott had three demands college prep courses culturally relevant courses no punishment for speaking Spanish on campus Public meeting pitting student protesters against school officials shows the protesters to be articulate and sensible and the school officials to be illprepared Embarrassed they capitulate More boycotts follow some organized by MAYO others spontaneous although in uenced by example Edgewood High and Jr High quotwalked out of their classrooms complaining that the state had abandoned them to classrooms wtihout window screens water fountains without water teachers without certi cation and a host of other problems The Edgewood boycott proved successful when the media began to investigate the charges and found that most of them were true The Edgewood Independent School District ranked as one of the poorest in the nation and it became an example of the disregard that officials had for the Mexican American Studentsquot 32 Another boycott in Rio Grande Value when 140 students left after two had been expelled for failing to cut their hair Spontaneous following example MAYO helped students write demands for better facilities asnd right to speak Spanish Protests led to federal judge ruling that no spanish rule was unconstitutional Other boycotts had similar demands no punishment for speaking spanish establish bilingual bicultural programs fire racist teachers celebrate Mexican holidays college prep courses Would make demands administrators would resist then walkout Bilingual education passed as federal law late 1967 funds 1968 programs begin 1969 Shifts school politics parents get involved in schools but not MAYO Many women in MAYO but always young from Ch 2 1969 Compean elected chairrman of MAYO more specific organizing goals 2 Rural Texas Crystal City Gutierrez from Crystal Father was a doctor who served with Pacho Villa during the Mexican Revolution of 1910 served as mayor of Torreon before being expelled from Mexico duing political upheavals Cmae to Rio Grande Valley 1929 fervent Mexican nationalist who never became US citizen and asked to be buried in Mexico Son inherited nationalist fervor As long as father lived family was Ok although not wealthy But when he died at age 74 when Jose Angel was 12 family became poor mother had to do menial work life was harsh Crystal a rural slum People worked for very low wages at cannery and surrounding ranches or migrant work during harvest season quotmore than half the homes had no toilets and onethird had no plumbing One section of town didn ot even receive waterquot reporter for Washington Post said 39The Chicano neighborhoods are a collection of wooden shacks and unpaved muddy streets The Anglo neighborhoods have concrete sidewalks and roadways that weave past modest middle class homes and high priced ranch style structuresquot Flurry of euphoria 19635 died back down Retaliation against Los Cinco and their supporters Gutierrez came home in 1969 After 6 months active military service in reserves refused return to his job in Mex Am Legal Defense and Education Fund due to pressure from Congressman Gonzalez bought out contract when threatened to sue Few job prospects in San Antonio due to politics so came home to live rent free for a while 1969 Gutierrez proposed third party strategy to MAYO Compean enthusiastic supporter of idea he and two others ran for nonpartisan city council in San Antonio under banner of Committee for Barrio Betterment challenging the Good Government League Compean talked about idea of La Raza Unida in his campaign literature alternatives to Rep and Dem lost but came close and became advocate for third party Most other activists thought third party bad idea Local elections in Texas non partisan so wanted to concetrate on winnning existing instituttions and not worry about party Picked areas with large mex am concentrations physically controlled by Anglos who could easily be called racist previous MAYO activities Picked Winter Garden Area in South Texas which includes Crystal City Zavala county Of the 7 counties focused on 3 Zavala Dimmit where Patlan was from and La Salle where strong MAYO chapter Main reason was that Gutierrez was there in area Partly following a MAYO rule that each organizer should return to home area to organrze 1969 con ict in school over baseball sweethearts and cheerleading squad felt Anglo minority had too big a share named by administration want to elect when refused go to school superintendent adding demands that teachers stop expounding their politics to students and that there be bilingual bicultural education response is quota of three anglo and three mexam cheerleaders and deal with other issues with quotas or seeing what other schools are doing near end of school year and adults encouraged to let it ride because seniors would unk and school could wait out a walkout Later a different school boycott failed because held too late in year school just expelled students and worked with draft board to get oldest students drafted and sent to Vietnam In June school board said superintendent was pandering to hot heads and overturned even those concessions Gutierrez remembers old con icts about elections