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General Physics

by: Nichole Keebler

General Physics PHYSICS 104

Nichole Keebler
GPA 3.95

David Straight

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David Straight
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nichole Keebler on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYSICS 104 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by David Straight in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/205218/physics-104-university-of-wisconsin-madison in Physics 2 at University of Wisconsin - Madison.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
Interference amp Diffraction Preflight 1 All 3 rays are interfering constructively at the point shown If the intensity from ray 1 is lo what is Review of Interference the combined intensity of all 3 rays Diffraction lo 7 Resolving power 3 lo gt 9lo E field is 3 times the amplitude B field is 3 times the amplitude In m Both are in phase IEB is 9 times 121005 U Wisconsin Physics 104 Fall 2003 1 121005 U Wisconsin Physics 104 Fall 2003 Preflight 2 Now consider the same three slits as in the previous question but 1 i suppose the angle is such that rays 1 1px and 2 are interfering destructively Old wavelronii i i i Is the Intensity from the three rays a minimum Yes gt No Huygen s Principle 5111 jamm Cos m1qucommyu U Wisconsin Physics 104 Fall 2003 3 121005 121005 U Wisconsin Physics 104 Fall 2003 4 Bending around corners Bending around corners Straighl A Sound edge 1 39 39 i shadows 2 1 ngm gt 3 1 i small A 3 r 4 5 39 1 wavefront 1 of sound 2 KL 1 Listener hears sound a around the corner Wall With doorway Same wall and deanway a gt y b muralw tummy1w UmuksLLe vii51 quotg CompaleJ Bigux mum canMi 1w 121005 U Wisconsin Physics 104 Fall 2003 5 121005 U Wisconsin Physics 104 Fall 2003 6 Single Slit Interference In Withuiil niliractiun lhl With d l ractinll Diffraction Rays waquot l shadow Screen with opening or obstacle without screen 121005 U Wisconsin Physics 104 Fall 2003 7 121005 U Wisconsin Physics 104 Fall 2003 8 Diffraction Huygens Central maXImum Every point on a wave front acts as a source of tiny orward JAVA Light waves originating at different points within opening travel different distances to wall and can interfere We see maxima and minima on the wall Wisconsin Physics 104 Fall 2003 121005 ta Willmlll dillraclimi 1171 with dillractinli 121005 U Wisconsin Physics 104 Fall 2003 10 Diffraction Interference of light from within just one s 39t 4 A D When gsm j rays1 and 1 35quot will interfere destructively Rays 2 and 2 also start D2 apart and have the same path length difference Condition for every ray originating in top half of slit to interfere destructively with the corresponding ray originating in bottom half 11 minimum at sin e MD 121005 U Wisconsin Physics 104 Fall 2003 11 Diffraction Interference of light from within just one s 39t 4 When gsinhg rays1 and 1 sin9 will interfere destructively Rays 2 and 2 also start D4 apart and have the same path length difference Condition fo every ray originating in top half of slit to interfere destructively with the corresponding ray originating in bottom half 2E minimum at sin 0 2ND 121005 U Wisconsin Physics 104 Fall 2003 12 Pre ight 3 A single slit of width W has light of a certain wavelength incident If the width W is decreased which of the following is true The diffraction pattern of the slit on a screen will get narrower Pre ight 4 A laser is shone through a very small hole onto a screen If the diameter of the hole were decreased the laser spot on the screen would gt get bigger The diffraction pattern of the slit on a get smaner screen Will get broader lllEIIS U Wiscunsm Physics lEIA Fall ZUEIK 13 lllEIIS U Wiscunsm Physics lEIA Fall ZUEIK 14 Pre ight 5 A laser is shone through a very small hole onto a screen Which drawing correctly depicts the pattern of light on the screen Sorry this question was broken on the web iziuns U Wiscunsm Physics m4 Fall mm is Diffraction Summary Condition for halves of slit to destructively