Ethnic Movements in the United States
Ethnic Movements in the United States SOC 220
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Sociology 220 Prof Pamela Oliver An Outline ofUSAf Am History 1607 1776 Colonial period Slaves imported Plantation economy develops in the South Free Blacks 5 10 of all AfAms 1776 1795 Rewlutjonary period Blacks support revolution Whites argue about whether quotequalityquot includes blacks Slavery written into constitution 1791 59000 free blacks vs 750000 slaves 7 1793 Cotton gin invented Large cotton plantatiors slave labor central to southern economy and northern textile mills 1795 1815 Post Revolutionary Period slave importation to US ends 1808 Whites pass laws restricting citizenship of free blacks in north Petitions protests small migration to Africa Richard Allen AME church Absalom Jones Free African Society 1816 185 0 European migration into US becomes heavy Westward expansion 200000 free blacks 18 30 300000 in 1850 Militant anti slavery movanent abolitionism Black nationalisms separatism anigrationism also voiced Sojourner Truth Frederick Douglas quotwe39re here and we want to stayquot National conventions caucuses rising consciousness 1860 65 Civil War 500000 free blacks millions of slaves 200000 blacks join union army 1865 1875 Reconstruction South is devastated by war union army occupies promises of votes land education made for former slaves largely not ful lled 13th 14th 15th ammdments outlaw slavery guarantee civil riglts to anyoneborn in US and give right to vote to quotall menquot White Radical Republicans argue for black rights 1876 1895 Compromise of 1875 ends Reconstruction to break election deadlock elect Hayes 90 of all blacks live in rural areas 90 in south most in cotton farming dependent on landowners subject to violent repression Lynchings and KKK terrorism increase quotJim Crowquot segregation laws passed US Supreme Court rules these legal 1439h amendment gutted Democratic Party alliance of southern white planters and northern industrialists and working class Republicans debate 1876 1891 whether to support black rights abandon black rights entir ely after 18 91 Populist movement threatens trans racial alliance among southern working class elite whites wak to disenfranch39se blacks and working class to eliminate threat Example Louisiana 130344 blacks registered in 1895 only 5000 in 1898 and 1772 in 1916 Blacks lose all political power Some black nationalists demand reparations for slavery Whites ignore S ome emigrationism 500 actually emigrate to Liberia 1895 1920 Things continue to get worse Presidents Taft 190 9 1913 and Wilson 1914 1918 explicitly oppose black equality Taft amp others call for disenfranchisement of blacks Wilson uses executive authority to segregate federalservices Powerful people bene t from segregation and other whites unwilling to oppose them More lynchings Black immigration banned intermarriage illegal Suprerre Court refuses to intervene Booker T Washington accomodationist separatist Thomas Fortune militant egalitarian W E B Dubois militant egalitarian Niagara Movement 1905 NAACP 1909 to get white support Ida Wells Barnett anti lynching Marcus Garvey militant nationalist separatist emigrationist built black religion black businesses 1916 1925 Also period of last and most racist phase of woman suffrage movement Progressive Era and intense anti imrnigrant feelings National Origins Act 1920 sharply limits immigration Immigration and Migration Summary 1 Europeans From 1800 1914 tens ofmillions of Europeans migrated to the US lling the lowest economic niches of the north This ood made the proportion of African Americans in the population shrink from 20 in 1800 to 14 in 1900 Continued immigration makes the black proportion about 12 today Immigration largely stopped with WI and 1920 immigration law and did not pick up again until 1970 2 African Americans 39The Great Migrationquot FromWWI 1970 large numbers of African Americans migrated fromthe rural south to the cities of the north and south In 1890 blacks were 90 rural and 90 southern By 1960 migration into seven key industrial states black population grows 92 but black voters grow 800 Become an important political force in key industrial cities In 1990s 55 live in the south versus 33 of whites 63 live in central cities of metropolitan areas vs only 37 of whites 36 live in suburbs vs 63 of whites Only 14 of blacks live in nonrnetropolitan areas versus 23 of whites 1920s 1940s Tide starts to shift Black migration om rural south to northern and southern cities less repression more education more likely to be able to vote 1930s Depression Blacks part of 1930s New Deal coalition get some second class bene ts including money for schools NAACP begins careful campaign of lawsuits trains generation of black lawyers NAACP ako begins building as a mass black organization in the 1930s Supreme Court decisions begin to require equality in quotseparate