of prom monitors and asking actors to pick most beautiful boy and girl in school administration suppressing results and supporting Anglos Over summer Gutierrez builds contacts allies Con ict within MAYO about style Gutierrez chooses low key style to fit rural conditions Fall 1969 homecoming queen and court candidates have to have parent who graduated from the high school given dropout rates only 5 mexams qualify vs 26 anglo applicants Gutierrez and his wife Luz worked with students to organize Women very involved leaders divide when male leaders working with men and students and female leaders working with students39 mothers Attend school board to protest Women students want to go Men don39t Gutierrez has a few beers with them and gets them riled up and then when they are riled and intoxicated takes them to board meeting Women and students have occupied the back so men have to sit up front Not enough chairs so men had to stand around board table quotThe board found itself surrounded by roughtlooking men with a strong smell of alcohol on their breath who became loud and boisterousquot Overwhelmed and intimidated the board says the exstudents association39s ceremony cannot be at school and takes everything else under advisement Both Chicanos and Anglos were angry at the board Board ends up going with Anglos and rejecting all demands Increased polarization Middleclass mex ams had supported Anglos in 1965 and expected some return concessions instead despised by lower class mexams and ignored by anglos Walkout Gutierrez and Luz spend night after board decision walking getting 100 students to walk out those least intimidated and supported by parents by day 2 250 were out by day 3 416 of 673 are home Mass meetings student leaders go to DC to meet Texas Senator Ralph Yardborough Edward Kennedy and George McGovern Pressures on school board to negotiate Teachers from around state offer to teach liberation classes to boycotters to keep them current with studies To defuse radicalism charges tone down language raise ag and recite pledge of allegiance On Jan 6 1970 the students won although board tried to paint it as a compromise After victory Gutierrez organizes selective boycott of stores owned by Anglos who had threatened retailiation against students and parents plus boycott of store owned by mex am school board member who had not supported the walkout Headed off retaliation with aggression Electoral organizing and party strategy in small rurual areas predominantly Chicano Very good material on prerevolt conditions problems of economic dependency and Anglo retaliation for those who held office issues of voting strength and problem of thrid party vs Democratic party strategies 3 La Raza Unida Becomes a Party From newsletter The Democratic Party is the party of the poor If you want to stay poor continue voting Democratic El partido Democrata es el partido de los pobres Si quieres seguir siendo pobre sigue votando Democrata Attempts to broaden strategy form multistate party Too much detail on the personalities and con icts Hard to really sort out the interplay of the grassroots tendencies with the militant actors from various late60s factions Good material on problems of electoral strategies in urban areas Good material on problems of studentdominated chapters and studentmass tensions Jan 1970 Zavala County Raza Unida Party files with Luz as chair Also Dimmit LaSalle and Hidalgo in the Rio Grande Valley Gutierrez runs for school board with two others sets up slate for city elections difficult to get mex ams to run for fear of retaliation one is disqualified for not owning property and barer gets back on ballot after sacri cing absentees In counter anglo org Citizens Association Serving All Americans CASAA chooses safe middle class mex am candidates res the superintendent and principals AngloMexam coalition slogan quotresponsible people for responsible jobsquot quote radical speeches by Gutierrez warn that jobs will be lost if RUP wins quotIn the end the CASAA strategy served no purpose other htan to heighten tensions and to cement the distrust that Mexican Americans had long felt toward the Anglos Though not all Anglos were racist nor did they all agree with the tintimidation tactics most went along with the CASAA stratgegy They seemed to fear a bakclash fromt he same people they had employed or associated with for many years Their own actions reaffirmed that Mexican Americans and Anglos had lived side by side for years but had never learned to live togetherquot Gutierrez et al win 55 of school vote 60 of city vote Then 2 mexam incumbents switched sides party due to boycott against mexams who didn t support school boycott School changed rapidly Many Anglo teachers left proportion MexAm went up to 40 Great emphasis on Chicano studies Political militance RUP tries to run in fall partisan elections Many lawsuits con icting legal opinions about getting on ballot Essentially enormous numbers of hoops to jump through are ruled legal Gutierrez calls for a writein campaign to try to keep momentum despite illiteracy of much of their constituency On election day further battles In one town election official