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Chapter 10: Intelligence

by: Bailey Gabrish

Chapter 10: Intelligence Psych 1010

Marketplace > Science > Psych 1010 > Chapter 10 Intelligence
Bailey Gabrish

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About this Document

These notes cover the tenth chapter in the book as well as notes from the lecture in class.
Introduction to Psychology
Melinda Fabian
Class Notes
Psychology, Science, Introduction to Psychology, Social Science
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Gabrish on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1010 at a university taught by Melinda Fabian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.


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Date Created: 03/08/16
Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts Chapter 10: Intelligence Intelligence  Intelligence – the mental potential to learn from experiences, solve problems, and use  knowledge to adapt to new situations o Can be whatever intelligence tests measure o Define intelligence by  1 or multiple  Creative versus emotional  Tests, environment, and group differences  General (G) Intelligence – general intelligence factor that underlies specific mental  abilities and is measured by every task on an intelligence test (Spearman) o Do we have inborn talent that can be measured by a test? o Those who did well in one area did well in others Theories of Multiple Intelligences  Gardner identified relatively independent intelligences  o Brain damage can destroy certain abilities  Savant Syndrome – limited in mental abilities yet have exceptional specific skill  Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory 1. Analytical (academic) Intelligence 2. Creative Intelligence 3. Practical Intelligence  Multiple abilities contribute to life success o Wealth, practice, connections, and hard work contribute to success  Differing varieties of giftedness add spice and challenges  Criticisms  o G intelligence is proven o Talent does not determine success Components of Intelligence  Emotional Intelligence – ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions  Benefits o Delay gratification in long term goals o Success in career, marriage, and parenting Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts Types of Intelligence Theories of  Summary Strengths Considerations Intelligence Spearman’s G  Basic intelligence  Different abilities  Abilities too diverse  Intelligence predicts abilities in  tendency to correlate to be in a single  varied academic  intelligence factor areas Thurstone’s Primary  7 factors: word  G score is not as  Tendency to cluster  Mental Abilities fluency, verbal,  informative as 7  suggesting  spatial, perceptual,  primary abilities underlying g factor number, inductive  memory Gardner’s Multiple  8 or 9 independent  Other abilities  Should all abilities be Intelligences intelligences with  besides verbal and  considered  broad range of skills  math are important in intelligence or are  beyond traditional  adaptation they less vital talents school smarts Sternberg’s Triarchic  3 areas predict real  Reliably measured Less independent  Theory world success:  than believed with a  analytical, creative,  shared g factor,  practical additional testing  needed to test  reliability Emotional  Social intelligence is  4 components predict Stretches intelligence  Intelligence key to success:  social success too far perceive, manage,  and understand  emotions Intelligence Test  Intelligence Test – method for assessing individual mental aptitudes and comparing them  with those of others through numerical scores  Achievement Tests – designed to access what a person has learned  Aptitude Tests – designed to predict person’s future performance (capacity to learn) o SAT, ACT, GRE  Francis Galton encouraged those of high ability to mate together o 1884 London Health Exhibition tested intelligence strength based on reaction  time, sensory activity, muscle power, body proportions (people did not outscore  each other and areas did not correlate) Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts  Late 1800s, Paris schools needed to identify children in need of special classes when all  were required to go to school o 1905, Alfred Binet developed tests to determine children’s learning potential for  when they came to school o Tested their mental age – chronological age corresponding to a given level of  performance in tests  Mental aptitude is general capacity in various ways  Environmental, intelligence can be changed  Stanford­Binet – American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test made by Terman  at Stanford o Terman thought intelligence was inherited and determined education level with  language  Believed one should not reproduce if they are not smart  Intelligence Quotient (IQ) – originally the ratio of mental age to chronological age  multiplied by 100, contemporarily the average performance for a given age is assigned a  score of 100 o Relative to average performance of others the same age  Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) – intelligence