but equalquot A Philip Randolph militant integrationist socialist paid leader of Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters a militant black union 1941 organizes and threatens black march on Washington if FDR will not order integration of war industries wins integration and calls off march Mary McLeod Bethune part of FDR administration WWII intanationalism US race relations look bad Federal governmart begirs to ban discrimination Becones a national issue bills debated in congress Black urban life builds better jdas less violence agaimt blacks creation of organizations free of white domination Urban black churches grow Black colleges grow increased money and enrollments as courts rule that quotseparate but eq1alquot requires equal e g funding for black education 1940s 1965 Civil Rights Era Black organization black votes begin to have impact as black votes increase 800 from 1900 to 1960 Black votes quotswingquot the 1960 election both parties support civil rights Mostly period of militant integrationism Truman orders military desegregated 1948 Supreme Court decisions increasingly chip away at segregation leading to Brown vs Board of Education in 1954 Emmett Till age 14 is murdered for saying hi to a white woman widespread outrage and mobilization among blacks in both south and north Montgomery Bus Boycott Mar tin Luther King Jr becomes head of MIA in 1955 founds SCLC 1957 Desegregation Battles Pres Eisenhower forced to send army to Little Rock Ark to quell white riots around arrollment of nine black studarts in Central High 1960 sit ins SNCC founded 1961 Freedom Rides organized by CORE 1963 65 major civil rights marches MLK the most visible civil rights leader assassinated 1968 Malcolm X militant Black Muslim separatist is active in 1950s until assassinated in 1965 1965 early 1970s Shift to black power militant separatism Riots 1964 9 King assassinated 1968 Increasing cultural nationalism black studies black pride Continuing battles victories around voting rights and representation rules White radicalism around Vietnam War white riots street protests as part of antiwar movement Fear of revolution fear of race war White racists abandon Democratic Party become Republicans Republicans seek to keep white racist vote through 1992 election Mechanical harvesters displace black rural labor force migration of impoverished unskilled black workers into northern cities 1970s Everything calms down on all fronts Economic troubles Energy crisis quotstag ationquot Black advances in income education Welfare puts a quotsafety netquot below the deepest levels of misery in most states Blacks become signi cant political force in Democratic Party Many black local of cials elected in southan and northern cities Some white accommodation some white resistance in anti bussing movements anti bussing riots Blacks less optimistic than in 1960s Immigration begirs to be significant 1980s Reaganomics massive cuts in social welfare education support Black college attendance declines while high school graduation continues to rise as fmancial aid programs are cut Return of ab solute poverty malnutrition high infant mortality 1980 Miami riot Growing class differences among blacks Black povaty grows again at the same time as a generation of blacks is reared with access to education occupational opportunity Republicans shore up margin of victory with racial appeals to white working class voters to form a voting alliance with white elites Immigration becomes as major issue in urban areas Jesse Jackson and the Rainbow Coalition are signi cant in both 1984 and 1988 quotWillie Hortonquot the Republican symbol in 1988 ooded racism Increasing black interest inAfrocartrism black middle class debates about education nationalism racism self help etc Growing despair among poor black youth 1990s Clarence Thomas appointment 1991 black conservative appointed by Bush with goal of dividing liberals Los Angeles riot 1992 X caps and shirts Poverty racial con ict inner cities are on the agenda Whites stereotype all blacks as poor inner city ill educated gang members black middle class divided and debating what to do Clinton both gives integrationist speeches and explicitly rejects quotrace codingquot but also criticizes Sister S ouljah angers Jesse Jackson captures enough white working class vote to win 1992 election in 3 way race 1964 1988 blacks vote 95 for Democrats This weakens in 1992 election Economy rebounds unemployment low stock market high although income polarization continues to grow 1996 Clinton reelected has strong black support calls for public debate on race this amp a lot of other stuff gets lost in scandal amp impeachmart Where do we go from here Pamela Oliver Sociology 220 African American History Outline 19002000 Black Mobilization in the Dark Years 18801930 Migration Move away from where things are bad Away from low voting rights away from high lynching away from debt peonage Migration