started giving illegal literacy tests to everyone who wanted to vote many failed and others scared away RUP voters got him to stop by threatening to call state officials Then harrassed campaigners within sight of polls even arresting a woman who had a table well away from the 100foot radius where electioneering was prohibited Dimmit county printed sample ballot with candidates in wrong order to confuse illiterate voters about where to write Also did not put up required poll booth partitions and watched people vote In Crystal City election officials changed a precinct number just before the election and then prevented RUP poll watchers from entering because their credentials had the wrong number Watched people vote searched Mex Ams to make sure they were not carrying papers with names on them Many threats that people would be taken off welfare Biggest fraud in counting writeins Law allowed use of judgement but election officials counted votes for Isaac Juarez Isaac Jua39res and Isac Juarez as three people and took away 109 votes for Ramon de la Fuente because people left the Jr off his name At first Gutierrez talks about statewide campaigns but by fall of 1971 was talking about staying at county level Wrote a masters thesis in which he said it would take 30 years before conditions would really change But RUP members were elated by Crystal City vicotry and wanted to expand Compean favored statewide party hope of many Crystal Cities wins 2115 1972 trying to find candidates try to persuade mainstream MexAm leaders to run but they refuse MAYO cadre refuses Finally from within membership found Ramsey Mu iz an active local member Party leaders had never met nor talked to him Didn t expect to win so not so concerned about candidate Great victory that appealed to many mexams everywhere Other victories in other towns in the area But not all Congressman Gonzalez warns that ethnic organizing is a game that can be played by more than one party referring to George Wallace s campaign adding that Wallace could build on 70 of the state s population vs 15 for RUP Former MAYO member Willie Velasquez also defects believes in pluralism not empowerment believes ethnic movements and third parties cannot survive Con ict with Compean opposed to militance 4 Ramsey Mu iz and teh 1972 campaign Texas gubernatorial race politics People thought Mexican Americans were 33 when actually they were 15 of electorate Didn t have realistic sense of political possibilities Mu iz was young anglolooking lawyer middle class respectability friends with Gutierrez supporetd by him Stresses that his credentials are better than those of other candidates Lt Gov candidate Alma Canales radical poorly dressed less articulate quotmarried to a MAYO activistquot Supports MAYO and RUP philosophy Supported by Compean signals role of women Mu iz turns out to be effective candidate quotIn a rhetroicconscious community he not only said many of the things people had been wanting to hear for a long time but said them in Spanish and in a way that assured people he would not recant them even under Anglo pressure Young Chicanos students and dorpouts liked his direct style his militan y and some of his salty language The older Mexican Americans liked him because he carried good credentialsd ressed nicely and could be the perfect gentleman Whereever he went Mu iz picked up signatures 80 In Dem Primary Briscoe a conservative narrowly defeats liberal Sissy Farenthold Mu iz past supporter of F appeals to lib dems to support RUP Campaign difficult To sign petitions have to forgo Dem primary Many uneasy about doing this more support from nonvoters but these are harder since they have to register before they can sign Need 30000 signatures and way behind Not enough volunteers A month before deadline sudden effort in San Antonio Sec of State Bob Bullock hints he will not scrutinize signatures Unknown to most RUP members some San Antonio Rup members hold petition signing parties signing false names and addresses more than 70 of San Antonio signatures false Although Farenthold refuses to endorse Mu iz he woos her voters Gains support because Briscoe supports Wallace for Pres gets black support espeically after endorsement by Ralph Abernathy Dem liberal leaders won t endorse but some send signals of support Others are angry view RUP as spoiler who pulled votes from liberals in Dem primary quotthey can t win but they are wrecking usquot a common battle RUP won t endorse McGovern angering liberal dems MexAm Dem politicians like Mu iz style but will not hurt own political futures expect him to become Dem in a few years RUP s official party stance is neutrality toward other parties many delegates would favor McGovern but he angers them on several issues rumor that RUP has asked McGovern campaign for 200000 contrib in exchange for endorsement denied and another that CREEP had given 8000 McGovern charges that Reps are supported RUP Gutierrez met with Reps as part of balance of power strategy got Rep support for his grant proposal he was actually offered quotbriefcase full of moneyquot for his neutrality or rejection of DP but turned it down Garcia says because would