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## General Physics

by: Nichole Keebler

7

0

23

# General Physics PHYSICS 202

Nichole Keebler
UW
GPA 3.95

Staff

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COURSE
PROF.
Staff
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
23
WORDS
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Physics 2

This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nichole Keebler on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYSICS 202 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/205222/physics-202-university-of-wisconsin-madison in Physics 2 at University of Wisconsin - Madison.

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Date Created: 09/17/15
Physics 202 Lecture 10 Today s Topics l Direct Current Circuits c 8 I Basic circuit components 8 R l Kirchhoff s Rules l Circuits Analysis For circuits of R s and 8 s l Preview Requirements emf junction rule loop rule 3 Next Tuesday RC circuit ch 284 Magnetic Fiedch 2913 Exam 1 Result Phy202 Exam1 Scores 0 O A 01 O O Frequency 0 O 20 Note Letter boundaries are for reference only Based on nominal A15 B50 etc and subject to final curve at the end of semester Basic Circuit Components Component Symbol Behavior in circuit Ideal battery emf e A V 8 Resistor 45w II AV IR Realistic Battery e 9 g NvL Ideal wire AV0 9R0 L0 C0 Capacitor ill AVV V qlC dqldt I Inductor 46m AV LdIldt Ideal Switch e w L0 C0 R0 on Roo off Transformer Diodes Future Topics Transistors Simple Circuit 1 Resistors In Series 1112 El Exercise show ReqR1 R2 I112I 39 AV VR1VR2 IR1IR2 9 AV IR1R2 ie ReqRlR2 b m H 2004Thomsan BrooksCola R1 R2 R1 R2 El In general ReaR1 R2 R3 Simple Circuit 2 Resistors In Parallel EI Show 1lReq1lR1 1IR2 VRIZIIRI 39 VR1VR2 AV Wvr I I I 1 I1 911111 R1 1sz R2I 1 5 2 0 b 9AV 1R11R21 1 lly I 9AVI 1 1R11R2 11 2 11 AV R Req I I LG 1 b H R2 1R3427omsonr ooooooooo le El In general 1lReq1lR1 1IR2 1IR3 QuizExercise Equivalent Resistance of a Combined Parallel and Serial Circuit CI What is the ReeI for the combination shown R1 R21Q R32 2 R44Q 1 82 2 69 39339 3 59 m 4 None of above A Complicated Circuit loops A complicated circuit IMay contain more than one emf IMay not be simplified as in series or in parallel luv I May contain multi loops and f 39 junctions junctions 300 V 600W 2004 Thomson BrooksCole Kirchhoff s Rules Junction Rule IlIzI3 CI Junction Rule Charge conservation 174 The sum of currents entering any 1 junction equals the sum of currents A leaving thatjunction a 2quotIin ZIout 2 uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu is El In practice the classifications of in and out are determined by assigned direction for each current The assignment of current directions can be arbitrary They may not be the same as actual directions which are not known a prior in current with assigned direction towards junction out current with assigned direction offjunction Very Quick Quiz Junction Rule CI What is the junction rule for the current assignment shown 1 1112I3 2 IlIZI3 3o Although equation 2 and 3 are equivalent equation 3 does not follow late form IinIouIt Quick Quiz Junction Rule CI What is the junction rule for the current assignment shown 1 1112I3 2 1112I30 3 Neltner While the actual currents can not all goes into a junction the assigned currents can Kirchhoff s Rules Loop Rule 140V gt El Loop Rule Energy Conservation L f The sum of potential drops across 409 I gt I I L7 components along any closed I 1 gt I I Cll39CUlt loop must be zero 1 39 39 609 X 100V 39 a 113 2 AV 0 q j Q AVAVAV 039 209 gt The potential drop across a component is always defined as Vdownstreamend V upsreamend Where the stream direction is the same as loop direction gt The exact expression of the potential drop is determined by the type of component and the assigned current direction See nextstes Determine Potential Difference l l l a b a b loop loop direction direction AVVbVa g AVVbVa 8 I I gt 4 R R o W o Mv a b a 3 loop loop direction direction AVVbVa IR AVVbVa IR Steps to Apply Kirchhoff s Rules Assign a directional current for each branch segment of a circuit The assigned direction for each current can be arbitrarily chosen but once assigned need to be observed Set up junction rules at certain any junctions Normally ofjunctions of branches 1 Select a number of closed loops to apply loop rule For each closed loop assign a loop direction clockwise or counter clockwise Follow that assigned direction find AV drop across each component and apply loop rule of loops determined by of unknowns Solve for unknowns If a current is found to be negative it means its actual direction is opposite to the originally chosen one The magnitude is always correct Example 1 MultiLoop El Text example 289 10 V Find out 11 1213 6 l f El Kirchhoff s Rules I I Junction c R2 40 9 H IlIZ13 gt 112 Loop abcda lug R1 11 6 s1 I1R1 13R3 0 60 Q Loop befcb 10 0 V a 115 82 I1R1 e1 1sz 0 Solving three equations Alf I1 20A 12 30A 13 10A 2VOVSY2 d What does the sign meanmmmmm Example 1 Interpretation of Results 140 V 1410 V I e i E f e I I f I a gt quot 2 30A ltgt ltgt Q X I39 i 40 Q L gt 40 12 quot 20AI I o 11 C l 0 1 p c 100 V 6 0 9 Km 113 100 V 6 0 Q m lt Ila 39 10A a A AVAV d a WV d 20 Q 20 Q I1 20A 12 30A 13 10A am K tual situation Example 1 Again Different