interfere 5mm it D Condition for quarters of slit to sinw 21 destructively interfere D Condition for sixths of slit to destructively interfere Dsin6 m m123 THIS FORMULA LOCATES MINIMA Narrower slit gt broader pattern U Wiscunsm Physics 1U4Fallll3 A 6 3 sin D iziuns Diffraction from Circular Aperture entral C 12 diffraction maximum minimum I I s Diameter D f K light First diffraction minimum is at sine 1 22 iziuns U Wiscunsm Physics m4 Fall mm 17 Intensity from Circular Aperture A 1227 D sine iziuns U Wiscunsm Physics 1U4Fallll3 First iffraction minima Intznsuies 1 Resolving Power Two objects are just resolved when the JQ maximum from one is at the minimum of the x t t t t t t t t t t t other mm To see two objects distinctly need 8 2 8mm 39 A l slnemmeemin1225 quotmu tallevn npulun These objects arejust resolved 1 k39 one is at the minimum ofthe other mums 19 mums m Pre ight 6 Resolving Power Question Astronaut Joe is standing on a distant planet with a Z 1 39 nts to see them but knows it s smem39quot B39 39quot 139220 blnary u dangerous to look straight at them So he deniqes to u39 apinhOIe camera by 3929an a How does the maximum resolving power ofyour eye ch n the brightness ofthe room is decreased the camera is built Astronaut Joe can only see 2 Constant 3 Decreases one spot on the second card To see the two suns clearly should he make the pinhole larger or smaller 7 Larger When the light is low your pupil dilates D can gt 7 Smauer increase by factor of 1 0 mqu 21 mums 22 Recap I Huygens Principle Each point on Wave front acts as coherent source and can interfere I Interference Coherent Waves POIaTIZatIOIl 7 Full Wavelength difference Constructive 7 7 Wavelength difference Destructive I Multiple Slits 2 or more slits with separation d orientation Of w eld V IZCIOVS 7 Constructive d sin6 In In 2 5mg due to re ecmmi More slits higher max darker mins medium properties scattering Single Slit 7 Destructive D sin6 In A rn123 7 Resolution Max from 1 at Min from 2 mqu 2 mums m IZIDDS Which orientation wlll have the largest Induced emf Hlnt Uee Faraday e law Only the loop in the xy plane will have a magnetic flux through it as the wave passes The ux will oscillate with time and induce an emf U Wiscunsin Physics IDA Fall ZDDK ZS DImcIWn Polarization i5 Dire lion oi pularizatlon c t a vnlrecliun cl polarization 0 orientation ofE eld matters when the EM wave traverses matter U Wiscunsin Physics 1m Fall znuz 39w mu IZIDDS Types of Polarization Polarization Transverse waves have a polarization 7 Direction of oscillation of E eld for light 7 Linear Direction of E is constant 7 Circular Direction of E rotates with timeM 7 Unpolarized Direction of E changes randomly Natural Light is Unpolarized Polarizing liller Pularlzalion direclion Direclion E El ray Duecliun nlwave y WWII X 1 lZlDDS U Wiscunsin Physics IDA Fall ZDDK Z7 lZlDDS nsin Physics IDA Fall ZDDK 28 Rm Unpolarized Light on Linear Polarizers 1 if F 5 Linear Polarizer Linear Polarizers absorb all electric elds perpendicular to their transmission aXis L V T m s 5 I J I i i 7 H g I i 5 E I 1 F 39 39 I f i quot 531 Va t l I Urmu avwen PuIdrilmg Pmanzeu J J h n waterm Mg msmsmm witmay is 0 Most light comes from electrons accelerating in random directions and is un olarized Molecular Vlew p Averaging over all directions intensity of transmitted light reduces due to reduction in E qu lZlDDS U Wiscunsin Physics IDA Fall ZDDK 29 lZlDDS U Wiscunsin Physics IDA Fall ZDDK 2 3D Linearly Polanzed Light on Linear Polarizer Law of alus Eirnmmu Elneldlnt cosa ltrlnlmltlud Imamm 329 9 between the lncomlng llght e polerlzetlon end the 1 trenemleelon axle Ie the angle Incident E 1z1un5 U Wiscunsln Physics 1114 F21 13 Wu ETrnnnllled ElnnIdni 399 31 Preflight 8 Unpolarized light like the light from the sun passes through a polarizing sunglass a linear polarizer The intensity of the light when it emerges is Zero 13 14 1 Need more information 11 11 11 n 11x51 Imcosl 39 915 Varying randomly over fully cycle Therefore avenge value is 1z1un5 U Wiscun n Physics 1114 F211 211113 32 1z1un5 