be caught and not enough to help La Raza didn t mind negotiating with enemy but only if it benefitted party But did get support for his grant proposals Memos on file from Rep Party and CREEP show them wanting to keep RUP drawing MexAm votes from DP in case the election gets close 6 The Six Percent Victory In the end too little money to run a campaign Mu iz gets 628 ofvote Dem 478 and Rep 4508 But a swing vote Texas is gerrymandered to favor rural areas over urban Briscoe lost most cities but won San Antonio and El Paso with large Mex Am populations won key South Texas counties In these counties bosses deliver 100 of Mex Am vote Dominate but befriend when other Anglos won39t AllAnglo rural counties also delivered the Dem vote Finally the levers and X s People were used to pulling party lever Didn t realize this would prevent them from voting for the few RUP voters on the ballot McGovern supporters passed out lea ets urging vote for McGovern on one side and RUp on other but without instructions so some people pulled lever next to McGovem s names and locked in whole Dem slate Not a balance of power but a tangible third force 5 Unidos Ganaremos The Party Goes National By 1972 Rodolfo quotCorkyquot Gonzales is new militant leader surpassing softspoken Chavez and imprisioned Tij erina Toughened by barrio streets of Denver and work in fields Starts as Democrat Viva Kennedy fired from War on Poverty accused of discriminating against whites and blacks abandons DP plunges into study of Chicano culture forms Chicano selfhelp group page 923 his poem Yo Soy Joaquin becomes epic of Chicano movement 1969 convenes Chicano Youth Liberation Conference strong rhetoric looks Chicano Reps from all major Mex Am activist groups Not a minority group but a people with distinct name language history homeland The derogatory Chicano is taken up as new identity comes from resistance of the pachucos zootsuiters of the 1940s creation of new language Southwest is homeland Aztlan where Aztecs originated before they moved south to invade Mexico quotAztlan became a battle cry a legitimizing force for a people discrimianted against on the Anglo side of the border and resented and ridiculed by Mexicansquot page 95 quotes language of bronze people mestizo nation El Plan calls for separate nation Gonzales calls for separate party At 1970 convention SWP attends later divisive and also RUP of Texas Gonzales announces formation of RUP of Colorado nominated candidates did not try to attract liberals or win elections just tried to speak to vanguard of Chicano movement Attacks war in Vietnam No money no org no political tact no voter registration effort no large Chicano population tiny vote proprotions Chicano Moratorium antiwar protest in LA police attack demonstrators riot injures 40 people Ruben Salazar ellrespected LA Times reporter killed by policeman s projectile fired into lounge where he was relaxing after finishing his shift 1970 Nov OaklandBerkeley had already been visited by Gutierrez Within radical student movement context used language of nationalism but also langauge of third world working class stuggle public ownership political prisoners Gutierrez visits and speaks against such rhetoric In LA Cal State LA Riverside San Bemardino meetings were held Bert Corona instructor at CSLA is in uential History of political involvement esp in MAPA union involvement moves on doesn39t play strong leadership role Calif chapters divided into many ideologies approaches Too much diversity for unity can t even form a state org Debating Gutierrez vs Gonzales Difference partly between experience in Chicanomajority areas vs minority where political power impossible plus negative experience with system 1972 continuing con icts among state groups about who quotownsquot La Raza whether to have national party whether to be exclusive or inclusive Gonzales Tij erina ghting for control treating Gutierrez as junior assistant until he gets mad and says he ll run Ends up winning Gutierrez has called for balance of power strategy negotiating with either Dems or Reps for concessions from a position of power seeking to be a national balance of power and win local elections Shift votes around Demand concessions Most delegates seek more militant strategy Despite division among leaders euphoria among activists Very widespread attendance from everywhere women about half manh older Ricardo Falcon killed by gas station attendant he and local town people refused use of phones to call ambulance Party39s first martyr Gonzales calls for avoiding both parties McGovern is as bad as Nixon Instead of talking about balance of power gives speech inspiring unity Delegates call for speech from Mu iz but he doesn39t due to pressure from Gutierrez and Gonzales Out of place NonTexas delegates not interested in campaign just want to be militant radical nationalist Mu iz out of place spends most time in hotel room rambunctious convention distracts from campaign Tij erina mellowed still pursuing land grants but often called reformist because of focus on old families Frustrated with Reps and Dems but worked with MexAms who are Rep and Dem Raises well the issues of nationalism