accumulates The Great Migration Rural south to urban north and south Early on still not enough for victory but strength is accumulating Assimilation Integration vs SeparatismNationalism Two continuing trends in AfAm politics see separate slides 18951915 Booker T W quot 4 A J quot quot If39 p WEB DuBois T Thomas Fortune Militant Integrationism But some cultural nationalist impulses Founds Niagra Movement 1905 then NAACP 1909 NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Ida B WellsBarnett Antilynching campaign Demonstrates that lynching is a political tool In ammatory rhetoric 1919 Many bloody race riots Whites on antiblack rampage Resent black advancements with urbanization 1920s NAACP under James Weldon Johnson begins the concerted campaign of lawsuits to chip away at segregation begin the path towards Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka 1954 Early victories provide resources that increase black education 19161925 Marcus Garvey Back to Africa Militant separatist black capitalist Black religious icons 1920s 1940s A Philip Randolph Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Strong black union political platform 1920s 1930s Blacks shift voting patterns become potential swing voters From knee jerk Republicans holdover from 19 11 century Republicans antislavery Lincoln freed the slaves to willing to vote for whomever supports them and their issues 1936 Blacks play a key role in Roosevelt s New Deal Coalition Become significant political players 1941 threatened March on Washington led by Randolph Called off when FDR agrees to ban racial discrimination in war industries 19421945 World War 11 Political watershed Postwar politics Communism and antiCommunism Hearts and Minds Anti colonialism independence for African nations US racial policies become international embarrassment What Changed between 1880 and 1960 Major source Doug McAdam Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency University of Chicago Press 1982 1890 Blacks 90 rural 90 southern No political leverage Economically dependent Illiterate Threat of numbers in southern areas leads to extreme measures to keep them suppressed The Great Migration South to North From 90 southern in 1900 to 60 in 1960 Rural to Urban Southern blacks from 9 urban in 1890 and 34 in 1930 to 58 in 1960 The 40 of blacks in the north are virtually all urban Consequences of urbanization 1 Voting Important swing votes in northern cities Parts of northern political machines Election of northern black Congressmen 2 Less daily domination More able to gather talk politically without white oversight Positive consequence of physical segregation 3 Black communities able to support independent black professionals ministers morticians barbers amp hairdressers 4 Rising education rising incomes rising political awareness 5 Black newspapers magazines news sources Growth of organizational infrastructure 1 Churches Larger can support fulltime ministers who can be free from white domination Organizations meeting places they control themselves Economic 39 J r J 39 1 Also other professions who depend on black customers beauticians barbers morticians lawyers Spread of social gospel 2 Black colleges Lawsuits force the equal part of separate but equal Obtain white money Massive growth in educated youth 3 NAACP is a whitedominated organization at the national level but a black grassroots organization at the local level I3939 I political HOPE Brown vs Board of Education 1954 Biggest effect was not in desegregation which took 20 years and was undone in the next 20 years by white ight but in giving black people hope that change was possible that the government would intervene McAdam cognitive liberation People act out of hope sense of possibility Chronology of the Black Civil Rights Movement in the South 1954 Brown vs Board of Education Bans segregation but allows graduate implementation 19541970 and continuing White resistance 1954 Emmett Till murdered Widespread publicity among blacks 195556 Montgomery Bus Boycott rise of Martin Luther King Jr Nationwide publicity 1950s Malcolm X preaching on the streets of Harlem in the 1950s 1957 White riots at Little Rock Arkansas High to block smallscale integration US Troops protect integration 1957 King founds Southern Christian Leadership Conference SCLC 19541960s NAACP persecuted in south Banned as Communist Teachers others red for being members Same people who were members of NAACP involved in other black organizations involved in black churches 1960 Close election Kennedy vs Nixon Kennedy wins blacks seen as swing vote Kennedy gives support to civil rights while trying to keep white southern vote 1960 Sitins start SNCC Student NonViolent Coordinating Committee 1961 Freedom Rides CORECongress of Racial Equality 196365 major civil rights marches major civil rights legislation 1963 March on Washington 1963 Kenney killed President Johnson a southemer vows to be the civil rights