Chapter 10: Intelligence
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Gabrish on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1010 at a university taught by Melinda Fabian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Chapter 10: Intelligence Intelligence Intelligence – the mental potential to learn from experiences, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations o Can be whatever intelligence tests measure o Define intelligence by 1 or multiple Creative versus emotional Tests, environment, and group differences General (G) Intelligence – general intelligence factor that underlies specific mental abilities and is measured by every task on an intelligence test (Spearman) o Do we have inborn talent that can be measured by a test? o Those who did well in one area did well in others Theories of Multiple Intelligences Gardner identified relatively independent intelligences o Brain damage can destroy certain abilities Savant Syndrome – limited in mental abilities yet have exceptional specific skill Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory 1. Analytical (academic) Intelligence 2. Creative Intelligence 3. Practical Intelligence Multiple abilities contribute to life success o Wealth, practice, connections, and hard work contribute to success Differing varieties of giftedness add spice and challenges Criticisms o G intelligence is proven o Talent does not determine success Components of Intelligence Emotional Intelligence – ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions Benefits o Delay gratification in long term goals o Success in career, marriage, and parenting Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Types of Intelligence Theories of Summary Strengths Considerations Intelligence Spearman’s G Basic intelligence Different abilities Abilities too diverse Intelligence predicts abilities in tendency to correlate to be in a single varied academic intelligence factor areas Thurstone’s Primary 7 factors: word G score is not as Tendency to cluster Mental Abilities fluency, verbal, informative as 7 suggesting spatial, perceptual, primary abilities underlying g factor number, inductive memory Gardner’s Multiple 8 or 9 independent Other abilities Should all abilities be Intelligences intelligences with besides verbal and considered broad range of skills math are important in intelligence or are beyond traditional adaptation they less vital talents school smarts Sternberg’s Triarchic 3 areas predict real Reliably measured Less independent Theory world success: than believed with a analytical, creative, shared g factor, practical additional testing needed to test reliability Emotional Social intelligence is 4 components predict Stretches intelligence Intelligence key to success: social success too far perceive, manage, and understand emotions Intelligence Test Intelligence Test – method for assessing individual mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others through numerical scores Achievement Tests – designed to access what a person has learned Aptitude Tests – designed to predict person’s future performance (capacity to learn) o SAT, ACT, GRE Francis Galton encouraged those of high ability to mate together o 1884 London Health Exhibition tested intelligence strength based on reaction time, sensory activity, muscle power, body proportions (people did not outscore each other and areas did not correlate) Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Late 1800s, Paris schools needed to identify children in need of special classes when all were required to go to school o 1905, Alfred Binet developed tests to determine children’s learning potential for when they came to school o Tested their mental age – chronological age corresponding to a given level of performance in tests Mental aptitude is general capacity in various ways Environmental, intelligence can be changed StanfordBinet – American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test made by Terman at Stanford o Terman thought intelligence was inherited and determined education level with language Believed one should not reproduce if they are not smart Intelligence Quotient (IQ) – originally the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100, contemporarily the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100 o Relative to average performance of others the same age Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) – intelligence test containing verbal and performance subtests for children along with processing speed, perceptual organization, and working memory o Tested similarities, vocabulary, blockdesigns, letternumber sequences Normal Curves and Standardizing Tests Psychological test must be standardized, reliable and valid o Standardization – defining uniform testing procedures and meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group Shown by a normal curve with few high and low scores o Reliability – extent a test yields consistent results as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, alternative forms of the test, or on retesting o Validity – extent to which a test measures intelligence Content Validity – extent a test samples behavior of interest Predictive Validity – success a test predicts the behavior it is designed to as assessed by computing correlation between test scores and criterion behavior (CriterionRelated Validity) Intelligence Over a Life Span Phase 1: CrossSectional Evidence for Intellectual Decline o Compare ages o Decline of mental ability with age Phase 2: Longitudinal Evidence for Intellectual Stability o Cohort – group of people sharing common characteristic o Longitudinal studies over periods of time Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Intelligence remains stable or increases Phase 3: It All Depends o Crystallized Intelligence – accumulated knowledge and verbal skills which increase with age o Fluid Intelligence – ability to reason speedily and abstractly which decreases during late adulthood At age 4, intelligence tests begin predicting adult scores Why do more intelligent people live longer? o Intelligence facilitates more education, better jobs, and healthy environments o Encourages healthy living: less smoking, better diet and exercise o Prenatal events and childhood illness influence intelligence and health o Wellwired body fosters intelligence and longevity Traits of Intelligence Extremes Intellectual Disability – limited mental ability indicated by lower score than 70 and difficulty adapting to the demands of life o Lack conceptual skills, social skills, and practical skills Down Syndrome – condition of mild to severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 Genes in Intelligence Intelligence scores of identical twins reared together are nearly as similar as the same person testing o Heritability of 50 to 80% Identical twins brains have similar gray and white matter volumes and similar areas with verbal and spatial intelligence Intelligence is polygenetic – involves many genes Environment in Intelligence Where environment varies widely, environmental differences are more predictive of intelligence scores Adoption enhances intelligence scores of mistreated children o Neglect of child in extreme situations shows extreme results Intelligence of virtual twins has a +.28 correlation suggesting influence of shared environment Mental similarities between adopted children and adopted families wane with age to zero by adulthood when genes take over Extreme deprivation bludgeons native intelligence Poor environmental conditions can depress cognitive development Poverty related stresses impede cognitive performance Malnutrition, sensory deprivation, social isolation retard normal brain development Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Schooling and intelligence interact and enhance later income o Boost chances of success o Aptitude benefits fade out over time Fixed Mindset – intelligence is biologically set and unchanging Growth Mindset – intelligence is changeable Motivation affects intelligence test performance Praising children’s efforts over ability encourages growth mindset and attributes successes to hard work Ability + opportunity = success Gender Differences Girls outpace boys in spelling, verbal fluency, locating objects, detecting emotions, and sensitivity Boys outpace girls in spatial ability, complex math problems, and math o Mental ability varies more than females’ meaning more boys at high and low ends of intelligence spectrum Prenatal hormones, genetics, biology versus sociocultural influences and social expectations all influence differences Racial and Ethnic Differences Racial and ethnic groups differ in averages High scoring people are more likely to have higher income and levels of education Genes of races are alike but environments differ Intelligence today exceeds 1930s by a greater margin than whites outperform blacks When blacks and whites have same knowledge, they exhibit similar infoprocessing skills Schools and culture matter Different ethnic groups have experienced golden ages Bias in Intelligence Tests Genetically disposed racial differences and social influences make the test biased Stereotype Threat – selfconfirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype Competence + diligence = accomplishment
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