as a politics for a minority Need to form coalitions Points to brokering as a strategy playing both sides being a swing 7 Unidos Venceremos The National party Falters Tijerina calls Albuquerque conference on land control Believes in broad coalition including middle class quotIndo Hispanosquot RUP activists attended hostile to goals of convention tried to make RUP the official voice of the convention Big fight Tij erina and followers walk leaving RUP in control quotIn a span of two months Gonzales s sympathizers had 39unwelcomed Cesar Chavez to the national convention and had driven Tijerina out of the party In November they congregated again to do the same to Gutierrez at the meeting of the Congreso de Aztlan in Albuquerquequot 19735 major feuds continues until 1979 as empty shell Gonzales forces calling for militance radicalism third world Gutierrez fighting back procedurally to control delegates says should concentrate on barrio New Mexico 3 regions southern MexAms werre recent arrivals passive politically Central area mixed more middle class not third party North had few Anglos had generationsold MexAm families Tijerina s alliance strongest in north But north people always registered to vote and had rigid party preferences History of electing many MexAms to local and state offices diminished attraction of allChicano party History of third parties 1890 El Partido del Pueblo Unido elected most candidates in San Miguel County Smaller efforts in 1968 1970 RUP ran candidates in San Miguel county and East Las Vegas never running against a Chicano got about 25 Other elections threeway races between RUP slates moderate Chicanos and Anglos some Anglos win due to split Chicanos mostly kept voting Dem California by 1974 party was not an electoral threat except in a few rural Southern Calif communities couldn39t get on state ballot still split org no state org chapters still divided by ideology had little tolerance for each other Some chaptesr MMarxist saw elections as reformist Most members students or university employees Students had time many had working class origins But lacked experience with system they were trying to change lacked maturity in completing assignments and dealing with people in barrio and easily discouraged dependable only while in school Often from out of town didn t understand the people they were trying to persuade 8 Party Consolidates in Rural Texas RUP had more strength in rural areas hard to organize and win in cities Small towns predominantly MexAm small enough to canvass personally loudspeaker truck as good as radio issues simpler family networks could be used Also RUP mostly from rural areas recruited in S Texas colleges model use nationalism as theme polarize town discredit vendidos register voters get out vote win some elections find local govt in disarry budget of 113 in one case hard but learned how to write proposals to get federal money RUP elected officials often lost jobs ended up having to leave Texas to find work The RUP forces always different from the middle class MexAms who have history of coalitions with whites Some cases stay separate other cases unite RUP only tries to organize MexAms a lot of action by 1973 9 People together The 1974 campaign Mu iz announces using rhetoric of uniting all races translating Raza unida as quotpeople together Soudns about like Sissy Farenthold just announced for Dem nomination Many like Compean did not like new translation campaign director Carlos Rene Guerra MAYO militant but espouses cultural pluralism which politically means coalitions with white liberals and trade unionists By 1960s this strategy had been largely discarded by activists Mu iz from MexAm cities thought enough browns to elect Some claimed MexAms 33 of electorate but this was never so Spanishsumame was 19 and actual voters was 15 New laws made party have to get 20 to get funding for future elections vs 2 in past dispute over primaries vs conventions party can choose Compean supports primaries wins feel need to confront MexAm Dems con ict over location of convention hotel vs barrio school Mu iz wants to get rid of Compean who was having personal problems might not run for reelection Within Cristal Rup factionalized Gutierrez vs Raza Libre who claimed he was dictatorial he won but made enemies susceptible to Anglos convention in 1974 dominated by Mu iz forces urban liberalleft educated often not speaking spanish more interested in broad movements left third world Rural were more experienced electorally more nationalist although meaning varied on whether wanted to replace Anglos replace MC MexAms with barrio people or wanted separatism spanish and culture essential Compean steps out leaves party Mu iz loses big not even a factor as Briscoe wins easily Gutierrez wins county judgeship wants to change taxing tax ranches more heavily also eminent domain to get land wanted to keep migrants home placate lower classes Gutierrez starts discussions on future direction of party Mu iz and supporters just drop out disillusioned by defeat Gutierrez goes back to his argument for one region at a time In Mu iz strongholds people are defeated in Rio Grande Valley