Initial Directions 8 Different initial direction for 11 12 140 V El Apply Kirchhoff s Rules 6 I g f Junction c 0Ig1112 R2 40 Q I I Loop abcda lt 2 s1I1R1I3R30 b39 81 R lt 11 H L b f b 00p e c 100V 60 9 113 Solving three equations I1 20A 12 30A 13 10A A39fi vvv d 2 0 9 Same effective result as in previousCslide l Lenses Physics 202 Lecture 25 Today s Topics l Reminder l Cameras l The Human Eye Lenses and Magnifiers l Combination of Lenses Image Formation Equation and Magnification U a U c a E c 39o c m U h o h 2 E Microscopes Telescopes Parameters p object distance q image distance h object height h M image height magnification focal length If Mlt1 gt Image lt Object If Mgt1 gt Image gt Object If Mlt0 gt Image H Object If Mgt0 gt Image H Object Ray Diagrams El If image can be formed only two rays are necessary to determine an image point El Useful rays Object ray pointing to the center C image ray inline with the object ray Object ray parallel to principal axis image ray pointing to a focal point F Object ray passing through a focal point image ray parallel to principal axix optical device 0 o f principal axis F A C I gt Sign Conventions gt0 lt0 f concave mirrors convex mirrors converging lens diverging lens p object side the other side q real virtual qp upright inverted Real Virtual mirrors front behind lenses behind font Cameras El A cameras is essentially a converging lens with a short focal length Operating conditio gtgtf 9 q f Film Image Aperture lt p gtlt Q gt 2004 Thomson BrooksCole Simple Magnifier El A simple magnifier is essentially also a converging lens with a short focal length Operating condition pltf and q25 cm Simple magnifiers magnify the opening angle an object subtends at the eye ie psychological size angular magnification m 000 25cmlf for near point Eyes El Eye is essentially an autofocus camera Vitreous humor Ciliary muscle Retina f TTTTT c 1 gtl Retinal Cornea 313331 Psychological size Clzs ilgillc image size on retinal is determined by 6 Pupil Aqueous humor Optic Iris nerve Quick quiz Is the image on retina realvirtual uprightinverted Combination of Lenses Lens 1 Lens 2 p 150 crnlr 200 cm gt 667 cm 4 301 011 Thomson Higher Education Compound Microscopes cont Compound Microscopes Robert Hooke s Microscope 1665 El Compound microscope also does angular magnification El Configuration L gtgt fefo Objective Eyepiece Me25 cmfe MMoMe Final Image a Virtual inverted Llfo 25 cmlfe Telescopes cont Telescopes El Telescope is another type of angular magnification device with configuration L fefo A Eyepiece lens Objective lens V Eyepiece I a Parabolic mirror 8 2004 Thomson BrooksCole Note For39 telescope application object distance can not be adjusted 2004 Thomson BrooksCole o o e Physics 202 Lecture 21 Demo Hertz Experiment Today s Topics In 1887 Heinrich Hertz first demonstrated that EM fields can transmit over space I Electromagnetic Waves EM Waves l The Hertz Experiment j l Review of the Laws of ElectroMagnetism l Maxwell s equation l Propagation of E and B l The Linear Wave Equation Review Gauss s Law I Coulomb s Law Gauss s Law for Magnetism CI The relation between the electric flux through a CI The Gauss s Law for the electric flux is a reflection closed surface and the net charge q enclosed within of the existence of electric charge In nature we have that surface is given by the Gauss s Law not found the equivalent a magnetic charge or monopole El We can express this result differently if any closed surface as many lines enter the enclosed volume as theyleaveit gs dLo Review Faraday s Law CI The emf induced in a circuit is proportional to the time rate of change of magnetic flux through the circuit or closed path nommol direction of 8 dch g 393 dt 2 DSince8g E39dZ I 9 A V 739 DThen E0d2 dq3 39 dt Bfl odK Maxwell Equations gSE 39 dK i 9Gauss s Lawl Coulomb s Law 80 gig dK 9Gauss s Law of Magnetism no magnetic charge e dCI g E d6 d B 9Faraday s Law t chE gig d2 MOI 8010 9Ampere Maxwell Law Also Lotentz force Law 9 T j I These are the foundations of the electromagnetism Review Am pere s Law CI A magnetic field is produced by an electric current is given by the Ampere s Law Closed path Surface 2 g B d6 MOI Surfacel CI A changing electric field will eff also produce a magnetic field Finally Closed gt gt E dt 39 Surfaeel IEfEdA 97 Surface 2 EM Fields in Space CI Maxwell equations when there is no charge and current fE dAO g EdZ d 3 EodZeOMOamp fB dA O A dt dt V V differential forms 6E y 932 932 aEy single polarization 9x at 9x 1080 Y E A a x aZEy M 8 62Ey 92132 M 8 92132 2 9x2 0 0 9t2 6x2 0 0 6t2 Linear Wave Equation El Linear wave equation El Sinusoidal wave certain phVSical quantity f frequency Phase vM AAmpitude k2n w2uf Wave speed xwavelength General wave superposition of sinusoidal waves The EM Wave Two polarizations possible showing one Electromagnetic Waves y El EM wave equations2 2 E A 2 2 a B a B 6x2 0 0 BIZ 9x 2 El Plane wave solutions E Emaxcoskxwt B Bmaxcoskxwtq El Properties No medium is necessary E and B are normal to each other E and B are in phase Direction of wave is normal to both E and B EM waves are transverse waves 39 Speed Of EM an9 6 1 29972x108ms EB EmaxBmaxc m Transverse wave two polarizations possible some I set to be 0

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