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by: Deron Effertz
Deron Effertz
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Marcia Carlson

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Marcia Carlson
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Deron Effertz on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 971 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Marcia Carlson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/205175/soc-971-university-of-wisconsin-madison in Sociology at University of Wisconsin - Madison.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
Soc 971 Week 3 Handout Data and Methods Hyun Sik Kim and Tetyana Pudrovska Carlson McLanahan amp England 2004 Data sets 0 To test which variables contributed to transition from one stage of union status to another Carlson et al use the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Studyhereafter Fragile Families Study 0 The Fragile Families Study is a longitudinal survey following 4898 children who was born between 1998 and 2000 in the 20 cities among whom 3712 children had unmarried parents and 1186 children had married parents The authors analyze 3285 respondents in the former case which provide information on parents union status at the children s birth and one year later 0 All variables were measured at the child s birth except parents fertility history In case of the fathers missing cases increase as one moves down the relationship hierarchy with the highest response rates 90 in cohabitation and the lowest rates 38 in nonromantic relationship All missing data are substituted with the overall mean Variables o Dependent variable is union status one year after the child s birth which comprises married cohabiting visitingromantically involved but living apart and not in a romantic relationshipfriends separated or no contact 0 Explanatory variables consist of background characteristics parents economic resources parents attitudes and beliefs and the quality of the parents relationship Background variables include age parents race family backgrounds of each parent parents fertility history both parents selfreported health status and the duration of time between two interviews Variables related to parents economic resources contain selfreported level of education and earnings in the past year and statelevel welfare benefit In relation to parents attitudes anal beliefs parents attitudes toward marriage traditional attitudes toward gender parents distrust of the opposite sex roles are measured Finally physical violence frequency of con ict supportiveness in the relationship and a substanceabuse problem of the father are chosen as indicators of the quality of parents relationship Models Carlson et al used multinomial logistic regression with a reference being a group of not in a romantic relationship to identify variables which have a significant causal relationship to union status one year after their child birth They test three models Model 1 includes the background and economic variables Model 2 adds relationship status at the baseline and Model 3 contains all the variables we discussed above Therefore these are a kind of nested modeling But they don t provide indicators for data tting Oppenheimer et al 1997 and Sweeney 2002 Pose similar questions and to a certain extent use similar data and methodology because Sweeney s work draws on Oppenheimer s research Data sets 0 Because Sweeney s study is designed to investigate historical change she compares experiences of successive birth cohorts early and late babyboomers using data from three sources Young Men NLSM Young Women NLSW and Youth NLSY cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience 0 The NLSY sample was interviewed annually from 1979 through 1994 the NLSM sample was interviewed annually from 1966 to 1971 and then in 1973 1975 1976 1978 1980 and 1981 The NLSW sample was interviewed annually form 1968 through 1973 and then in 1975 1977 1978 19880 1982 and 1983 o Sweeney uses Young Men s and Young Women s samples to investigate marriage among the early baby boom cohort b 19501954 while data from the Youth sample are used to investigate marriage among the late baby boom cohort b 19611965 0 Like Sweeney Oppenheimer et al use data form the National Survey of Labor Market Experience but only the Youth cohort 0 Neither Oppenheimer et al nor Sweeney consider cohabitation because the relevant questions were not asked consistently in the NLS The fact that one can t distinguish between the timing of first marriages versus the timing of first unions of any type is the limitation of the NLS dataijust like of almost any survey conducted prior to the mid1980s Variables o In both studies the dependent variable is a dichotomous indicator of whether a marriage occurred in the interval between two given years 0 Sweeney s focal independent variables are earnings educational attainment and employment status 0 Oppenheimer et al s measures capturing men s career entry process are school enrollment combined with time out of school educational attainment job type yearly work experience and annual earnings Models 0 Oppenheimer et al and Sweeney organize their data into person year records with one record for each annual interval in which respondents were at risk of rst marriage the risk of marriage is assumed to begin at age 17 Oppenheimer et al and Sweeney use logistic regression to estimate discrete time hazard models of the effects of SES standing on entry into first marriage Overall a discretetime event history analysis is a typical approach for microlevel studies of marriage formation Both Oppenheimer et al and Sweeney did analyses separately for blacks and whites but only Sweeney conducted tests of statistical signi cance of race alifkrences within cohorts In addition to estimating hazard models Oppenheimer et al s analysis contains a second part They argue that a transition to a stable work career is a multi year process Therefore it is not enough to examine the effect of careerstatus variables on marriage formation in any single yearione needs to look at the cumulative impact of these variables 0 To illustrate this cumulative impact Oppenheimer et al modeled predicted survival curves using their regression results and lifetable techniques for men undergoing easy versus difficult transitions 0 Easy transition moving rapidly into a mature career once out do school dif cult transition unstable labormarket attachment for several years no work in a year parttime work only or FTPY employment 0 Projections were developed separately for 8 raceeducation groups Waite 1995 Just compare means on several issues among marital status using various data sets and research results in order to show how beneficial outcome marriage can bring Health Behaviors comparison on number of alcoholrelated problems and number of risk taking behaviors by divorced widowed and married citing results of Umbersonl987 Mortality comparison of survival curve among married widowed divorced and never married by seX using the Panel Study of Income Dynamic 39 I L quot Partnered Sex comparison on frequency physical and quot p quot of sexual activity among single cohabiting and married using the National Health and Social Life SurveyNHSLS Asset and Wealth comparison of median household wealth among nevermarried widowed divorced separated and married using estimates by Smithl994 Children s Well Being comparison on percentages of high school dropout and poverty rates between twoparent and oneparent families quoting McLanahan and Sandefurl994 Labor Force and Career comparison of log hourly wage between cohabitation and marriage by race and seX and comparison of log hourly wage according to number of children by race using Daniel s estimatesl994


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