areas people are positioning to move back toward Dems by 1976 build new relations 9 The Party is Over for RUP 19759 disastrous no new victories rapid decline 1976 Mu iz arrested for drug trafficking ultimately pled guilty jailed Mexican American Democrats forms as progressive dems absorbs many RUP refugees Ruralurban division rurals viewing urbans as not Chicano no Spanish no Chicano culture quotdown with the Shah crowdquot Even in strongholds RUP forces lose sometimes by apparant fraud but don t have resources to challenge Only Gutierrez holds on 1977 returns from trip to Cuba People uneasy internal divisions within RUP his own party starts to outvote him on issues Reins of govt shift between factions Division of spoils change each time shifting of jobs political persecution of rivals lawsuits resignations hostilities media coverage condescending referring to greed and envy Becomes antiGutierrez saying he is unwilling to share power countermoves 1976 electoral defeat when opponents win school board Migrant workers had been much of his base because they didn t fear losing jobs but needed them all year With no economic base patronage jobs were important Tried to get funding for a collective farm build economic base Dem gov Briscoe attacks as socialism blocks grant when Carter wins presidency 10 Retrospect 1978 Mario Compean runs for governor for RUP not even significant vs about 200000 votes in 1972 and 1974 got only 15000 votes in 1978 Never popular with middle class or leftists Never deviated from the initial principles of MAYO National party has chair Juan Jose Pe a who writes papers to keep RUP at forefront of quotwhat was then an illusory chicano Movemen quot Problems of national and state disunity lack of direction But also external harrassment difficulty of getting on ballot and constant surveillance After demise Dem party regrouped and took back RUP activists Government started communnity organizing programs and hired ex MAYO members for organizing jobs Ethnic focus reduced pool of voters which was further reduced by internal divisions But great cultural renaissance that lasted Also benefited women organizing and electoral campaigns got women involved especially in Texas Most RUP officeholders in Cristal were women Chicanas became feminists fought for places in hierarchy Active in rural areas too without feminism Threat of party produced changes Inspired generation of MexAms to participatei n elections democratization Opened system to Mex Ams CESAR CHaVEZ Most prominant nationa MexAm leader California 1965 Filipinos in Agricultural Workers Oreganiziaing Committee AWOC strike Delano grape growers for wage parity with braceros joined by Mexicans win then same request in San Joaquin Valley growers refuse strike National Farm Workers Assoc vote to join strike Chavez emerges born 1927 chiildhood as migrant worker father a union member CC himself had been in National Farm Labor Union trained as community organizaer by Fred Ross of Community Service organization rose to director before resigning in 1962 to go to Delano to organize a union Delano chosen because high proportion of resident labor 32 Concentrated on Mexicans emphasis on nationalism NFWA founded joined by civil rights workers gets protestant support belated Ang oAm labor support By this time 80 of Chicanos lived in cities and many were union members esp UAW In the times pick up movement theme End of bracero program makes growers more dependent on workers Call for boycotts Teamsters brought in by growers to organize competing union drained reosources CC reluctantly merges AWOC and NFWA into United Farm Workers Organizing Committee UFWOC Constant battles with teamsters victories and losses back and forth Texas 196667 UFW organizing effort in Rio Grande Valley starts as independen6t unauthorized effort then merges with NFWA major strike arhces demonstrations court rules strike activities illegal Texas Rangers make mass arrests and undocumented workers from Mexico brought in to break strike Chavez pulls back Organizing and agitation spreads in midwest Creates public awareness Grape boycotting lettuce boycotts become liberalleft Democrat thing to do in late 60s early 70s Many went years without eating head lettuce People all born between 1926 and 1928 so early 40s in late 60s Cesar Chavez Jose Angel Gutierrez La Raza Texas Crystal City quotKill the gringoquot speech gets national publicity local take control of retgions where majority La Raza arises from citizen action Reies Lopez Tijerina born texas farm becomes preacher moves to New Mexico studies history concludes there has been land fraudand national forest in TRierra Amarilla belongs to Pueblo de San Joaqu de Chama 1963 forms La Alianza Federal de Mercedes Fed Alliance of Land Grants appeals to lsot dreams mmarches to state capitol 1966 occuply national forest campgrounds capture two forest rangers and try them for trespassing 1967 tried for assault 2 years in prison loses support 1968 tries a citizens arrest of the District Attorney stands trial found not guilty 1969 arrested again for occupying campground imprisoned Rodolfo quotCorkyquot Gonzales son of migrant farm worker