test containing verbal and  performance subtests for children along with processing speed, perceptual organization,  and working memory o Tested similarities, vocabulary, block­designs, letter­number sequences Normal Curves and Standardizing Tests  Psychological test must be standardized, reliable and valid o Standardization – defining uniform testing procedures and meaningful scores by  comparison with the performance of a pretested group  Shown by a normal curve with few high and low scores o Reliability – extent a test yields consistent results as assessed by the consistency  of scores on two halves of the test, alternative forms of the test, or on retesting o Validity – extent to which a test measures intelligence  Content Validity – extent a test samples behavior of interest  Predictive Validity – success a test predicts the behavior it is designed to  as assessed by computing correlation between test scores and criterion  behavior (Criterion­Related Validity) Intelligence Over a Life Span  Phase 1: Cross­Sectional Evidence for Intellectual Decline o Compare ages o Decline of mental ability with age  Phase 2: Longitudinal Evidence for Intellectual Stability o Cohort – group of people sharing common characteristic o Longitudinal studies over periods of time Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts o Intelligence remains stable or increases  Phase 3: It All Depends o Crystallized Intelligence – accumulated knowledge and verbal skills which  increase with age o Fluid Intelligence – ability to reason speedily and abstractly which decreases  during late adulthood  At age 4, intelligence tests begin predicting adult scores  Why do more intelligent people live longer? o Intelligence facilitates more education, better jobs, and healthy environments o Encourages healthy living: less smoking, better diet and exercise o Prenatal events and childhood illness influence intelligence and health o Well­wired body fosters intelligence and longevity Traits of Intelligence Extremes  Intellectual Disability – limited mental ability indicated by lower score than 70 and  difficulty adapting to the demands of life o Lack conceptual skills, social skills, and practical skills  Down Syndrome – condition of mild to severe intellectual disability and associated  physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 Genes in Intelligence  Intelligence scores of identical twins reared together are nearly as similar as the same  person testing o Heritability of 50 to 80%  Identical twins brains have similar gray and white matter volumes and similar areas with  verbal and spatial intelligence  Intelligence is polygenetic – involves many genes Environment in Intelligence  Where environment varies widely, environmental differences are more predictive of  intelligence scores  Adoption enhances intelligence scores of mistreated children o Neglect of child in extreme situations shows extreme results  Intelligence of virtual twins has a +.28 correlation suggesting influence of shared  environment  Mental similarities between adopted children and adopted families wane with age to zero  by adulthood when genes take over  Extreme deprivation bludgeons native intelligence  Poor environmental conditions can depress cognitive development   Poverty related stresses impede cognitive performance  Malnutrition, sensory deprivation, social isolation retard normal brain development Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts  Schooling and intelligence interact and enhance later income o Boost chances of success o Aptitude benefits fade out over time  Fixed Mindset – intelligence is biologically set and unchanging  Growth Mindset – intelligence is changeable  Motivation affects intelligence test performance  Praising children’s efforts over ability encourages growth mindset and attributes  successes to hard work  Ability + opportunity = success Gender Differences  Girls outpace boys in spelling, verbal fluency, locating objects, detecting emotions, and  sensitivity  Boys outpace girls in spatial ability, complex math problems, and math o Mental ability varies more than females’ meaning more boys at high and low ends of intelligence spectrum  Prenatal hormones, genetics, biology versus socio­cultural influences and social  expectations all influence differences Racial and Ethnic Differences  Racial and ethnic groups differ in averages  High scoring people are more likely to have higher income and levels of education  Genes of races are alike but environments differ  Intelligence today exceeds 1930s by a greater margin than whites outperform blacks  When blacks and whites have same knowledge, they exhibit similar info­processing skills  Schools and culture matter  Different ethnic groups have experienced golden ages Bias in Intelligence Tests  Genetically disposed racial differences and social influences make the test biased  Stereotype Threat – self­confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a  negative stereotype  Competence + diligence = accomplishment


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