president 1964 Public Accommodations Act 1964 Freedom Summer White college students go south Civil rights workers killed Battle over the Mississippi delegation to national convention Fanny Lou Hamer Is this America 1964 Johnson reelected The shift of the white racist vote to the Republican Party 19631968 Black urban riots Militancy Northern western Policing poverty 7 not just rights White fears 1965 Malcolm X assassinated 1965 Selma the last big civil rights march Voting Rights Act 1966 Black power Stokeley Charmichael and SNCC Marginalization of whites in the movement Power rhetoric frightens whites 19661967 King takes the movement north Much less success Where Do We Go From Here Stresses need to address economic issues 1968 ML King assassinated Huge wave of riots 19661971 White students increasing involved in antiwar movement White campus riots over the Vietnam war 1969 Nixon Law and order The beginning of the decline of black political in uence The post civil rights era Consolidating white dominance along new lines 1970s Implementation struggles White southern resistance continues Battles over voting district boundaries battles over whether to have public schools at all white resistance at every ste White backlash Antibusing riots White politicians tacitly support antibusing movement under rhetoric of neighborhood schools Continued black progress through the 1970s reductions in poverty increases in educational level increases in college enrollment Generally difficult economic times stagflation Gas lines White activists involved in environmentalism antinuclear Political left declines The war on drugs begins Black imprisonment rates begin to climb White working class not blacks are the swing votes Black political organizations continue become part of institutional political system 1980s Reaganism The conservative backlash Huge cuts in welfare budgets Huge cuts in college scholarship programs support for state colleges The effective end of affirmative action Federal government stops enforcing affirmative action top officials oppose it In a sign of the times white political rhetoric uses Martin Luther King s rhetoric for equality against the black movement Black high school graduation rates amp black educational performance continues to rise but black college enrollments drop White ight accelerates Limited progress of the 1970s in school integration begins to reverse By end of the decade schools are as segregated in 1990 as in 1960 Trend continues in the 1990s Recessions in early amp late 1980s When white America has a cold black America has pneumonia Economic disaster in segregated black urban areas Economic restructuring decline of blue collar employment Huge increases in poverty huge increases in crime Huge increases in starvation US infant mortality rates look like those of underdeveloped nations far higher than those of Europe Black imprisonment rates continue to rise Regan administration declares a drug war at the time drug use is already declining Differential policing amp policies focus on the mass incarceration of African Americans 1990s 1992 Rodney King beating LA riot Growing anger of the black middle class Clinton successfully attracts white working class voters while also speaking to black voters Moderate Democrats seek black votes and white working class Dismantling of the last vestiges of a social welfare system There is no safety net for the poor few supports for the working poor 1995 Million Man March Louis Farrakahn and the black masses Growing Afrocentrism separatism among respectable middle class black families 1995 OJ Simpson trial 1995 Oklahoma City bombing by white rightwing antigovemment racist Late 1990s low unemployment growing wealth of the top 20 especially top 1 of the population Growing selfsegregation of the af uent welloff people rarely even see nonaf uent people More economic segregation than in any prior period Declining real incomes since the 1970s of the bottom 60 especially the bottom 40 with only a slight rise at the end of the decade Rise in homeless of families particularly of black families Continuing increases in anticrime rhetoric building more prisons Movement against social promotion addresses a problem that does not seem to eXist directly harms black students educational progress Growing black middle class college educated Still largely segregated in black middle class areas as whites ee even nonpoor blacks But real progress in education earnings well being Declining economic wellbeing ofblack lower class Political disarray in black movement organizations Simultaneous growth of integrated nonracist consciousness among whites AND of renewed respectability of overtly racist images jokes language Explicit white racist movements growing 2000 Close election dramatizes problems of voter registration unequal voting procedures disenfranchisement of felons WTC attack of 91 12001 7 war Implications for African Americans unclear