born in Denver champion boxer in early 50s 1957 becomes first Chicano district captain for Dem Party stays active 1963 organizes Los Voluntarios against police brutality 1965 director of waron poverty fired 1966 for involvement in EEOC walkout protest against lack of Mex Am involvement 1966 founds Crusade of Justice epic poem I am Joaquin major impact represented the barrio youth punished for speaking spanish confusion of idenitity unlike rural mexican kids who spoke spanish knew they were mexican participates in protests aND MARCHESIN 1968 1969 Pamela Oliver Sociology 220 Lecture Notes Social Construction of Race Race is constructed Boundaries are not natural but created Constructions of race and politicized nature of language can be discussed together There is always political contestation over who is in a group who is out how many groups there are what their boundaries are This matters because it is about the distribution of rights and privileges Some people own land some do not Some people are rich some are poor Some are the bosses some are the workers Some have political rights some do not Those who are wealthy and powerful tend to believe that they deserve what they have and construct accounts that justify their position They develop ideologies and value systems which justify their inherent superiority and create beliefs about why those who are poor deserve to be poor Today in our society the wealthy and powerful tend to believe that their positions are the direct result of their own individual hard work or intelligence or selfdiscipline and character and they believe that those who are worse off than they are just lazy stupid or undisciplined In medieval Europe the wealthy believed that God had placed each person in his or her positions and their duty was to live the life to which they had been born without challenging God s wisdom in creating inequality They also believed that people who were not Christians were infidels who deserved to be conquered or enslaved In the 193911 century Europeans came to believe that they were naturally biologically racially superior to the people they had conquered and colonized turning the ideas of biological evolution and the survival of the fittest into the tenets of scientific rac1sm Those who are poor and weak either accept the dominant ideology that explains their lower position or develop an alternate ideology that challenges the dominant view of who is superior and who is inferior Race matters in the US then not because it would logically have to matter but because it became the basis for Europeans selfjustifications for conquering and enslaving other people and taking control of their land The other groups became race conscious in response Naming and renaming grouping and regrouping as part of a multifaceted contestation over rights rewards power and privilege in society If you accept the dominant ideology you accept the name the dominant group gives you If you reject the dominant ideology you reject its name for you and you name yourself in another way to express your counterideology Naming and renaming is by no means trivial 1 White Caucasian European American Or German Swiss Danish Russian Italian Swedish Major Protestant attacks on Catholics through 1960 Racial notions of Jewish Irish considered a race by English tied to colonization Southern Europeans vs Northern quotWhitequot is a racialist construction it is defined and has meaning with reference to quotblackquot or quotcoloredquot Aryan race Racists around 1900 were especially concerned with the quotracialquot differences among Europeans quotCaucasianquot is linked to Caucasus Mountains the presumed origin of the race It is a term from scientific racialism Caucasoid Negroid Mongloid as the three basic quottypesquot of people This classification ignores lots of smaller subgroupings In today s world sounds old fashioned gentrified way of saying quotwhitequot To say Caucasian would be to connote a sense of biological classi cations as basic while quotwhitequot can be more readily interpreted in social terms KKK uses quotwhitequot and the quotWhite Students Alliancequot sort of sounds racist Many people use Caucasian because it just sounds more educated or correct But in today s nuances you could say quotWhite Students Against Racismquot but probably not quotCaucasian Students Against Racismquot I ve started using quotEuropean Americanquot and quotEuropeanquot as a response to the shift to African American I like it because it points to origins and ts with a regionalist or geographic approach to identity construction which seem better to me than racialist constructions 2 Black Negro African American AfroAmerican Also African Nigerian Jamaican Puerto Rican Haitian Reality of mixed ancestry Reality of cultural identity Reality of white racism which overarches people s selfdefinitions NegroSpanish for black Used by Europeans in African to denote those eligible to be slaves Passing Recent meanings Things tend to go in cycles Each generation of politically active people tends to reject the word of the previous generation and use a new one with new connotations amp significations Around turn