Preflight 9 Now horizontally polarized light passes through the same glasses which are vertically polarized The intensity of the light when it emerges is Zero CED 1I4 Need more information U Wiscunsln Physics 1114 F211 211m 11 11 ImElgtlm00519 91290 14 Law of Malus Example 1 Intensity of unpolerlzed Ilgh39t Incldent on llnear polarlzer ls reduced by half l1 lo I 2 2 nght tranemltted through rst polerlzer le vertlcelly polerlzed Angle between It and second polarlzer le 090 l I1 coe 90 0 C001 Link 2 1z1un5 U Wiscun n Physics 1114 F211 znuz 1z1un5 Law of Malus Example 2 Light transmitted through rst polarizer is vertically polarized Angle between it and second polarizer is 945 1211 cos2 45 o511025 I0 3 Light transmitted through second polarizer is polarized 45 from vertical Angle between it and t 945 13 I2 cos245 0125 IO U Wiscunsln Physics 1114 F211 211m hird polarizer is Law of Malus Question y y y 339 TA 339 1 Am a A l1 locoe 60 YTA V TA 60 B l1 loco 60 I I1coez60 ln coe 00 C001 Link 2 I2 If 3 IA lt I25 l I1ceI 30 loooe160ooe1so 1z1un5 U Wiscun n Physics 1114 F211 211113 36 lllEIIS Polarization by Re ection 0 Light can by polarized by re ection Partially polarized re ected light s it Unpolarized incident lighl Parllally polarized cElwks Cue ynhiislhnchmpw P Namequot quot9quot U u wisennsm Physics 1U4Fa1123 37 Pre ight 12 Unpolarized light traveling in air is incident on a glass block Which of the following statements about it is true Only reflected light is partially polarized Only refracted l39 ht 39 rtiall olarized Both reflec e an lg unpolarized WinIS U wisennsm Physics 1U4Fall mm 38 lllEIIS Pre ight 13 Is it possible for the reflected ray to be fully polarized No mm W ma sash Men in U wisennsm Physics 1U4Fa1123 39 Brewster s angle Partially polarization on re ection Part of the light is refracted also polarized Depends on refractive indices 7 Brewster 5 law Complete polarization for Brewsters angle tan 9 LI quot1 Light from medium with It re ects off from It In your text a 1 N air was chosen WinIS U wisennsm Physics 1U4Fall mu 4n lllEIIS Unpolarized light traveling in al Pre ight l4 s incident on a glass block The Brewster angle is 56quot for this situation If the glass block is placed in water the reflected light in water will be have a Brewster angle that is greater the same lower Brewsters angle n mn9bl n a has increased froml to 133 tan 9 decreases Do Problem 2466 41 U wisennsm Physics 1U4Fa1123 Pre ight 10 Polarized glasses are considered as better than normal glasses because They block more light They are safer for your eye They decrease glare They are cheaper Reflected light is polarized polarizing glass cuts out a fraction of that light increasing clarity of vision WinIS U wisennsm Physics 1U4Fall mm 42 Pre ight ll Polaroid sun glasses absorb light that is polarized in what direction Vertical Polarization by Scattering I Light can also be polaiized in scattering Unpoiarized Molecule processes sunlight Unpolzrized a ng tscatters ofmolecules 1 light 7 7 quota 7 fi r In ai r Rotate polarized sunglasses Partially while looking at blue sky 175 Light gets out ctr blue k tums biighte and quot L di tt Reflected light ls polarized polarlzmg glass cuts out in g g electric field perpendicular to the transmission axis To Polarized ligm cut out the glare eg reflections off snow on the ground coming horizontally glasses are aligned a k m H With transmisswn aXIS vertical to cut of horizontal light 9 y lllEIIS U Wiscunsm Physics lEI4Fall ZUEIK 43 lWlUIS U Wiscunsln Physics lEI4Fall ZUEIK 44 Optically Active Materials Controlled Polarization Birefringence 39 Elecmcal VOItage 0 a LCDAno voltage LCDrvnliage onl liquid crystal diode i 9La rotation s No rotation a v s i v ums 0n and olfpolarizing 39 i quot I UnPOlm39lzed beam filter effect splits into two 7 Used in LCD display a 9 b D 7 Pamzed output 7 l l l l l l e C CBiUDkle k PublishingCuillullyilhquot lllEIIS U Wiscunsm Physics 1U4Fa1123 45 dive ms wulisniug cuiupiiwilw WinIS U wiscunsm Physics 1U4Fall mu


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