of the century references to Africans were either idea of quotback to Africaquot or pejorative belong in Africa not US Negro tied to 203911 century integrationist politics The New Negro more progressive middleclass educated respectable To use the word was partly to claim belonging in the US part of US culture as inherited from Europe People who called themselves Negroes were generally not emphasizing their links to Africa quotColoredquot the genteel word for blacks can used by blacks among themselves in a friendly way especially older southemers Acknowledges the varied racial mixture of the people in the category Black has been used all along In response to the gentility of colored black stresses its oppositeness from white among blacks in the late 1960s early 1970s it went with black nationalism black power black pride black is beautiful Currents of PanAfricanism in this period too AfroAmerican is used in 1970s to pick up this theme somewhat fades in the 1980s African American rises in the 1990s Emphasizes pride in things African African heritage Nationalist Africanist images amp separatist politics tend to predominate when whites are being resistant In South Africa there were 4 races White Indian Colored mixed white amp African dating from early colonial period BlacldAfrican Whites were on top but Indians and Coloreds had more rights amp privileges than BlacksAfricans In challenging apartheid Colored people rejected that label and started calling themselves Black 3 Hispanic hispano references Spanish Emphasizes Spanish language European heritage Spanishsumame Spanish are Hispanic Filipinos with Spanish surnames get pegged as hispanic which they are but are from Asia amp are AsianAmericans Tends to be used on East Coast preferred by Cubans Puerto Ricans Latino emphasizes origin in America preferred by Mexicans amp Central Americans the term of choice on the west coast A more geographic racialized identity tends to point to indigenous ancestry Mexican American Mexican Mexicano Chicano Plus the specific national identities Puerto Rican Guatamalan Argentinian Indio 4 Asian Oriental is the oldfashioned word means quoteastemerquot Is out of fashion and is sometimes considered insulting by young politicized Asian people but has never been used as the attack word Insult words are Jap Chink Chinese Japanese Hmong Vietnamese Indian Pakistani Filipino People mostly identify with their country of origin not with the category quotAsianquot The exception is second and third generation Americans of Asian descent who sometimes have a broader identity People get beat up on the streets regardless of where their ancestors came from Vincent Chin the adopted son of a USborn Chinese descent father and a Taiwanbom mother who was raised in Detroit was beaten and killed by European American men who called him a Jap who took their jobs The attackers got off with nes which outraged Asian Americans and precipitated the Asian American movement We use the racialized word quotAsianquot to refer to the quottypequot that includes Chinese Japanese Koreans But this physical type blurs across the category Southeast Asians Indians Paci c Islanders Arabs are all lumped into the census category None ofthese people think of themselves as being all in one quotracequot 5 Native Americans Indian is the mixed up label the Europeans gave Because they are used to it it is the label people often use for themselves On reservations people identify more with their specific groups Ojibwa Cherokee Navajo Lakota etc People have separate languages cultures histories But there is also intermarriage and intermingling especially in the cities and there is also a common sense of being the Native Americans First Americans indigenous original people American Indians or Amerinds Because everyone born in America can claim to be Native American this has been an uneasy usage and it moves to Native American Indians 6 Mixed ancestry What group do you belong to 7 Colored minority person of color All the constructions that fall out from the history of being lumped together by colonizersoppressors who defined themselves as quotwhitequot People hate being lumped together as quotnonwhitequot All they have in common is a common oppressor But in the US where whites really are the majority it is hard to gain advances one subgroup at a time You either have to argue that your group deserves to be treated as white even though all the other groups deserve what they get or you have to band together with other groups When you band together you need a label quotPerson of colorquot is the currently understood in most circles as the label for that common identity Its advantage over quotminorityquot is that it links people in the US where nonwhite people are a minority to the postcolonial nations around the world where the nonwhites are a majority Even though it is semantically the same colored person cannot be used in the same way because the language is tied to old racial systems the doors on segregated bathrooms read quotwhitequot and quotcoloredquot Colored was a racial subdivision in South African apartheid
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